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How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 88
Photo: Getty images

The deification of animals and the forces of nature is a common feature of all ancient civilizations, but some cults make a particularly strong impression on modern man. In the era of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, the role of sacred animals was assigned to perhaps the most repulsive and terrible creatures on the planet – the Nile crocodiles.

Sebek – god-crocodile, ruler of the Nile

The role of the Nile in the development of the culture of Ancient Egypt cannot be overestimated – this river determined the very existence of the peoples who settled along its banks. Stretching nearly seven thousand kilometers from south to north, the Nile fed the Egyptians, the floods of the river ensured good harvests in the fields adjacent to the river, and the absence of spills doomed people to hunger. Since the time of the pharaohs, there have been special structures – nilomers, whose purpose was to determine the level of the river to predict the next harvest.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 89

Nilomer

It is not surprising, therefore, the desire to earn the favor of such powerful forces, giving a special ritual character to interaction with a permanent inhabitant of the Nile and, to some extent, with its owner – a crocodile. By the behavior and movement of these animals, the Egyptians, among other things, determined the arrival of floods.

God Sebek (or Sobek), who was portrayed as a man with the head of a crocodile, is one of the most ancient and main gods of the Egyptian pantheon. He was recognized not only as the ruler of the Nile and the lord of its floods, bestowing fertility and abundance, but also as a deity, personifying time, eternity. Sebek was portrayed with the head of a crocodile and in a magnificent crown.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 90

God Sebek

City of Gadov

The cult of Sebek was especially vividly manifested in Crocodilopolis, or the City of Reptiles, located southwest of the ancient capital of Egypt, Memphis. The name “Crocodilopolis” was given to the settlement by the Greeks who came to these lands in the 4th century BC with Alexander the Great. The Egyptians themselves called this city Shedit (Shedet).

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 91

El Fayyum – an oasis in the desert

Located in the Fayyum oasis, a wide valley famous for its fertility throughout Ancient Egypt, near Lake Merida, Shedit became a place of worship for the god Sebek and his living incarnations – crocodiles.

In the 19th century BC, the pharaoh of the XII dynasty Amenemkhet III built a pyramid for himself near the city of Shedit. Adjacent to the pyramid was the Labyrinth – a sacred structure that has not survived to this day, a temple complex where Sobek’s son Petsuhos lived.

Which of the crocodiles will be honored to become a divine offspring was determined by the priests – according to rules that are currently unknown.

The crocodile lived in the Labyrinth, where, in addition to the pond and sand, there were many rooms located at different levels – according to ancient sources, in particular, according to the stories of Herodotus, the number of rooms allegedly reached several thousand. The estimated area of ​​rooms and passages of the Labyrinth reached 70 thousand square meters.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 92

Pyramid of Amenemhat III

Serving the crocodile

The priests offered Petsuhos meat, bread and honey, wine as food, and the one who accidentally became a victim of the crocodile’s mouth acquired divine status himself, his remains were embalmed and placed in a sacred tomb. Drinking water from the pond in which such a crocodile lived was considered a great success and provided the protection of the deity.

After the death of “Sebek’s son,” his body was mummified and buried nearby. In total, several thousand of these mummies were discovered, in particular, at the Kom el-Breigat cemetery. The new incarnation of the god was the crocodile, chosen by the same priests.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 93

Mummies of sacred crocodiles

The information about the crocodile cult in Shedite that has survived to our time is extremely scarce and is based, as a rule, on the notes of the Greeks who visited here. The ancient scientist Strabo, who visited Egypt in the first century BC, left the following memories:

Our host, one of the officials who initiated us there in the mysteries, came with us to the lake, taking from dinner some kind of cake, fried meat and a jug of wine mixed with honey. We found the crocodile lying on the shore of the lake. When the priests approached the animal, one of them opened its mouth, and the other stuck a cake there, then meat, and then poured the honey mixture. Then the animal jumped into the lake and swam to the other side. But when another stranger approached, also carrying with him an offering of the firstfruits, the priests took gifts from him; then they ran around the lake and, finding the crocodile, in the same way gave the animal the food they had brought“.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 94

Image of a priest feeding a sacred crocodile

Under Ptolemy II, Crocodilopolis was renamed Arsinoe – in honor of the ruler’s wife.

