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Aliens & UFO's

How will we know that we’ve found alien life ?

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Even if we were to discover evidence of extraterrestrial life, would we even be able to recognize it ?

In a recent article for ‘The Conversation’, Peter Vickers – an associate professor in philosophy of science at Durham University – discusses why we need to ‘expect the unexpected’.

If we discovered evidence of alien life, would we even realize it? Life on other planets could be so different from what we’re used to that we might not recognize any biological signatures that it produces.

How will we know that we find alien life?

Recent years have seen changes to our theories about what counts as a biosignature and which planets might be habitable, and further turnarounds are inevitable. But the best we can really do is interpret the data we have with our current best theory, not with some future idea we haven’t had yet.

This is a big issue for those involved in the search for extraterrestrial life. As Scott Gaudi of Nasa’s Advisory Council has said:

“One thing I am quite sure of, now having spent more than 20 years in this field of exoplanets… expect the unexpected.”

But is it really possible to “expect the unexpected”? Plenty of breakthroughs happen by accident, from the discovery of penicillin to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang. These often reflect a degree of luck on behalf of the researchers involved. When it comes to alien life, is it enough for scientists to assume “we’ll know it when we see it”?

Many results seem to tell us that expecting the unexpected is extraordinarily difficult. “We often miss what we don’t expect to see,” according to cognitive psychologist Daniel Simons, famous for his work on inattentional blindness. His experiments have shown how people can miss a gorilla banging its chest in front of their eyes. Similar experiments also show how blind we are to non-standard playing cards such as a black four of hearts. In the former case, we miss the gorilla if our attention is sufficiently occupied. In the latter, we miss the anomaly because we have strong prior expectations.

There are also plenty of relevant examples in the history of science. Philosophers describe this sort of phenomenon as “theory-ladenness of observation”. What we notice depends, quite heavily sometimes, on our theories, concepts, background beliefs and prior expectations. Even more commonly, what we take to be significant can be biased in this way.

For example, when scientists first found evidence of low amounts of ozone in the atmosphere above Antarctica, they initially dismissed it as bad data. With no prior theoretical reason to expect a hole, the scientists ruled it out in advance. Thankfully, they were minded to double check, and the discovery was made.

More than 200,000 stars captured in a small section of the sky by NASA’s TESS mission. Each star can contain multiple planets. Credit: NASA

Could a similar thing happen in the search for extraterrestrial life? Scientists studying planets in other solar systems (exoplanets) are overwhelmed by the abundance of possible observation targets competing for their attention. In the last 10 years scientists have identified more than 3,650 planets – more than one a day. And with missions such as NASA’s TESS exoplanet hunter this trend will continue.

Each and every new exoplanet is rich in physical and chemical complexity. It is all too easy to imagine a case where scientists do not double check a target that is flagged as “lacking significance”, but whose great significance would be recognised on closer analysis or with a non-standard theoretical approach.

However, we shouldn’t exaggerate the theory-ladenness of observation. In the Muller-Lyer illusion, a line ending in arrowheads pointing outwards appears shorter than an equally long line with arrowheads pointing inwards. Yet even when we know for sure that the two lines are the same length, our perception is unaffected and the illusion remains. Similarly, a sharp-eyed scientist might notice something in her data that her theory tells her she should not be seeing. And if just one scientist sees something important, pretty soon every scientist in the field will know about it.

History also shows that scientists are able to notice surprising phenomena, even biased scientists who have a pet theory that doesn’t fit the phenomena. The 19th-century physicist David Brewster incorrectly believed that light is made up of particles travelling in a straight line. But this didn’t affect his observations of numerous phenomena related to light, such as what’s known as birefringence in bodies under stress. Sometimes observation is definitely not theory-laden, at least not in a way that seriously affects scientific discovery.

We need to be open-minded

Certainly, scientists can’t proceed by just observing. Scientific observation needs to be directed somehow. But at the same time, if we are to “expect the unexpected”, we can’t allow theory to heavily influence what we observe, and what counts as significant. We need to remain open-minded, encouraging exploration of the phenomena in the style of Brewster and similar scholars of the past.

