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Ancient

Is Djoser’s pyramid the first pyramid in Egypt?

The pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser is located in Sahara and today is the oldest pyramid on the entire planet. Its value is difficult to exaggerate; it is a vivid example of how people studied architectural craft. The pyramid, as his tomb, was ordered to be built by the pharaoh Djoser, and the high priest of the temple of worship of the sun god Ra – Imhotep took up this difficult task. It was he who developed the drawings, which represented a tomb in a new form, like none of the pharaohs had before.

It is also interesting that Imhotep himself later became more popular among the Egyptians than his ruler, and the people of Egypt elevated the saints to him: Imhotep was called the god of construction and medicine. Be that as it may, the fact that this pyramid has survived to this day is already a great miracle. Initially, there was a small town around it, in which there was also a temple for the worship of the Pharaoh, two large apartment buildings, a special hall that led to the tomb with columns and ordinary farmhouses for cattle and camels. Only the pyramid has survived to this day. Its size is 62 meters in height and an area of ​​125 by 115 meters. It was the Djoser pyramid that was taken as the basis for the construction of all the other Egyptian pyramids and even the construction of the great Sphinx.

This design was completely innovative for its time. Inside the pyramid itself there were 11 full premises, which, apparently, were intended for all members of the pharaoh’s family. On the walls of the rooms were drawings that reflected the external arrangement of the city, from which it became known about the rest of the premises. The pharaoh himself was buried at a depth of 27 meters under the pyramid, in a special capsule. After everyone recognized Djoser’s pyramid, where it is located and by whom it was created, bad rumors circulated around Egypt.

The thing is that during his life, Pharaoh Djoser, in addition to his main tomb, gave the task to Imhotep to build a second burial ground, only more modest and inconspicuous. Perhaps the first was to avert eyes, since the ruler knew how often such places were robbed and the rest of the dead was disturbed. Whatever it was, when it was precisely Djoser who our contemporaries tried to find in his grave after the discovery of this treasury, they did not find anything there. Among the numerous internal corridors, only one mummified arm was found. Who it belongs to is still unknown. Until now, no one has found the body of the pharaoh, nor the remains or the burial place of his priest and the first architect in the history of mankind.

The main builder, or as he was called in Egypt “the one who looks at the Supreme God”, was later elevated to the rank of the same deities. And all due to the fact that during his life, Imhotep was a bit of a shadow and the right hand of his pharaoh. It is worth being frank, Djoser during his rule did not distinguish himself by anything special and went down in history only thanks to his tomb, as well as to the man to whom he once gave the order to build it. An interesting fact is that when excavating this miracle, it was revealed that various mystical rituals were often performed in the temple, which, in general, was logical enough for that time. The ibis birds, which were the symbol of Sahara, were found here in the form of mummies. Imhotep thought for a long time how to please his master and decided that his soul after burial should have a way to heaven, in the form of convenient steps. That is why the second name of this tomb is “stepped”.

Today, archaeologists can only guess about the approximate age of this building. Quite common figures tell us that all the above action took place around 2600 BC. Why was such a huge and expensive complex of buildings chosen, given that all the rulers before Djoser were not compared to this? And all simply because in this way the ordinary people were frightened, who continually loved to rebel and argue about a way of life. Therefore, Vladyka wanted to show all his strength, power, and most importantly, his belonging to the world of Gods and higher beings. Also important is the fact that the pyramid was conceived as a place for diverting eyes before the true burials of both the pharaohs and all their wealth. Yes, the wives, children and close relatives of the head of state were buried here, but without pomp and so many honors as the main ruler. That is why many of the robbers who encroached on Joser’s retirement found nothing but mummified corpses. Many were simply afraid to go in there, not to mention stealing something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose his peace life and get stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. in order to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Whatever it was, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved.

The stepped pyramid of Djoser is the burial place of one of the Egyptian pharaohs and his entire family. This is the very first construction of the tomb in the form of a pyramid and the ancestor of this method is Djoser himself and his priest Imhotep. By the way, the latter, with time, also became (or even more) popular than its ruler. At the entrance to the pyramid itself there is a stone at the foot, which testifies to all the dignities and ranks of the world’s first architect. During the reign of Djoser, Imhotep became the keeper of the upper seal, the divider of land and harvest, the main priest of the god Ra, the adviser and the right hand of the ruler. After his death in Egypt, they created a temple to worship his spirit and a school for teaching all his wisdom. On the walls of the pyramid inside, amazing frescoes are preserved that tell the story of the reign of the pharaoh, all the members of his dynasty and his deeds. For example, it was from such wall inscriptions that it became known that Joser connected Upper and Lower Egypt and came up with a way for his soul to move to heaven after death. That is how the architect and builder Imhotep embodied his request. Subsequently, the followers built all the other tombs in the manner and likeness of the first.