El-Fayyum is one of the least studied areas of Egypt by archaeologists, so it is possible that in the foreseeable future additional arguments will be received to confirm or refute the legends about the Crocodilopolis Labyrinth.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 95

Nevertheless, the cult of the crocodile god Sebek can be traced in other areas of Ancient Egypt – in particular, in Kom Ombo, a city that used to be called Nubet, there is a temple dedicated to Sebek, where a demonstration of crocodile mummies has been open since 2012. from nearby burials.

How the Egyptians worshiped a god with a reptilian head and why they needed thousands of crocodile mummies 96

Temple of Kom Ombo

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Ancient

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons 97

From the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian poem of unusual volume, we learn that someone named Asura Maya possessed a vimaana of about 6 m in circumference, equipped with four strong wings.

 This poem is a treasure trove of information pertaining to conflicts between gods who resolved their differences using weapons that are obviously as deadly as those we can use. In addition to “bright missiles”, the poem describes the use of other deadly weapons. “Indra’s dart” is operated with a round “reflector”. When turned on, it gives off a beam of light, which, being focused on any target, immediately “devours it with its power.” In one particular case, when the hero, Krishna, pursues his enemy, Salva, in the sky, Saubha made Shalva’s vimana invisible. Unafraid

Astra – means weapons of mass destruction and many other types of terrible weapons are described quite authentically in the Mahabharata, but the most terrible of them was used against Vrish. The narration says:

“Gurkha, flying on his fast and powerful vimaana, threw a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe at the three cities of Vrishi and Andhak. A red-hot column of smoke and fire, bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor. An unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death who turned to ashes the entire race of the Vrishis and the Andhaks.”

It is important to note that these types of records are not isolated. They correlate with similar information from other ancient civilizations. The effects of this iron lightning contain an ominously recognizable ring. Obviously, those who were killed by her were burned so that their bodies were not recognizable.

Astra: weapon of mass destruction of the gods

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Astra appears before us as a supernatural weapon used by a particular deity. The mastery or use of a weapon required the knowledge of a mantra or invocation,

Each Astra had special terms of use, and violation of the terms could be fatal. Due to the gigantic destructive power of this weapon, his knowledge was passed from teacher to student exclusively orally.

Astra will play a very important role in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, where they are used in great battles by archers such as Rama, Karna or Bhishma. In fact, there is a suspicion that, as in the case of the Vimanas, some Asters work on the basis of mercury, or very similar liquids, which can circulate, rotating almost at the speed of light.

There are several dozen different Astra, according to their “operating model” and characteristics. Each main god had his own Astra, endowed with a certain power. For example, Devastra was the mythical equivalent of the modern traditional rocket; The asurastra that destroyed the asuras was the mythical equivalent of modern biological missiles.

Many say that 30,000 years ago the gods destroyed the asuras with nuclear weapons – but this is most likely a matter of opinion and interpretation of ancient texts in the modern sense. Also mentioned is the fearsome and destructive Brahmastra, the gift of Brahma (the Creator), the mythical equivalent of modern nuclear weapons. As mentioned in the epic sagas of India, the power of Brahmaster is capable of destroying the entire world.

This is how the Mahabharata (Vanaparvan, chapters 168-173) describes the battle in which the warrior Arjuna – the great hero – fought against the horde of Asuras:

Indra, the lord of heaven, demanded that Arjuna destroy the entire army of Asuras. These thirty million demons lived in fortresses located in the depths of the seas . Indra, the lord of the heavens, gave his own vimana to Arjuna, piloted by his clever assistant Matali.

In the fierce battle that unfolded, the Asuras caused crushing rains, but Arjuna marched against them with a divine weapon that managed to drain all the water … Arjuna fired a deadly projectile that destroyed the entire city of the proud.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Information about a number of ancient artifacts was obtained in 1929 during the interrogation of the Trotskyist Y. Blumkin, who had previously participated in the NKVD expeditions to Tibet, in connection with the sale of secret information about the weapons of the “civilization of the gods” to German and Japanese intelligence services. Y.Blyumkin’s betrayal in fact allowed the leadership of the Third Reich to use the high technologies of the “civilization of the gods”, which were later used by the Nazis to create a secret base in Antarctica, as well as to create various types of “weapons of retaliation.”

“As I already told my investigator, on a business trip to Tibet in 1925, with the order of the head of the Tibetan state, the Dalai Lama 13, I was taken to underground halls and shown some so-called artifacts – weapons of the gods, preserved on Earth from 15-20 thousand years before our These weapons are kept in separate rooms. I wrote about this in detail in my reports …

The characteristics of the weapon are approximately as follows:

1. Giant forceps – “Wajaru”. With their help, precious metals are smelted. If you melt gold at the temperature of the sun’s surface (6 thousand degrees C), then the gold flares up and turns into powder for 70 seconds. This powder was used in the construction of huge mobile stone platforms. If this powder is poured onto the platform, then its weight is lost to a minimum. The powder was also used in medicine in the treatment of incurable diseases and for the elite – mainly the leaders used it for food to prolong their lives.

