Megaliths, huge structures of massive stone blocks, are also found in our country. In Russia, there are a lot of such structures, only they are not known in the same way as the famous Stonehenge in the UK or Ollantaytambo in Peru. With the ancient megalithic structures found on the territory of Russia, we will get acquainted further.
The first thing to begin with is the Vottovaara Mountain – the highest point of the West Karelian Upland – 417.3 m above sea level. The area of the mountain is 6 square meters. km.
The place is just full of strange artifacts after which you start to think about the ancient highly advanced technologies for stone processing, let’s look at the photo better.
Megalith blocks are scattered.
The middle block is asleep at a 90-degree angle or a game of nature?
As if by a laser 🙂 geologists believe that cracks and faults were formed as a result of a strong earthquake about 9 thousand years ago. Even planes of stones are the result of the properties of the local rock – quartzite, whose structure sets such flat planes in the course of the split.
So all the same nature or man-made? Let’s look closer.
More like a perfectly cut down blocks tightly adjusted to each other. It is difficult to imagine an ancient ancestor with a copper chisel which somewhere on the mountain picks up such level blocks.
A good foreshortening, perfectly flat wall.
Who lost the ball?
There is clearly no high technology for stone processing was not done, or still a game of nature? 🙂
At first glance it looks like an unremarkable cluster of rocks of a cracked rock.
But coming closer becomes more like a megalithic masonry.
Looking between the blocks, where the stones were less subject to the influence of erosion from the wind and rain, man-made is seen and how smooth the faces are.
In a place where the junction of the blocks has spread out, the smooth one has been sawed off and the technology of laying these blocks opens before us.
Stone city in the Perm region.
According to scientists, Kamenny Gorod is the mouth of a river that flowed into the Permian Sea millions of years ago, this explains beautifully and smoothly, at right angles, the carved stones, their neat clutches and the perpendicular “mouths” of the “mouth”.
Look at the smooth sides of the megaliths, as if cut off.
Again, the old method of glancing between blocks inside the masonry, look at the far block in the center, a smooth cut along the entire length of the block.
They say somewhere on the Kola Peninsula is this pool carved right in the rock.
In the south of Western Siberia in the mountain Shoria in Mezhdurechensky district there is a small geological settlement called Kameshki.
In this village there are several educated talented geologists. These are Alexander Bespalov, Vyacheslav Pochotkin and others. These people spent their whole lives studying the mountain systems of Western Siberia. Once they came across in the mountains to strange megalithic structures, which for themselves could not explain. These were walls, laid out of giant stone blocks and strange buildings with vertically installed stone obelisks. On the Internet, they contacted Georgy Sidorov, so the first expedition was collected.
Some granite blocks at the bottom were made of red granite, crowned with blocks of gray granite, and above lay polygonal masonry from various blocks, both red granite and gray.
Granite melted in some places from the effects of huge temperatures and flowed under the weight of the upper rows. Kungurov would have said that this is a trace of reflow from a thermonuclear explosion 🙂
The wall is composed of polygonal masonry of multi-colored blocks.
The dimensions of the blocks are impressive, according to one version, the find is a man-made structure of more than 100 thousand years old.
In the photo, Georgy Sidorov, in his opinion, all this megalithic structure can be the ruins of an ancient power station or power center, which translated seismic energy into some other.
Again looking inside the masonry where the blocks were less prone to erosion, you can see even straight lines, see how the two blocks lie tightly, here the man-made is better visible.
Mountain Shoria. Huge blocks.
at the Department of Radiophysics in Tomsk State University showed photos on the screen, told about various types of masonry, stone locks, which held giant granite blocks and no scientist physicist said that all this has a natural origin. Most of all they were surprised how the ancients could raise giant stone blocks to a height of more than 1000 meters and install them there on a special platform.
Then in the Tomsk branch of the RGO, the photographs were studied by geologists and geographers. Both of them came to the conclusion that the presented artifacts are man-made.
Sklyarov was asked to comment on the find. And what did he say? That all the found artifacts is nothing but cracked rocks at right angles. That there is nothing man-made here. Just a game of nature, nothing more.
After these words, I’m not surprised why LAI does not study Russian megaliths.
For comparison, on the left megalith in Baalbek, on the right megalith in Shoria mountain, it seems like the author is one 🙂
Mount Shaman near the village. Nizhnetambovskoe, Khabarovsk Territory.
Ancient megalithic masonry.
Again, between the blocks is better visible man-made and straight lines.
A large block of megalith.
A large block of megalith on small stones, so do for better seismic resistance.
Megalithic masonry resembles Mountain Shoria.
Kabardino-Balkaria, a cave in the Baksan Gorge.