Pharaoh Djoser’s pyramid – a brilliant idea or an accident?

The first idea, according to scientists, was to build a rectangular cube, which would have inside the halls and labyrinths, through which the soul would rise to heaven. But it was the first architect who had the idea to incline all the walls to a single center, in order to simplify the task of the pharaoh’s spirit. The first dimensions of the building were grandiose – more than 60 meters in height and an area of ​​125 × 115 meters. Over time and the impact of a huge number of natural factors – the area of ​​the pyramid has significantly decreased, but the base still survived to this day. The height is less than 1 meter, the area is 121×109. Yes, and it is not so important. We could not find what was left if the high priest was not so adventurous: he was the first in the history of mankind who came up with the use of not typical raw materials and bricks from it, but heavy stone blocks. One can only guess? how did the Egyptians pile these boulders one upon another? Whatever it was, but this building can safely be reckoned one of the very first, architectural, man-made wonders of the world. It is also worth noting that the place for construction was chosen excellent: the view from the pyramid complex opens to Memphis and the entire site is heated under the sun of the colorful plateau.

Djoser’s step pyramid in Sahara, its myths and riddles

The Djoser Pyramid, the photo of which can easily be found on the net, like other attractions in Egypt, has a lot of mysteries. The most important incomprehensible fact is the mystery of the disappearance of the body of the pharaoh himself. According to the structure of the pyramid, the capsule with the mummy was supposed to be under the center of the structure at a depth of about 30 meters. But the place for the capsule was empty during the opening of the treasury. In addition, numerous strange objects for sacrificial rites were found on the territory of the complex and on the ruins of other structures near a tomb. And everything was mystical: the location of the temple for worship of Pharaoh, as God, and the intricate corridors that the conservative Imhotep simply could not plan. The history of Sahara as a region also tells that at the location of the tomb once stood the temple of worship of the god Pta – the main god of Memphis. Given the reverent attitude of the Egyptians to their religion, and even more so to their shrines, it is strange where and why the temple disappeared, and whether Djoser himself was involved in this.

Another important fact is the beginning of a seven-year drought in Egypt, which was accompanied by the start of the tomb structure. Many also consider this a very strange and illogical coincidence.

Around this tomb goes an incredible number of legends and mysterious stories. And all of them arise because it is difficult for a person today to explain how, without special equipment and professional knowledge, did ancient people manage to create such a perfect architectural structure? Some myths say that as a priest of the sun god Ra – Imhotep entered into a conspiracy with dark forces and sold the soul of his ruler for the sake of unique knowledge in construction. Other legends testify that Djoser, realizing that he would die anyway, gave all his treasures to the gods to help build such a unique resting place. It is interesting that some scholars do not reject this version at all, because in no museum in the world, or in any private collection, wealth from this pharaoh was discovered, which simply had to be in the tomb. And inside 11 halls only one mummified hand was found, and whose it is, is still not clear. So think after that what is true and what is fiction. And the pyramid will still rise above the burnt Egyptian Sahara for many centuries, still also exciting the minds and curiosity of our descendants.

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Ancient

Figures of mysterious creatures found in 10,000-year-old graves in Jordan

Photo: Kharaysin archaeological team / Antiquity Publications Ltd

When excavating in Jordan, an international team from the Kharaysin archaeological team research project discovered dozens of strange Neolithic figures who were in burials about 10 thousand years old.

An article about this discovery is published in Antiquity magazine. Figurines are found which date from the middle of the ninth millennium BC. This era is known as the Early Neolithic. At that time, iconography was just beginning to spread in the Middle East. New research will help to understand how it developed.

The burials mentioned above are located on the archaeological site of Haraisin in the Zarka River Valley. A group of archaeologists from Spain, France and the UK worked there. It was led by Dr. Juan José Ibáñez.

“We were digging burial grounds, a cemetery,” Ibáñez said. “We know very well the tools that were made in that period.”

Discovered artifacts look like flint tools of ancient people. However, most of these items were found in burials, which is not typical of flint tools. Scientists have suggested that artifacts were sacred. That is, they were deliberately laid in the graves along with the deceased during funeral rituals.