Studying the universe largely unshackled from theory is not only a legitimate scientific endeavour – it’s a crucial one. The tendency to describe exploratory science disparagingly as “fishing expeditions” is likely to harm scientific progress. Under-explored areas need exploring, and we can’t know in advance what we will find.

In the search for extraterrestrial life, scientists must be thoroughly open-minded. And this means a certain amount of encouragement for non-mainstream ideas and techniques. Examples from past science (including very recent ones) show that non-mainstream ideas can sometimes be strongly held back. Space agencies such as NASA must learn from such cases if they truly believe that, in the search for alien life, we should “expect the unexpected”.

Peter Vickers, Associate Professor in Philosophy of Science, Durham University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.

Read the original article.

Source: The Conversation

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Aliens & UFO's

UFO flotillas near ISS and a Black UFO flying over Fairview, Texas

In outer space near the Earth and near the Sun, the incredible activity of entire UFO flotillas continues, which is fixed by cameras installed on the ISS and this has been going on for more than two months. Now, eyewitnesses record the appearance of many UFOs directly in our sky.

Gina Colvin Hill from Salem, Indiana, shared some shots taken on March 24, 2020, showing numerous UFO ships in the sky.

Gina used various filters to capture these ships, otherwise you do not see them, since most of them are hidden by a masking system.

Black UFO flying over Fairview, Texas, USA

A black ship flew over a car standing at a traffic light. An eyewitness took two photographs of clouds and on one of them caught a dark UFO.

The UFO must have moved very fast, because it was not directly visible at first. Many UFO researchers believe that UFOs are all around us on this planet, but they fly so fast that the human eye cannot see them, but the camera lens can.

An eyewitness writes:

“I took 2 photos of the clouds with an interval of a few seconds. The clouds looked strange. The first UFO picture is clearly visible. The second photo taken immediately after that, does not show it. The time noted in both photos is 5: 41pm . It looks like a black Millennium Falcon. This is definitely not something on the windshield or camera lens. That would be in both pictures, but it’s only on one! “

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Aliens & UFO's

A mysterious bright UFO suddenly appeared on the surface of the moon

A mysterious bright object, similar to a UFO, suddenly appeared on the surface of the moon, captured live by the telescope on March 29, 2020.

Strange “lights” have been seen on the moon before, and often this phenomenon is associated with UFOs or extraterrestrial activity on the moon.

A possible explanation for these lights is the so-called “transient lunar phenomenon”, which is a short-term light, color, or change in appearance on the surface of the moon.

Allegations of short-term lunar phenomena date back at least 1000 years ago, with some of them observed independently by several witnesses or authoritative scientists. Most lunar scientists acknowledge that transient events, such as gas emissions and the formation of impact craters, do occur over geological time: the contradiction lies in the frequency of such events.

It has been suggested that effects associated with an electrostatic charge may be able to explain some of the transient lunar phenomena.

It is possible that strange light is such a “transentral lunar phenomenon”, but it cannot be ruled out that the object is of extraterrestrial origin.

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Aliens & UFO's

Near Earth outer space is a real war for the Earth

Strange events occur not only in our world, but also very close to us in space. An unusually large number of UFOs have appeared on our planet and it seems that the real “Star Wars” has unfolded there, someone is bombing our Sun and it is quite likely that the coronavirus also came from space.

If you look at all the latest unusual incidents, you can see that the number of meteorites falling on the surface of the earth has increased dramatically, but is it meteorites at all? Maybe these are fragments of alien spaceships – echoes of a space war that unfolded over our heads in outer space?

On March 20, something exploded on the far side of the sun. The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (Soho) recorded debris flying above the eastern tip of the sun. The place of the explosion was hidden from view, so we do not know what exploded. But, it was not a sunspot. According to astronomers, it is more likely that the thread of magnetism became unstable and exploded, throwing pieces of itself and the surrounding plasma into space.

