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Aliens & UFO's

How will we know that we’ve found alien life ?

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Even if we were to discover evidence of extraterrestrial life, would we even be able to recognize it ?

In a recent article for ‘The Conversation’, Peter Vickers – an associate professor in philosophy of science at Durham University – discusses why we need to ‘expect the unexpected’.

If we discovered evidence of alien life, would we even realize it? Life on other planets could be so different from what we’re used to that we might not recognize any biological signatures that it produces.

How will we know that we find alien life?

Recent years have seen changes to our theories about what counts as a biosignature and which planets might be habitable, and further turnarounds are inevitable. But the best we can really do is interpret the data we have with our current best theory, not with some future idea we haven’t had yet.

This is a big issue for those involved in the search for extraterrestrial life. As Scott Gaudi of Nasa’s Advisory Council has said:

“One thing I am quite sure of, now having spent more than 20 years in this field of exoplanets… expect the unexpected.”

But is it really possible to “expect the unexpected”? Plenty of breakthroughs happen by accident, from the discovery of penicillin to the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation left over from the Big Bang. These often reflect a degree of luck on behalf of the researchers involved. When it comes to alien life, is it enough for scientists to assume “we’ll know it when we see it”?

Many results seem to tell us that expecting the unexpected is extraordinarily difficult. “We often miss what we don’t expect to see,” according to cognitive psychologist Daniel Simons, famous for his work on inattentional blindness. His experiments have shown how people can miss a gorilla banging its chest in front of their eyes. Similar experiments also show how blind we are to non-standard playing cards such as a black four of hearts. In the former case, we miss the gorilla if our attention is sufficiently occupied. In the latter, we miss the anomaly because we have strong prior expectations.

There are also plenty of relevant examples in the history of science. Philosophers describe this sort of phenomenon as “theory-ladenness of observation”. What we notice depends, quite heavily sometimes, on our theories, concepts, background beliefs and prior expectations. Even more commonly, what we take to be significant can be biased in this way.

For example, when scientists first found evidence of low amounts of ozone in the atmosphere above Antarctica, they initially dismissed it as bad data. With no prior theoretical reason to expect a hole, the scientists ruled it out in advance. Thankfully, they were minded to double check, and the discovery was made.

More than 200,000 stars captured in a small section of the sky by NASA’s TESS mission. Each star can contain multiple planets. Credit: NASA

Could a similar thing happen in the search for extraterrestrial life? Scientists studying planets in other solar systems (exoplanets) are overwhelmed by the abundance of possible observation targets competing for their attention. In the last 10 years scientists have identified more than 3,650 planets – more than one a day. And with missions such as NASA’s TESS exoplanet hunter this trend will continue.

Each and every new exoplanet is rich in physical and chemical complexity. It is all too easy to imagine a case where scientists do not double check a target that is flagged as “lacking significance”, but whose great significance would be recognised on closer analysis or with a non-standard theoretical approach.

However, we shouldn’t exaggerate the theory-ladenness of observation. In the Muller-Lyer illusion, a line ending in arrowheads pointing outwards appears shorter than an equally long line with arrowheads pointing inwards. Yet even when we know for sure that the two lines are the same length, our perception is unaffected and the illusion remains. Similarly, a sharp-eyed scientist might notice something in her data that her theory tells her she should not be seeing. And if just one scientist sees something important, pretty soon every scientist in the field will know about it.

History also shows that scientists are able to notice surprising phenomena, even biased scientists who have a pet theory that doesn’t fit the phenomena. The 19th-century physicist David Brewster incorrectly believed that light is made up of particles travelling in a straight line. But this didn’t affect his observations of numerous phenomena related to light, such as what’s known as birefringence in bodies under stress. Sometimes observation is definitely not theory-laden, at least not in a way that seriously affects scientific discovery.

We need to be open-minded

Certainly, scientists can’t proceed by just observing. Scientific observation needs to be directed somehow. But at the same time, if we are to “expect the unexpected”, we can’t allow theory to heavily influence what we observe, and what counts as significant. We need to remain open-minded, encouraging exploration of the phenomena in the style of Brewster and similar scholars of the past.

Studying the universe largely unshackled from theory is not only a legitimate scientific endeavour – it’s a crucial one. The tendency to describe exploratory science disparagingly as “fishing expeditions” is likely to harm scientific progress. Under-explored areas need exploring, and we can’t know in advance what we will find.