The artifacts were carefully analyzed. As a result, the researchers saw them as “human forms.” The upper pair of recesses is a narrowing to indicate the neck, and the lower one to indicate the waist. A similar “violin-shaped contour” was previously observed in two figures of the same period, found in Haraisin and made of fired clay. This indicates that artifacts are Neolithic figurines. Who exactly did they represent?

“When one of the team members first suggested that artifacts are figurines depicting people, we were skeptical,” says Ibáñez. However, the team has since been convinced that these are images of people, although rude. “They made two notches on one side, one probably representing the neck and the other representing the thigh.”

There is a version that these were primitive images of deities. In subsequent periods of time, the practice of making anthropomorphic figures of deities became widespread. For example, in Europe during the excavations, “Venus” figures were found more than once, whose age was estimated at thousands of years.

Perhaps the statuettes found in Jordan were the result of the first attempts to create divine sculptures. By the way, all the Neolithic figurines found by this mission have various shapes and sizes.

In their article, the authors write that artifacts could be cult objects, including “vehicles of magic,” which were used in rituals. But they pay attention to the fact that some of the finds were made not in the graves, but in ordinary pits.

It is possible that these figurines were for some reason thrown away. For example, they could be thrown out after the rite is completed. Or they were simply rejected. There is one more explanation – the figures could be used as children’s toys or as visual exhibits when teaching rituals.

The discovery also proves that “psychological and social shifts” occurred in people upon transition to a sedentary lifestyle and farming. In particular, they probably had ideas about the afterlife.

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Ancient

Who are the Guanches? How isolation did not save civilization

For many years, the origin of the Canaries of the Guanches remained a mystery. A mystical suggestion was made that they could be descendants of the legendary Atlanteans.

Who are the Guanches?

The subtropical climate of the Canary Islands, the southernmost region of Spain, attracts crowds of holidaymakers. Last year, the Canaries were visited by 15 million tourists. In the V century BC e. the Roman writer Pliny the Elder wrote about deserted islands with the ruins of large structures. However, not all seven islands were empty. Archaeological finds indicate that from about the middle of the first millennium BC, the Phoenicians and Punians arrived here. The Carthaginians periodically explored the Canary Islands. And only after the 4th century AD e. the guanches, who knew nothing about shipbuilding and navigation, were completely isolated.

Long before the arrival of the first Spanish settlers in the 1470s, another civilization flourished in the Canary Islands. The islanders called themselves Guanches, Guachinec or Guachinet, which translated means “man of Tenerife.” The written evidence of the Guanches dated 1150 reached the King of Sicily Roger II in a book written by Arabian geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, “Entertainment of the Exhausted in Traveling by Region”.

Fair-haired and blue-eyed, they were strikingly different from the native inhabitants of North Africa , to which the expanse of the Atlantic Ocean stretched. The natives were taller than the Castilians of that time (tall men (165 – 171 cm) and women whose average height reached 160 cm). Even the shade of their skin was lighter than that of the then Spaniards.

The language, despite some similarities with the Berber-Libyan languages, also differed from them. It was even more surprising that the Guanches could talk to each other, only moving their lips or issuing a whistle that they understood and answered from long distances.

The mystery of the origin of the guanches

The origin of the Guanches has long been an object of discussion between archaeologists and historians. According to some assumptions, they were descendants of the Celts or the Vikings. The most daring suggested that they could be descendants of the mythical inhabitants of the sunken Atlantis. Hypotheses were expressed about the similarity of Aborigines with Cro-Magnons.

A study of the DNA of the ancient mummies preserved on the islands in 2019 showed that the Guanches are most likely Berbers from North Africa, who arrived there around 100 AD. e. or even earlier.

The question of how the Guanches reached the archipelago remains open. According to one theory, the people of Tenerife crossed the ocean in small boats and landed on the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. The number of potential settlers also remains a subject of scientific debate, but studies show that 14 pairs would be enough to populate the archipelago.

Guanche culture

As archaeological finds show, the Guanches were organized into a tribal society under the leadership of leaders. They were engaged in agriculture, hunting and gathering, their diet included:

  • milk;
  • goat meat;
  • pork
  • fruits.

Mostly they threw on goatskirts woven from the leaves of cattail, goat skins. They lived in natural caves or simple stone houses with a low ceiling .