2. Bell – the so-called “Shu-tzu”, with the help of which you can blind for a while a large army or an entire army. Its mode of action consists in transforming electromagnetic waves at a certain frequency, which the human ear does not perceive, but acts directly on the brain. This is a very strange weapon. With his help, the Indian prophet Arjuna won big battles, causing his enemies to panic.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

I have not seen how this weapon works. I saw the units themselves in the underground halls, and a member of the Council of Tibet gave me explanations about the technical characteristics that I passed on to the Germans, or rather to the representative of German military intelligence, Mr. von Stilhe. I met Shtilhe in Europe on a business trip abroad.

In addition to the technical characteristics of these two units, I also gave Shtilhe information about another weapon of the gods. This weapon remained from about 8-10 thousand years BC, it was discovered in underground cities under the ice of Antarctica in the area of ​​Queen Maud Land. As far as I know, in order to get there, you need a key and a rite of passage, since this place is guarded by guards.

These devices can move both under water and in the air, and they do it at great speed. They move on special round-shaped aircraft, which are not like airplanes and airplanes known to us. I also told their technical characteristics to Shtilhe …

I also informed Shtilhe about objects that are located in all parts of the world in the mountains. With the help of these objects, in one moment it is possible to destroy all cities and industrial centers of all countries on earth, regardless of the state and social system. As far as I understood from the explanations at the Headquarters and as I pointed out about this in my articles, in all parts of the world there are spheres dug into the mountains made of extra strong metal that cannot be sawed or blown up.

Within these spheres are certain mechanisms that, when activated, generate a cloud similar to the sun. This cloud erupts into the atmosphere, it is controllable, i.e. can move along a certain trajectory. It explodes in the right place.

The air defense system of ancient civilizations or civilizations is a separate huge mystery that we still have to solve.

Now it becomes quite understandable the “secret” stamp imposed on the official research of artifacts of ancient civilizations, as well as why, at the official level, all these research and the artifacts themselves are hushed up or denied. 

The targeted campaigns to falsify our real history are also becoming understandable. In addition, this information sheds light on the question of what kind of vehicles attacked the squadron of American Admiral Richard Byrd near Queen Maud Land in 1947.

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Ancient

Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases!

Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases! 98

Six months ago, the world media reported that the mixture, created according to the Old English medical book of the 9th century, destroyed up to 90 percent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, one of the antibiotic-resistant strains of this bacterium that causes barley in the eyes. Only the antibiotic vancomycin, the main drug used in the treatment of MRSA, had the same effect.

And the drug, which was recently awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, would not have surprised the doctors of Ancient China.

Chinese pharmacologist Tu Yuyu discovered the drug artemisinin in the 70s, which cures malaria.

But the plant from which this substance is obtained, wormwood (Artemisia annua L), has been used to treat fevers, including those caused by malaria, as early as the 3rd or 4th centuries.

Tu Yuyu invented a cure for malaria after reading traditional Chinese medicine texts that described herbal recipes. The path to discovery and recognition was very difficult because hundreds of plant species had to be tested. In addition, the political atmosphere in China in the 70s was difficult. But her tenacity paid off. Artemisinin has now become an important antimalarial drug.

Her story is unusual in modern medicine. However, artemisinin is far from the only substance isolated from plants. Another malaria drug, quinine, is made from the bark of the officinalis L tree found in the rainforests of South America. The pain reliever morphine was isolated from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L), and the poison strychnine from the tree Strychnos nux-vomica L.

These plants were used in medicine for centuries and even millennia before chemists were able to isolate their most active components.

Is it possible that physicians can discover new drugs simply by studying ancient medical treatises, as did Tu Yuyu or English specialists? The answer to this question is ambiguous. Ancient pharmacological texts in Chinese, Arabic, Greek, or any other ancient language are not easy to study for a number of reasons.

Ancient recipe books

Ancient pharmacological texts are usually a list of recipes without explanation, whether they were used, and in what cases. Submit your favorite cookbook. You hardly cook all the recipes from it. If you do not make notes in it, then no one will know what recipes you tried, and so much you liked them. Commentaries are rarely found in ancient pharmacological books.

