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India Blew up a Satellite. Now A “Space Fence” Is Tracking Its Debris

Explosive Demonstration

Last month, India demonstrated its capabilities as a spacefaring nation and drew international criticism when it used a missile to blew up one of its own satellites.

The launch happened to coincide with Lockheed Martin’s test run of a new space monitoring technology called the Space Fence, which can detect and track any unregistered objects orbiting the Earth. According to Space News, that was a stroke of luck that could mitigate damage to people and equipment in space.

Picket Fence

The satellite explosion essentially turned the satellite into a cloud of space debris, which could in the future collide with other satellites, scientific instruments, or astronauts in orbit around the Earth — remember “Gravity”?

“We happened to be up during an endurance test and we were very excited to see that the system performed nominally,” Matthew Hughes, Lockheed Martin business development manager, told Space News. “Space fence is all about the ability to identify break ups, maneuvers, closely spaced objects, proximity operations, new foreign launches.”

While Space Fence isn’t an actual blockade in space, it can at least help officials prepare for and plan around collisions.

READ MORE: Indian anti-satellite test proves early test for Space Fence [Space News]

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Space

The galaxies are connected by “giant structures”

Experts argue that galaxies can move across great distances in the universe tied to giant structures and current models would not be as accurate.

The universe is connected by large structures

A group of scientists from Korea’s Institute of Space Science and Astronomy have suggested that galaxies move in rather strange patterns within the universe, making them think there may be giant structures between them.

We all know that today the Solar System is located in the Milky Way, which is one of hundreds of billions of galaxies, which constantly move as the universe expands.

As a result, experts have noted that there are certain mysterious patterns between distant galaxies that can transcend the interactions believed to exist in the space around each other.

Universe and giant structures

The researchers explain that, thanks to recent research and studies focused on understanding how galaxies move through space, it led them to consider the existence of the enigmatic “giant structures”.

These would be dark forms based on hydrogen gas and dark matter, which can separate themselves through filaments or leaves that have been referred to by experts as the “cosmic lattice”.

The existence of these structures in the dark space between galaxies would have very important implications for the patterns that would follow these gigantic accumulations of matter as they move, being defined as the ‘root’ that would drive them.

Experts have argued that if this impressive theory were to be proven, it would be a total challenge to the fundamental ideas that currently relate to the universe.

Modern research on the universe

Noam Libeskind, cosmographer of the Institute of Astrophysics of Germany states:

That is why everyone is always studying large-scale structures as a way of investigating and restricting the Laws of Gravity and the nature of matter, dark matter, dark energy and the universe.

Through other studies conducted last October, published in the The Astrophysical Journal, he discovered that there are hundreds of galaxies that spin in sync with the same galaxies that are millions of light years away from them.

For this situation, experts suggest that ‘synchronized galaxies’ may be linked by these large-scale structures, which rotate at low counterclockwise speeds.

That would be the most viable reason so far for explaining the similar rotation of motion between distant neighbors, but certainly much remains to be studied for astronomy to verify this impressive theory with which one could explain how structures influenced the dynamics of the universe in its beginnings.

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Scientists Confirm The Discovery Of A Mysterious Interstellar Space Boundary

NASA scientists behind the Voyager mission are on the brink of something huge – literally. Recent findings from the Voyager 2 probe confirm there is a distinct – albeit mysterious – boundary known as the heliopause between the local space we are in and interstellar space.

Spacecraft Voyager 2 joined its sister craft Voyager 1 on November 5, 2018, when it passed through the interstellar medium. It’s only now that researchers are learning about the space environment the craft is currently moving through.

“This is a watershed moment in our exploration of space: we have for the first time left the confines of ‘home’ and are taking our very first tentative steps into the interstellar space – the Milky Way galaxy of which we are a part,” explained NASA astrophysicist Jeffrey Hayes to IFLScience. “That’s an amazing distance to come in only 62 years, since the launch of the first satellite. Who knows what the next 62 will bring?”

The Voyager 2 probe was launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, and is the second spacecraft to enter interstellar space to study the edge of our solar system. Five studies released this week each identifies findings from one of Voyager 2’s five operating science instruments. Altogether, these help us to understand the “cosmic shoreline”, where our Sun ends and the “vast ocean of interstellar space begins,” writes NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Data from Voyager 2 has helped further characterize the structure of the heliosphere, structure of the heliosphere — the wind sock-shaped region created by the sun’s wind as it extends to the boundary of the solar system. NASA/JPL

“Inside is the space we live in, which is the very extended influence of the Sun and the solar wind that it generates, and outside is a region that is not under that same influence,” said Hayes. “Both Voyagers found this to be the case. The original model was that the solar wind would just gradually fade away until one was in the interstellar medium; clearly that’s not the case.”