The sun has long been at a minimum of activity, no emissions, active spots, flashes – no, and suddenly such a powerful explosion. But what if all these tales of the “strands of magnetism” are set aside and imagined that a fleet of alien spaceships was moving toward the Earth, but in near-solar space he met with another fleet, another alien civilization, and a battle took place.

The result of all this was “meteorites” and “threads of magnetism”, or maybe a giant star cruiser with powerful weapons on board and a power plant with such energy just collapsed onto the surface of our sun that the incredibly powerful explosion occurred that pierced a huge hole in the sun and throwing so much energy into space?

A lot of strange events have been happening in space lately, think about the wave of huge alien spaceships and clusters of smaller UFOs observed from the ISS and they are visible on live broadcasts. They were visible in February and the first week of March. Although at the time of the appearance of these objects, the broadcast is interrupted, but enthusiasts manage to record live footage.

Further analysis of frames with large alien spacecraft seen from the ISS shows that they were destroyed or at least seriously damaged, and are surrounded by countless fragments and broken parts from these UFOs, while clusters of smaller UFOs can be rescue capsules. 

Rescue capsules with crews of spaceships destroyed in battle during the battle of two groups unknown to us with space battle fleets.

COVID-19 pandemic, look at what’s happening in the world. I can’t believe that the whole world is ruining the global economy because of this virus. Indeed, well, let’s argue sensibly – there is no pandemic, nothing out of the ordinary for taking such quarantine measures is happening, the conclusion is essentially isolation of entire countries, cities – millions of people on Earth!

What is happening, that the leading states of the world are ruining the global economy of our civilization – they are ruining their economy in the end. Is that the deadliest virus? Is this a plague? no – dying of ordinary flu – now – more people than worldwide died from coronavirus! Why have these unusually harsh measures been introduced now in this regard? Maybe the virus really came from outer space and the consequences for those infected are not limited only to the likelihood of death. Maybe everything is much more complicated? Maybe the survivors will not be the same?

Maybe for the Earth very close to it by cosmic standards there is a real battle? The virus does not stop the global economy. There must be better ways to deal with this virus than simply shutting down the global economy. Something more than the virus is happening, and it looks like they are testing a methodology for global isolation of our planet’s population for the upcoming World Event.

From this point of view, it seems that there is a space battle going on, and we are on the line of fire of this space war, which, it seems, is still ongoing and it is not yet clear who will triumph in it – those who flew to Earth to enslave it or those unknown forces that entered the battle with these invaders and are now waging a space war with them?

The world is being prepared for something to happen that everyone should be prepared in advance and it is likely that a “pandemic” was devised, just to begin further global isolation, to prepare all services, forces, government and military for something more dangerous than “coronavirus”?

Earth’s population is preparing for something global and very crushing. so dangerous that civilization is ready to sacrifice the world economy and stability in order to prepare the population for this event. To prepare him for a ruined economy, worsening living standards, for life in cities locked and blocked, to prepare and train him to live in such very unusual conditions for modern civilization. To accustom the population, to prepare power, medical, rescue, service, military structures for actions – the right actions in a situation for which everything should be prepared.

Maybe I’m right and in space next to the Sun there is already a space war and the outcome of its outcome is not yet clear. Whoever wins will get our planet in ownership. Who will it be – the aggressors or those who are trying to protect us. But are they protecting us, or is there just a battle between two forces – the aggressors for the right to possess the Earth?

Or something is coming that is no less global, but not related to the theory of alien invasion, but of such a nature that it can inflict no less damage on our civilization and put it on the brink of survival. Perhaps such. There are options – for example, a pole flip or a powerful flash (explosion in the sun), such a force that our civilization will be discarded in development in the Stone Age.

Hypothetically, there is the likelihood of such a cause of everything happening – yes, there is. It remains only to wait and observe, analyze and search for pieces of information in order to understand the essence of the current events. 

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