In the search for extraterrestrial life, scientists must be thoroughly open-minded. And this means a certain amount of encouragement for non-mainstream ideas and techniques. Examples from past science (including very recent ones) show that non-mainstream ideas can sometimes be strongly held back. Space agencies such as NASA must learn from such cases if they truly believe that, in the search for alien life, we should “expect the unexpected”.

Peter Vickers, Associate Professor in Philosophy of Science, Durham University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.

Read the original article.

Source: The Conversation

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Aliens & UFO's

US special forces engaged in combat with aliens during the Vietnam war

This incident happened in early 1972 during the Vietnam War. A US Special Forces group was secretly delivered at night and parachuted in an area on the Cambodia-North Vietnamese border. 

The operation was vital: to destroy a facility in North Vietnam, which, as it was possible to establish by American intelligence, was secretly overhearing top secret conversations of the US Army in South Vietnam. 

The SWAT team set up camp for the night, preparing to assault the North Vietnamese team at dawn. In the early morning, the commandos quietly crept up to the Vietnamese base, but what they saw there shocked and frightened them.

As the team got closer to the location of the North Vietnamese unit, they suddenly discovered that there was a large spherical ship that stood on three sturdy metal supports. 

The ship suddenly began to hum, causing instant sickness, dizziness, and disorientation in the US military. 

The group leader was about to issue a command to retreat when a group of strange looking humanoid creatures appeared. 

Not believing what they saw, the special forces group was even more frightened by what these creatures were doing (according to the description of the soldiers, taking into account modern data based on numerous contacts, it can be assumed that they were “gray”): the aliens got out of a large pile various parts of human bodies and placed them in large containers – arms, legs, torso, heads; this terrible list went on and on. 

Some were the remains of white people, others were black (US Army soldiers), and others looked like Vietnamese (Vietnamese soldiers from the base). 

What they saw sobered and angered the special forces and the commander gave the order to open fire – the bullets hit the bodies of the creatures, but they did not do any harm, except for one who was killed by a shot in the head. 

Several commandos were killed, and others were seriously injured by the effects of unknown weapons. Then the aliens quickly retreated into the ship and he quickly rushed into the sky,

Soon, another CIA team appeared on the scene, as one of the survivors said they were all given some kind of mind-altering drugs to try to make them forget about this incredible fight. And it worked, at least for a while.

However, in the late 1980s, two members of the special forces team who took part in that battle began to have nightmarish memories of the events of April 1972, which prompted one of them to contact many other special forces who were found and who were still alive. 

Two had already died, three were not found at all, but the rest were able to meet in August 1988 and decided that this story should be told. 

They turned to researcher and ufologist Leonard Stringfield and he published their story in his 1991 book.

The story is told in Stringfield’s UFO Crash Retrievals: The Inner Sanctum. 

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Aliens & UFO's

UK UFO case to be kept secret until 2072

The UK Department of Defense has blocked the planned release of a dossier detailing the famous UFO incident.

Back in August 1990, two tourists walking in the Scottish Highlands near Calvine, Pitlochry, witnessed a strange rhombic object hovering over the nearby landscape.

They managed to take pictures of the UFO before it flew away at significant speed.

Eager to share what they saw, the couple contacted the Scottish Daily Record and shared both their story and the photos they took.

Then the journalists shared the pictures with the UK Department of Defense.

It turned out that the tourists weren’t the only ones who saw the object – the pilot of the RAF Harrier jet also witnessed the phenomenon – again near Calvine – after being forced to investigate this UFO.

Military intelligence officers sent these images to JARIC, which is the Joint Air Intelligence and Reconnaissance Center.

It is the UK’s military center of excellence when it comes to image analysis. These intelligence officers concluded that these photographs were real and that no one had the slightest idea what they were.

Several mock ups of the photos have been made, while the real things remain hidden
Several mock ups of the photos have been made, while the real things remain classified

Thirty years later, the dossier of the Ministry of Defense, including photographs, was scheduled for declassification and publication, which is typical of such documents.

However, the release has now been postponed for another 50 years for unknown reasons.

According to the 30-year rule, the file was supposed to be released on January 1, 2021, but if the ministry gets it, it won’t be released until January 1, 2072 – an 82-year closure.

“By the time the world gets to see the file, the two witnesses will be dead. It is crazy. What are the authorities trying to hide?”

A complaint lodged under the Freedom of Information Act about the National Archives withholding the documents is now under investigation by the UK information watchdog, the Information Commissioner’s Office.

The National Archives refused to comment further. The MOD refused to comment at all.

What are the authorities trying to hide?