“The heliopause acts as a somewhat porous boundary that only allows some particles to traverse it,” said Hayes. “Because we have only very recently passed through it – in 2012 with Voyager 1, and now with Voyager 2, there are still a lot of aspects of this we don’t understand.”

Voyager 2 also observed that the magnetic field outside of the heliopause is slightly stronger than measurements taken by Voyager 1, which seems to indicate that the interstellar magnetic field changes over small distances. Unexpectedly, charged particles carried by solar wind also appear to “leak” out into interstellar space.

Before Voyager 2 took the first direct measurements of interstellar space, scientists had to infer findings with data taken from a spacecraft much closer to Earth. Hayes said that the current observations are “totally new” and will take time to understand fully.

“In terms of space exploration, it means that we have only barely scratched the surface of what it means to be in interstellar space,” said Hayes.

“All told, we have entered a new era of exploration that is posing as many new questions as it has answered our older ones,” said Hayes, adding that it has taken some 42 years to travel about 143 Astronomical Units (or 143 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun) and only just now have we reached the beginning of interstellar space. If humans as a species hope to explore space, Hayes said we must either learn to be patient or learn to travel faster.

NASA’s Heliophysics Division is set to launch the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) mission by 2024, carrying with it instruments designed to follow up on the discoveries made by the Voyager probes. In the 2030s, Hayes said that NASA is studying an Interstellar Probe concept mission that would travel out 10 times the distance that the Voyagers are at now.

An artist concept depicting one of NASA’s twin Voyager spacecraft. NASA/JPL

Source www.iflscience.com

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Dinosaurs came from across the galaxy, NASA demonstrates with incredible video

NASA, through a very well explained video, shows us that the dinosaurs originated from the other side of galaxy.

Dinosaurs lived on the other side of the galaxy, NASA demonstrates
Did you know that dinosaurs lived on the other side of the galaxy?

NASA is the largest space studies and research entity in the world. Yes it is. They are not the only ones who study everything related to outer space. That’s why when NASA talks about space dinosaurs, we all pay attention, especially when there’s a video.

NASA takes seriously the fact that dinosaurs may have originated elsewhere in the galaxy. This sounds crazy, so you have to watch a video where everything is explained.

The video was posted by Dr. Jessie Christiansen in her Twitter account. She is a NASA researcher and the publication is as you will see below.

She says:

I was always interested in galactic archeology, but I don’t think that’s what they meant.

The sun takes about 200 million years to orbit the center of the galaxy, which means that the last time we were there occurred at the beginning of the Jurassic period. The dinosaurs walked the land and the sea.

The Jurassic period lasted 55 million years.

The Cretaceous period ranged from 145 to 66 million ago. The middle Cretaceous occurred on the other side of the galaxy.

65 million years ago, extinction occurred.

The rise of mammals has lasted 65 million years to the present.

The sun takes about 200 million years to orbit the center of the galaxy.

What will Earth look like on the next galactic anniversary? While not as exciting as seeing invading dinosaurs, at least it leaves us with a good question. And perhaps until then, the human is not even a memory on the surface of the earth.

Christiansen said it took her about four hours to make the film using timed animations in PowerPoint. She also noted a couple of minor corrections to the text in her video: Plesiosaurs are not dinosaurs, and we complete a galactic orbit every 250 million years, not 200 million years.

‘A spiral through space’

But galactic movement is more complicated than the video shows. The other stars and planetary systems in the galaxy are also moving, at different speeds and in different orbits. The inner portions spin faster than the outer regions.

What’s more, the galaxy itself is moving through space, slowly approaching the nearby Andromeda galaxy.

“The animation kind of makes it seem like we’ve come back to the same spot, but in reality the whole galaxy has moved a very long way,” Christiansen said. “It’s more like we’re doing a spiral through space. As the whole galaxy’s moving and we’re rotating around the center, it kind of creates this spiral.”

milky way galaxy center spitzer infrared
The center of our Milky Way galaxy, imaged by the Spitzer Space Telescope’s infrared cameras. 
NASA, JPL-Caltech, Susan Stolovy (SSC/Caltech) et al.

So in the solar system’s rotation around the galactic center, we’re not returning to a fixed point. The neighborhood is different from the last time we were here.

Earth, however, is not drastically different; it still supports complex life. That’s partially thanks to the path of our sun’s galactic orbit.

“Our solar system doesn’t travel to the center of the galaxy and then back again,” Christiansen said. “We always stay about this distance away.”

In other words, even as our solar system travels through the Milky Way, it doesn’t approach the inhospitable center, where life probably wouldn’t survive.

“There’s a lot of stars, it’s dynamically unstable, there’s a lot of radiation,” Christiansen said. “Our solar system certainly doesn’t pass through that.”

That’s a huge part of why dinosaurs, mammals, or any other form of life can exist on Earth.

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