The guanches adapted their caves and grottoes for use as storages and temples. Some of these structures have survived to the present day and point to the advanced astronomical knowledge of this people. Holes in the walls of the caves let sunlight into certain places at different times of the year, marking the dates of the solstice and equinox.

One of the most noteworthy of these structures is the Risco Caído . This is a settlement consisting of 21 caves, which were hollowed out in volcanic tuff about a hundred meters above the Barraco Hondo River on the island of Gran Canaria. It is believed that this place was used as a storehouse for grain, a temple and an astronomical observatory. Sunlight and moonlight penetrate the cave holes, which illuminate the symbolic paintings on the walls. In 2019, Risco Caído became the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Canary Islands.

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Ancient

Traces of the great shocks of the past – nuclear ruins and star wars of antiquity

Scientists often say that modern civilization is threatened with death as a result of a global war using weapons of mass destruction. What is curious, ancient epics and archaeological finds sometimes testify in favor of the fact that something similar has already happened on our planet.

Glass fields

The land of ancient Egypt is full of mysteries. And they are associated not only with the pyramids and burials in the Valley of the Kings. One of these mysteries is associated with huge fields of fossil green glass, spread over hundreds of square kilometers in the Libyan desert, near the Saad Plateau in the border area of ​​Libya, Egypt and Sudan, where the dunes of the Great Sandy Sea stretch.

Some pieces of this glass of natural origin weigh up to 26 kilograms, but most are much smaller and resemble fragments of a giant green bottle.

For the first time this natural glass in the form of small glass pebbles was found in the Libyan Desert as far back as 1816, but became widely known after Patrick Clayton, an employee of the Egyptian Geological Herald, saw the glass fields themselves.

200 kilometers away from these deposits. numerous pieces of the same glass were found, along with spearheads made of it, axes and other tools that were in use among the ancient inhabitants of the area. Some of the products are about 100 thousand years old.

Ancient Egyptians knew about these deposits. Not only they knew, but also used for their own purposes, for example, for the production of jewelry. So, the scarab beetle, one of the elements of the famous necklace of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, discovered by Howard Carter during excavations in the Valley of the Kings, is skillfully carved from volcanic glass. Where did it come from in the desert?

It is well known that the transformation of sand into glass occurs as a result of heat treatment. The temperature is required high, the sand melts at 1700 ° C, so that matches and brushwood can not do here. What heat source will be required to turn hundreds of tons of sand into glass?

There are several theories about this. According to one, for example, the whole cause of fulgurites is sand, sintered from a lightning strike, whose electric charge is enough to melt it.

However, it is completely incomprehensible how the dunes of the Libyan Desert pulled so many lightning bolts. According to another theory, the originator of the formation of deposits of glass is a meteorite that exploded over the desert in time immemorial.

Many scientists agree that the reason for the appearance of glass in the desert was the invasion of a hundred-meter asteroid into the atmosphere, rushing at a speed of 20 kilometers per hour. This would perhaps be an impeccable explanation, if not for one “but”: on the surface of the Great Sand Sea there is neither an impact crater, nor its traces.

Meanwhile, back in the 1940s, after testing a nuclear bomb in the state of New Mexico in the United States, desert sands also turned into molten green glass. Is it possible to conclude on this basis that the glazed sands of the Libyan desert appeared under similar circumstances, only over 100 thousand years ago, as a result of a nuclear bombardment, after which the Sahara desert occupied most of North Africa?

Mohenjo Daro – Radioactive Ruins

In 1922, the Indian archaeologist R. Banardji discovered the ruins of an ancient city in the Indus Valley. Excavations showed that it was flawlessly planned and equipped with plumbing and sewage systems that are superior to those used in India and Pakistan today.

The ancient city received the name Mohenjo-Daro. Among its ruins were found scattered fused pieces of clay, which at one time under the influence of high temperature turned into black glass. An analysis of the samples, carried out at the University of Rome and then at the laboratory of the National Council for Research of Italy, showed that the fusion occurred at 1500 ° C.

Such an ancient temperature could have been obtained in the furnace of a metallurgical workshop, but not in a vast open area. Moreover, archaeologists drew attention to one gloomy feature of the ancient city.

After carefully examining the ruins, they came to the conclusion that the degree of destruction of buildings and structures decreases as they move away from the city center or, rather, the epicenter of the explosion, which completely swept away individual quarters.

The skeletons found among the ruins suggested that death found people suddenly. Finally, the bones, as it turned out over the years, were radioactive.