First you need to squeeze into a hole size of 40 by 120 cm, then descend on a rope along a narrow vertical shaft. It is formed by two parallel stone slabs. After 9 meters – the first “knee”: the lazard goes to the side and then again breaks down. Already here you will be covered by absolute silence – outside does not penetrate any sound. Another 23 meters in depth – and a new “knee”. To reach the bottom of the cave, you need to overcome more than 80 meters, and it takes an hour. But, passing the “bottle neck”, you will find yourself in a huge room, which the researchers called a “flask”. Inside, we will see the treated walls of tufa and granite, made up of multiline, densely fitted megaliths sandwiched together.
Descent into the cave.
Clearly visible are the edges of the blocks and the seams between them.
The smooth laying strikes and the seams are clearly adjusted to each other.
The triangular blocks parted slightly.
The barely noticeable seams of the blocks on the left half moon wall and on the wall behind it.
Rotate the cave at an angle of 90 degrees. Two large megalithic blocks stand on top of each other.
The technology of stone processing amazes, and even more striking is the comment of the head of the Kabardino-Balkaria geological exploration expedition of Vera Davidenko, but she realist and believes that nature could do everything by force: “Tuff is a cluster of products of the volcano – ash, scrap of lava , volcanic glass and, to a small extent, fragments of rocks that form the walls of the crater. The ejection material was hot when accumulated, and therefore, when curing, separate cracks were formed – that is, the whole tuff massif appeared to be broken up into blocks. The deepening discovered in the vicinity of the village of Zayukovo represents one of such cracks in the gravity separation, for which smooth contact surfaces are characteristic, “but this is the head of the geological exploration expedition, she probably knows better.
The scheme of the structure.
A strange structure in the middle of the forest.
Homo Naledi, Newly Discovered Species
In 2017, geologists demonstrated that this species, Homo naledi, existed in southern Africa between 236,000 and 335,000 years ago–potentially the same time that modern humans first emerged in Africa. This is a puzzle to scientists, who long held that there was only one species in Africa at this late time period – Homo sapiens. How did this species exist alongside others with brains three times its size? The new study suggests that naledi’s behavior may have reflected the shape and structure of the brain more than its size.
The small brains of Homo naledi raise new questions about the evolution of human brain size. Big brains were costly to human ancestors, and some species may have paid the costs with richer diets, hunting and gathering, and longer childhoods. But that scenario doesn’t seem to work well for Homo naledi, which had hands well-suited for toolmaking, long legs, humanlike feet, and teeth suggesting a high-quality diet. According to study coauthor John Hawks, “Naledi’s brain seems like one you might predict for Homo habilis, two million years ago. But habilis didn’t have such a tiny brain–naledi did.”
Homo naledi may have had a pint-sized brain, but that brain packed a big punch. New research by Ralph Holloway and colleagues – that include researchers from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa – published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences examines the imprints of the brain upon the skulls of this species, called endocasts. The research highlights the humanlike shape of naledi’s tiny brain, surprising scientists who studied the fossils. These findings draw further into question the long-held belief that human evolution was an inevitable march towards bigger, more complex brains.
The discovery of Homo naledi by Professor Lee Berger of Wits University and his team at the Rising Star caves in the Cradle of Human Kind in 2013 was one of the largest hominin discoveries ever made and hailed as one of the most significant hominid discoveries of the 21st Century. Berger and Professor John Hawkes who was also part of the original Rising Star team who made the naledi discovery, as well as Professor Heather Garvin from Des Moines University in the US, are associated with the Evolutionary Studies Institute (ESI), based at Wits University.
The researchers pieced together traces of Homo naledi’s brain shape from an extraordinary collection of skull fragments and partial crania, from at least five adult individuals. One of these bore a very clear imprint of the convolutions on the surface of the brain’s left frontal lobe. “This is the skull I’ve been waiting for my whole career,” said lead author Ralph Holloway, of Columbia University.
The anatomy of naledi’s frontal lobe was similar to humans, and very different from great apes. Naledi wasn’t alone. Other members of our genus, from Homo erectus to Homo habilis and the small-brained “hobbits”, Homo floresiensis, also share features of the frontal lobe with living humans. But earlier human relatives, like Australopithecus africanus, had a much more apelike shape in this part of the brain, suggesting that functional changes in this brain region emerged with Homo. “It’s too soon to speculate about language or communication in Homo naledi,” said coauthor Shawn Hurst, “but today human language relies upon this brain region.”
The back of the brain also showed humanlike changes in naledi compared to more primitive hominins like Australopithecus. Human brains are usually asymmetrical, with the left brain displaced forward relative to the right. The team found signs of this asymmetry in one of the most complete naledi skull fragments. They also found hints that the visual area of the brain, in the back of the cortex, was relatively smaller in naledi than in chimpanzees–another humanlike trait.
A humanlike brain organisation might mean that naledi shared some behaviours with humans despite having a much smaller brain size. Lee Berger, a co-author on the paper, suggests that the recognition of naledi’s small but complex brain will also have a significant impact on the study of African archaeology. “Archaeologists have been too quick to assume that complex stone tool industries were made by modern humans. With naledi being found in southern Africa, at the same time and place that the Middle Stone Age industry emerged, maybe we’ve had the story wrong the whole time.”