It is often difficult to determine which plants are listed in an ancient recipe. Nowadays, the Linnaean system is used to classify plants, where the genus and species of the plant are indicated. But before the Linnaean system became generally accepted, the classification of plants was extremely erratic.

Different local names could be used to denote the same plant. This means that it is not always possible to accurately determine which plants are discussed in the book. If we cannot accurately translate the names in old recipes, how can we evaluate their effectiveness?

Disease definitions also have links to local culture. This means that each nation has a different definition of the disease. For example, the ancient Greeks and Romans considered fever to be a disease, but in modern medicine it is seen as a symptom of the disease.

The millennial collection of recipes “Kitab al-tabih”, written by Ibn Sayar al-Warak.

In the Greek and Roman texts, there are many descriptions of wave-like fever, that is, a fever that repeats every few days.

In modern medicine, wave-like fever is a symptom of malaria, but it is also a symptom of other diseases. Should scientists searching for new cures for malaria test all ancient Greek and Roman remedies for “wave-like fever”?

Holistic Medicine

The most important aspect, according to medical historians, is that each medical system must be considered holistically. This means that it is wrong to focus only on those aspects of ancient medicine that are successful by modern standards, and brush aside everything else.

Although there are effective medicines in ancient medicine, many of them are useless or even harmful. For example, in our time, hardly anyone will dare to be treated by taking huge doses of hellebore, as the ancient Greeks did.

But even with these shortcomings, there is great potential in ancient medical books for new drug discovery. This requires collaboration between pharmacologists, historians and ethno-pharmacologists who study traditional medicine from different cultures.

Such cooperation is not an easy process, because each of the specialists feels that they speak different languages. But the great examples mentioned above remind us that the result can be outstanding, especially when looking for cures for common diseases.

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Ancient

The ancient Romans also loved take-away food. For the first time, a hot fast food restaurant unearthed in Pompeii

The ancient Romans also loved take-away food. For the first time, a hot fast food restaurant unearthed in Pompeii 99
A "fast food restaurant" in the ruins of the ancient city of Pompeii in Italy has been excavated. In addition to the exquisite murals, archaeologists have also discovered evidence that the restaurant was selling hot food (AP)

The ancient city of Pompeii, Italy, recently unearthed the remains of a complete hot fast food restaurant, showing that the ancient Romans also had take-away eating habits. There are also murals of chicken, duck and other dishes, as well as a variety of tableware. Archaeologists say this is the first time the ancient city of Pompeii has unearthed the remains of a hot fast food restaurant.

Massimo Osanna, director of the Archaeological Park of Pompeii, said on December 26 that although approximately 80 similar fast food restaurants have been unearthed in the ancient city of Pompeii , the total unearthed hot food fast food restaurant is still the first Times.

Archaeologists excavated part of the counter of this hot food fast food restaurant in 2019, and now the entire polygonal counter is unearthed. There are multiple deep circular containers on the countertop. Archaeologists guessed that these are containers for holding hot food, similar to the soup vessels in modern salad bars.

The side wall of the counter is yellow as the background, and there are many murals on it, including bush-like plants, two ducks with heads down, a rooster, a dog on a rope, and a sea fairy riding a horse. These murals are still colorful after thousands of years.

Valeria Amoretti, an anthropologist in Pompeii, said: Preliminary analysis confirmed that these murals represent the food and beverages sold in this fast food restaurant. For example, a round container contains fragments of duck bones, as well as the remains of goats, pigs, fish, snails and other animals; a small amount of broad beans are also found at the bottom of the wine container.

Amoretti said that in ancient times, adding broad beans to wine can add flavor.

Ossana said that these remaining foods let us know what people ate on the day Pompeii was overthrown by volcanic ash. It also means that “the fast food on the street was very popular among ordinary people at the time, but the elites of the upper class in Rome did not frequent them.”

The location of this fast food restaurant is quite good. It is located at the bustling crossroads. There is a fountain square outside, and there are hot spring baths nearby. It is a good place to run restaurants.

Archaeologists also unearthed human remains at this fast food restaurant site. They also unearthed a bronze spoon, nine common food containers amphora, several flasks and a ceramic container for oil.

Pompeii was founded around 600 BC on a small hill on the banks of the Sano River in Italy. It was wiped out by volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. Many precious historical relics were buried several meters overnight. Deeper than volcanic ash.

Pompeii is currently the most intact ancient Roman city ruins in Italy and has been included in the World Heritage List.

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