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Huge Breakthrough: Vast Liquid Water Lake Was Discovered On Mars

It is always exciting when we receive new information about Mars. This time, scientists have made a large step forward by discovering a huge reservoir of liquid water on the Red Planet.

As Independent reports, the 20-kilometers-wide lake of liquid water was discovered beneath the Red Planet’s southern pole.

So, can we assume Mars is not as dead as we all thought to?

Scientists were able to announce this amazing revelation with the help of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) device on the Mars Express spacecraft.

Roberto Orosei, the leader of the research, along with his team, was gathering data between the period of May 2012 and December 2015.

He detected a rather intense alteration in the radar pulses about 1.5 km underneath Mars’ surface.

It seems like the knowledge they obtained is very alike to the liquid water lakes discovered underneath the Antarctic and Greenland on Earth.

The liquid water wouldn’t be such an exciting news if the scientists didn’t suggest something even more impressive. According to them, the conditions in the water could easily sustain microbial life.

Mars has a colder temperature than the Antarctic and Greenland. The fact that the scientists managed to find liquid water instead of frozen, in fact, says it all!

Alan Duffy, an astronomer from Swinburne University and scientist of Australia’s Science Channel, said: “This is a stunning result that suggests water on Mars is not a temporary trickle like previous discoveries but a persistent body of water that provides the conditions for life for extended periods of time.”

However, scientists said that similar lakes of liquid water could exist in other parts of the planet too.

Moreover, they said that the lake is probably a ‘briny sludge’. Therefore, it is probably the salt that helps the water not to freeze.

Space

Trump’s ‘Space Force’ Is Serious And We Just Got a Bunch of New Details

Vice President Pence laid out an ambitious plan Thursday that would begin creating a military command dedicated to space and establish a “Space Force” as the sixth branch of the US military as soon as 2020, the first since the Air Force was formed shortly after World War II.

Pence warned of the advancements that potential adversaries are making and issued what amounted to a call to arms to preserve the military’s dominance in space.

“Just as we’ve done in ages past, the United States will meet the emerging threats on this new battlefield,” he said in a speech at the Pentagon.

“The time has come to establish the United States Space Force.”

But the monumental task of standing up a new military department, which would require approval by a Congress that shelved the idea last year, may require significant new spending and a reorganization of the largest bureaucracy in the world.

And the idea has already run into fierce opposition inside and outside the Pentagon, particularly from the Air Force, which could lose some of its responsibilities.

Defense Secretary Jim Mattis last year said he opposed a new department of the military “at a time when we are focused on reducing overhead and integrating joint warfighting functions.”

This week, Mattis said the Pentagon and the White House “are in complete alignment” on the need to view space as a warfighting domain. But he stopped short of endorsing a full-fledged Space Force.

In a briefing with reporters after Pence’s speech, Deputy Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan suggested that Mattis’s comments opposing the Space Force were made at a different time, before the Pentagon received a bolstered budget.

White House officials have been working with national security leaders to aggressively move ahead without Congress.

The first step is creating a new US Space Command by the end of the year, which would be led by a four-star general, the way the Pentagon’s Indo-Pacific Command oversees those regions.

The new command would pull space experts from across the armed services, and there would be a separate acquisitions office, dedicated to buying satellites and developing new technology to help the military win wars in space.

After the announcement Thursday, President Trump tweeted, “Space Force all the way!”

For months, Trump has been calling for a Space Force, a new, free-standing military department, with its own chain of command and uniforms.

In a letter to supporters Thursday, the Trump 2020 campaign said it would sell a line of gear that could come with a logo of their choosing – including one labeled “Mars Awaits” – to commemorate “President Trump’s new Space Force,” according to a copy of the email – a move that fueled criticism that the effort was motivated by politics.

The White House intends to work with lawmakers to introduce legislation by early next year, a senior administration official said, with the hope of standing up the first new military department since the Air Force was formed in 1947.

Some members of Congress and military leaders have been warning that space is no longer a peaceful sanctuary, but a domain of conflict that needs more attention and resources.

Space is vital to the way the United States wages war; the Pentagon’s satellites are used for missile defense warnings, guiding precision munitions and providing communications and reconnaissance.

Russia and China have made significant advancements, challenging the United States’ assets in space.

In 2007, China blew up a dead weather satellite with a missile, creating a massive debris cloud in orbit, which Pence called “a highly provocative demonstration of China’s growing capability to militarize space”.

China also has demonstrated the ability to hit satellites in a much deeper orbit where the military parks some of its most sensitive assets.

In his speech, Pence acknowledged the difficulties in establishing a new service, and said the Pentagon would create an assistant secretary of defense for space, a top-level civilian who will report to the defense secretary “to oversee the growth and expansion of the sixth branch of service.”

The official must sort out many details, including how the Pentagon would recruit for the Space Force and compete for resources within the Pentagon. Even basic details, such as what uniforms and what rank structure the Space Force would use, must be decided.