The mysterious and ominous picture found an explanation only after the Americans during the Second World War launched nuclear attacks on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The same eerie pictures of destruction were observed there. So did Mohenjo Daro die in a nuclear strike?

Witness of the Mahabharata

The Sanskrit texts of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, consisting of 18 books and numbering over 200,000 verses, which is seven times more than Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, contain information about religion, worldview, customs, history of ancient India, as well as legends about her gods and heroes.

A significant part of the epic is devoted to the description of hostilities involving gods, demigods, and people. Researchers believe that these events relate to the semi-legendary history of the invasion of Hindustan from the north by the Aryan tribes, pushing the indigenous inhabitants – Dravids – into the southern part of the peninsula.

However, among the episodes of ancient battles that were common for those times, there are also detailed scenes in which it is easy to recognize the use of … artillery, rockets, combat aircraft, locators, smoke screens, poisonous gases and even nuclear weapons.

For example, in Dronaparva, one of the books of Mahabharata, the battle is described, during which explosions of shells, like huge fireballs, cause storms and storms, incapacitate entire armies.

As a result of these explosions, many enemy warriors, together with weapons, fighting elephants and horses, fly up in the air and are carried away by a powerful whirlwind, like dry leaves from trees.

This text also describes the process of the emergence of a mushroom cloud characteristic of a nuclear explosion. It is compared to the opening of a giant umbrella. After these explosions, the food became poisoned, and the surviving people fell ill.

Symptoms of the disease exactly corresponded to the main signs of radiation sickness – people had bouts of vomiting, hair and nails fell out, and then death occurred.

In Indian epics, ancient planes are also described in detail – flying vimaana cars. In the book of Samarangan Sutradharan, various types of vimanas are compared among themselves, the advantages and disadvantages of each variety are mentioned, flight characteristics, landing methods are given.

Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of structural materials such as wood, light metals and their alloys. Also referred to are materials used to create a driving force. Strange as it may seem, mercury is among the latter.

Star Wars Antiquity

A.V. Koltypin in his work “The Earth’s Disappeared Dwellers” draws attention to the fact that in the Mahabharata, Bha-gavata-purana, Vishnu-purana and other ancient Indian texts space travel on airplanes is repeatedly described by gods, demons, heroes and various mythical creatures.

“Chitraketu, the lord of the Vidyadharas (demigod class, good air spirits. – Ed.), Went on a journey through the vast expanses of the universe … on his dazzlingly shining aerial ship …”, “Rushing through space, Maharaja Dhurva saw all the planets one after another. I saw the solar system on the way of the demigods in the chariots of the heavens … “,” So Maharaja Dhurva passed the seven planetary systems of the great sages known as sapta-rishi … “,” A descendant of the Kuru dynasty, King Vasu could travel outside the Earth in the upper regions of our Universe , and therefore, in those distant times, he became famous under the name of Upari-chara, “Wandering through the higher worlds.”

One of the episodes of Mahabharata tells how the great warrior Arjuna, after the battle with the underwater inhabitants of the nivatakavachs, returned to heaven on his flying amphibian chariot and discovered a city flying in space:

“On the way back, I saw another huge and amazing city that could move where whatever. He shone like fire or the sun. ” In this flying city called Hiranyapur, there were Danavan demons (daityas). Arjuna was ordered to smash them. Noticing the approach of his aircraft, the dans began to fly out of the city in their celestial chariots – well, exactly the “Star Wars” by George Lucas! Then Arjuna “a powerful avalanche of weapons … blocked this formidable stream. He awed them, plowing the battlefield with a chariot, and … the Danavas smashed each other.”

Subjected to a powerful attack from Arjuna, the Danavians lifted their flying city into the air. Then Arjuna “with a powerful shower of arrows … blocked the daitians and tried to stop their movement.

The gift of the daityas was directed wherever they wanted, this heavenly, floating in the air, marvelously sparkling city, moving at will: it either went underground, then rose again, then quickly moved to the side, then plunged into the water. ” Ultimately, Arjuna hit the heavenly city with iron arrows, so similar to modern kinetic ammunition. And when the 60 thousand surviving demons rushed to Arjuna in their flying chariots, he incinerated them with a weapon called Raudra, obviously a kind of nuclear weapon.

So, the findings of archaeologists and ancient epics really testify to the fact that a long time ago on our planet and even in outer space unbelievable wars raged with the use of the most advanced weapons. And it is very likely that such events happened repeatedly.

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