Source: The Daily Galaxy
Largest Dinosaur Ever Left Its Mark On Scottish Isle of Skye, Rare Footprint Discovered
Footprints from the largest dinosaur to have ever existed on Earth have been discovered on Scotland’s Isle of Skye.
The fossilized footprints were left by the 170-million-year-old early sauropods, which grew to at least 49ft long and weighed more than 10 tons. Footprints from the ‘older cousins’ of the Tyrannosaurus rex, the two-meter-tall theropods, were also found in a muddy lagoon on the island.
Because of the scarcity of evidence on the Middle Jurassic period, the findings have been described as “globally important.” Dr Steve Brusatte of Edinburgh University said: “It’s important because it’s a large site for dinosaur tracks, those are pretty hard to find.
“It shows both long-necked and meat-eaters were on the same site at the same time living together, side-by-side,” she said, according to The Telegraph. “It captures a moment in time 170 million years ago when they were just hanging out in a lagoon, living on the beach, back when Scotland was much warmer and dinosaurs were beginning their march to global dominance.
“Their long-necked prints are almost car-tire size, whereas the meat-eater ones are about the size of a basketball,” added Dr Brusatte.
Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Staffin Museum, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences measured, photographed and analyzed around 50 footprints in a tidal area at Brothers’ Point – Rubha nam Brathairean – a headland on Skye’s Trotternish peninsula. Their findings were published in the Scottish Journal of Geology.
The fossils are thought to be the oldest ever found in Scotland. Another set was found in 2015, but they were slightly later and smaller. The oldest dinosaur fossil discovery in the UK is thought to have been of a 200-million-old Tyrannosaurus Rex relative, the Dracoraptor hanigani, found on a Welsh beach in 2016.
Fossilised remains of giant creature, the oldest known Jurassic dinosaurs and related to the fearsome T Rex were discovered on Lavernock beach by a pair of fossil-hunting brothers.
Dracoraptor is Latin for “dragon robber” – with a red dragon the national symbol of Wales.
The brothers donated the remains to the National Museum Cardiff where it is on display in the main hall.
featured image © Gurcan Sarisoy. Isle of Skye
The gigantic stones of Stonehenge were moved there by GLACIERS, new theory claims
A Welsh scientist has called previous theories surrounding Stonehenge ‘mythology,’ and has made a radical new claim that the stones were moved 500,000 years ago by a glacier.
Brian John believes he has solved the mystery of how massive bluestones moved 140 miles west to the south of England from a quarry in Wales where they are believed to have originated.
A popular theory is that humans carried or dragged the stones 5,000 years ago, but it has never been discovered how Stone Age people achieved such a feat.
According to John, the evidence supports a scenario in which the bluestones were carried to the site by a glacier, 500,000 years ago.
His theory would also answer the question of why the ancient builders of Stonehenge believed the stones to have such a spiritual significance that they were worth the effort to transport.
According to John’s new book The Stonehenge Bluestones, the stones did not have a deep meaning to ancient Britons. Instead, they were just there.
‘Over the past 50 years there has been a drift, in Stonehenge studies, from science toward mythology. This has been driven partly by constant media demands for new and spectacular stories about the monument,’ John told British media this week.
In the book, John argues that a glacier carved its way across Wales thousands of years ago.
He believes the ice picked up bluestones along the way and eventually dropped them on the Salisbury Plain after the ice melted.
In 2015, John helped write a report arguing that what was believed to be evidence of neolithic quarrying of bluestones in Wales was actually an ‘entirely natural’ process.
‘This has been driven partly by constant media demands for new and spectacular stories about the monument, and partly by the archaeological emphasis on impact,’ he said.
‘So we see an obsession with narrative at the expense of evidence, and a host of newly manufactured myths which are even more wacky than the old ones. It’s time for a cool reassessment.’
Stonehenge is made up of two types of stone: the bluestones that make up the smaller ring, as well as the sarsen trilithons are that make up the outer ring of the circle.
Sarsen is a layer of sandstone that formed millions of years ago above the chalk layer on Salisbury Plain.
During the various ice ages, permafrost repeatedly froze and thawed this chalk layer, shattering the sarsen.
Over millennia, these stones sank below the surface, leaving a few fragmented rocks jutting out.
These stones, of varying sizes, can be found across Salisbury Plain and the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire, as well as in Kent and in smaller quantities in Berkshire, Essex, Oxfordshire, Dorset and Hampshire.
Stonehenge is one of the most prominent prehistoric monuments in Britain.
The monument that can be seen today is the final stage of a project that spanned 1,500 years.
Stonehenge was donated to the nation’s heritage collection in 1918 by owners Cecil and Mary Chubb.
Mr Chubb had bought the then-neglected monument on impulse at an auction three years earlier having been sent there by his wife to bid for a set of dining room chairs.
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