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Aliens & UFO's

FBI decrypted documents confirm that there are giant aliens

The topic of aliens has always attracted attention. Recently, foreign media disclosed that a declassified document released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) once again confirmed the existence of UFOs and aliens.

FBI Declassified Document: Describes UFO and Aliens

https://twitter.com/AgentApplebutt3/status/1303403903585718273?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1303403903585718273%7Ctwgr%5Eshare_3&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fsputniknews.gr%2Fviral%2F202009098195787-exogiinoi-gigantes-kai-onta-apo-alles-diastaseis-ereuna-tou-FBI-mila-gia-thermo-epeisodio-me-UFO%2F

The British “Daily Star” reported that earlier this year, the FBI released the decrypted documents in 1947. The 70-page decrypted report contained a “Memorandum 6751”. The person who wrote the report was an anonymous university professor.

“Memorandum 6751″ mentioned that there were flying saucers, unidentified creatures, and ” giant aliens resembling humans “.

The report stated that these aliens are like humans, “but larger in size. They are not from any planet known to people, but from the etheric.” “Ether” is a term used in ancient Greece, generally referring to the atmosphere or sky.

Sketch of flying saucer. (Pixabay.com)

There is also a description of the flying saucer in the decryption report, which refers to the fact that most of the flying saucers are loaded with alien creatures. The flying saucers have powerful radiation, are very fast, and have powerful attack capabilities.

“These flying saucers have a kind of radiant energy or light that can easily disintegrate any spacecraft that launches an attack. They can re-enter (earth) from the ether at will, or they can simply disappear from our sight without leaving a trace.”

The report states, “If one of these (flying saucers) is attacked, the attacking aircraft will almost certainly be destroyed. As far as the general public is concerned, this may lead to proximity panic and international suspicion.”

Tesla is a ” Venusian “

In recent years, due to the expiration of the confidentiality period, the FBI has published many decrypted documents on its official website, including one about the famous inventor Nicholas. Tesla (Nikola Tesla) declassified documents, caused a public heat. The document mentioned that Tesla came from “Venus” and was an “alien”.

The FBI declassified document mentioned that the famous inventor Nicholas. Tesla came from “Venus” and was an “alien”. (Public domain)

The decrypted document is called “Nikola Tesla Part03 of03”. It is the third document about Nikola Tesla decrypted by the FBI. It has 64 pages of content, some of which are blacked out and cannot be distinguished.

The remaining content that is not blacked out contains the following passage: “The people of the universe have contacted Nikola Tesla many times and told the FBI that Tesla was from Venus. Tesla was brought to the earth in 1856 to a Yugoslav couple to raise.”

The publication of this document shocked the world. Faced with a wave of discussions and doubts from netizens, the FBI did not make any response or explanation, which is even more curious.

F-18 fighters chase UFO

“The Wall Street Journal” recently reported that the non-profit organization “National UFO Reporting Center” data shows that so far this year, UFO sightings have increased by 51% over the same period last year. The center has received approximately 5,000 sightings reported.

On September 8, the United States retired Lieutenant Colonel David. David Fravor accepted the Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientist Rex. In a live webcast interview with Lex Fridman, he talked about the bizarre experience of driving an F-18 fighter jet to chase UFOs 16 years ago.

There are American pilots chasing UFOs in F-18 fighter jets. F-18 fighter data map. (Michael Dodge/Getty Images)

On November 14, 2004, a UFO was found in the waters of San Diego, California, and Frevo piloted an F-18 fighter to investigate. Both he and the pilot of the other fighter saw a white Tic Tac mint-shaped flying object.

Subsequently, the pilot Chad Underwood flew an F-18 fighter jet, caught UFO on the radar, and successfully filmed UFO video with an infrared camera.

In April this year, the Pentagon released three videos of UFOs, one of which was taken by Underwood during this operation.

12 U.S. soldiers live on alien planets

Former Minister of Defense of Canada Paul. Paul T. Hellyer once disclosed that there are aliens living on the earth and working for the US government. Many US presidents have also admitted the existence of aliens on different occasions.

In addition, some U.S. military personnel disclosed that a top-secret exchange between the U.S. military and aliens was named “Operation Zeta,” and an alien envoy came to the United States. In July 1965, 12 American soldiers secretly boarded an alien spacecraft to the planet Zeta.

Of these 12 people, 4 never returned to Earth. Of these 4 people, 2 died, 2 chose to stay on Zeta, and the remaining 8 returned to Earth 13 years later.

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