Some members of Congress advocated last year for creating a Space Corps in the Air Force Department, similar to how the Marine Corps is part of the Navy Department. Elevating the proposal to create a new department will mean additional Pentagon bureaucracy, critics say.

Deborah James, who served as Air Force secretary in the Obama administration, said Trump’s decision to create a full new department is “a solution in search of a problem.”

Before Trump’s announcement in June that he wanted a Space Force, Mattis and Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson had cautioned against creating new Pentagon bureaucracy to address space issues. James said she thinks they’re now “stuck because the president announced this by surprise.”

Efforts to reach several senior Air Force officials were not successful Thursday. Wilson was traveling on business and not at the Pentagon when Pence made his announcement.

Gen. David L. Goldfein, the Air Force’s top officer, and Gen. Stephen Wilson, the vice chief, sat quietly in the Pentagon auditorium as Pence spoke.

Air Force Gen. Paul Selva, the Pentagon’s vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, said in a briefing with reporters that the Pentagon is very much in favor of establishing a Space Command as a way to speed up efforts in space.

But when it comes to establishing a new branch of the military, Selva said, “there’s an obligation” to present a set of options that can be presented to Congress.

“He’s the commander in chief,” Selva said of the president.

The White House has pushed for Congress to invest an additional US$8 billion in national security space systems over the next five years.

The new command and reorganization “should be budget-neutral,” Scott Pace, the executive secretary of the National Space Council, said in an interview.

“However, going forward, there probably will need to be an increase in resources to buy improved capabilities and more warfighters as the Space Force matures.”

After Pence’s speech, Reps. Mike D. Rogers and Jim Cooper, members of the House Armed Services Committee, praised the move, saying a Space Force “will result in a safer, stronger America.”

“We have been warning for years of the need to protect our space assets and to develop more capable space systems,” they said in a joint statement.

In his speech, Pence urged the audience to support the administration’s effort to create the department.

Speaking to a room made up mostly of US troops in uniform, Pence said their “commander in chief is going to continue to work tirelessly toward this goal, and we expect you all to do the same.”

“The only thing we can’t afford is inaction,” he said.

2018 © The Washington Post

This article was originally published by The Washington Post.

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Space

Andromeda killed and ate our galactic sibling

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech
Andromeda has quite the appetite.

Scientists have discovered that the Milky Way once had a sibling that was consumed by our neighboring galaxy.

In a new study, scientists reconstructed events that occurred two billion years ago by conducting a detailed survey of the stars found in the faint halo which surrounds the nearby Andromeda galaxy.

Originally thought to have been built up from multiple smaller galaxies over a long period of time, this mysterious halo is now believed to have formed primarily from the remnants of M32 – a satellite galaxy that was once a similar size to our own before its outer layers were consumed.

“It’s kind of like a child eating dinner, and then looking on the floor afterwards and finding breadcrumbs all around,” said postdoctoral researcher Richard D’Souza from the University of Michigan.

“You know what’s been eaten.”

After it was cannibalized, M32 was reduced to little more than a small, dense core.

“It was shocking to realise that the Milky Way had a large sibling and we never knew about it,” said study co-author Eric Bell. “Astronomers have been studying the Local Group – the Milky Way, Andromeda and their companions – for so long.”

Source: The Guardian

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Space

Cosmic Rays from Distant Binary Star System Eta Carinae, Bombarding Earth

For years, Earth has been bombarded by cosmic rays emanating from a mysterious source astronomers couldn’t identify. Now, new research conducted with the help of NASA’s NuSTAR space telescope has finally tracked down the source of these rays: Eta Carinae, a binary star system just 10,000 light-years away. In an event called the Great Eruption of 1838, the system created a stunning hourglass nebula in a tremendous burst of energy that temporarily made it the second-brightest object in the night sky.

According to Fiona Harrison, the principal investigator of NuSTAR: “We’ve known for some time that the region around Eta Carinae is the source of energetic emission in high-energy X-rays and gamma rays. But until NuSTAR was able to pinpoint the radiation, show it comes from the binary and study its properties in detail, the origin was mysterious.”

The powerful cosmic radiation is caused, in part, by two currents of stellar wind colliding as they swirl around the twin stars. These winds then create shockwaves that boost the strength of the X-rays and gamma rays also being emitted. According to Kenji Hamaguchi, of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center: “We know the blast waves of exploded stars can accelerate cosmic ray particles to speeds comparable to that of light, an incredible energy boost. Similar processes must occur in other extreme environments. Our analysis indicates Eta Carinae is one of them.”

Discovering the source of these cosmic rays helps astronomers to understand a bit more about Eta Carinae, which is still something of a mystery: scientists have no idea what caused its famous “eruption” in 1838 which, by all rights, should have ended in a supernova.

Although Earth’s magnetosphere keeps us safe from (most) radiation, cosmic rays might actually be increasing around our planet. This makes space travel more deadly than it already is. And if the amount of radiation keeps increasing, we might find out the limits of our atmosphere the hard way.

Source: A Star’s Echo by OuterPlaces

Chris Mahon
Outer Places
Headline image: © Pixabay Composite

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