By Dr. Paul Schliemann, via Atlantean Gardens; Grandson of Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, New York American, October 20, 1912. This article and the accompanying illustrations, produced from a photocopy provided by the New York Public Library, are republished for the first time in over ninety years. Dr. Paul Schliemann, the distinguished grandson of the late Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, finder of ancient Troy and one of the world’s greatest archaeologists, presents here one of the most remarkable and fascinating narratives of discovery every published.
Atlantis is the legendary continent mentioned by the Greek philosopher Plato, who in one of his “conversations” told how the priests of the Egyptian Temple of Sais related to Solon, the great lawmaker the story of its destruction about 9,000 BC.
Atlantis, according to this story, was the home of a great civilized race which had conquered and colonized the world. All civilization had come from it.
What is known as the Dolphin Ridge, an enormous submarine plateau, stretching between 25 and 50 degrees north latitude and 20 to 50 degrees west longitude, is supposed to be its sunken remnants.
The Azorean islands are believed to be the top of its lofty mountains – all that now remains above water of the lost continent.
If Dr. Paul Schliemann can prove his points the greatest world mystery will have been untangled, the history of our race must be reconstructed and many enigmas will be answered finally.
It is a curious coincidence that at the time Dr. Schliemann is making known his discoveries an expedition is setting out from England to recover treasure from sunken cities in the Bay of Campeche, off Yucatan.
These cities were located by Dr. Ernest Marjolies, after four years in Central America, and he also has evidence which he believes proves them to be part of a colony of Atlantis and sunk in the same convulsion which destroyed the mother country.
Dr. Paul Schliemann’s story follows:
By Dr. Paul Schliemann
Some days before my grandfather, Dr. Heinrich Schliemann, the real discoverer of the great Mycenaean civilization whose history is preserved in the books of Homer, died in Naples in 1890, he left a sealed envelope in care of his closest friends. The envelope bore the following inscription:
“This can be opened only by a member of my family who solemnly vows to devote his life to the researches outlined therein.”
Just an hour before my grandfather died he asked for a piece of paper and asked for a pencil. He wrote with a trembling hand:
“Confidential addition to the sealed envelope. Break the owl-headed vase. Pay attention to the contents. It concerns Atlantis. Investigate the east of the ruins of the temple of Sais and the cemetery in Chacuna Valley. Important. Night approaches – Lebewohl.”
He closed it in an envelope and directed the nurse to send it to the friend whom he had entrusted with the other package. This was done.
Although every one was curious as to what the mysterious packets contained, not one of the children or friends dared to break the seals.
No one desired to devote his life to something he could know nothing about until too late to recede. The envelopes were deposited in one of the banks of France. After I had studied for some years in Russia, Germany and the Orient, I decided to take up the work of my illustrious grandfather.
I decided that what he had felt so important that he had so safeguarded it must be important enough to devote one’s life to. In 1906 I took the vow and broke the seals. Within were a number of documents and photographs.
The first paper said:
“Whoever opens this must solemnly swear to carry out the work which I have left unfinished. I have come to the conclusion that Atlantis was not only a great territory between America and the west coast of Africa and Europe, but the cradle of all our civilization as well. There has been much dispute between scientists on this matter.
According to one group the tradition of Atlantis is purely fictional, founded upon fragmentary accounts of a Deluge some thousands of years before the Christian era. Others declare the tradition wholly historical, but incapable of absolute proof.
“In the included material records, notes and explanations are to be found, the proofs that exist in my mind of the matter. Whoever takes charge of this mission is solemnly obligated to continue my researches and to form a definite statement using as well the matter I leave with this and crediting me with my just dues in the discovery.
A special fund is deposited in the Bank of France to be paid to the bearer of the enclosed receipt, and this should pay the expenses of the research. The Almighty be with this great effort.
I cannot in this limited space give all the papers – nor do I care to. But one of the most important from the narrative’s standpoint read:
“When in 1873, I made the excavation of the ruins of Troy at Hissarlik and discovered in the Second City the famous ‘Treasure of Priam,’ I found among that treasure a peculiar bronze vase, of great size.
Within it were several pieces of pottery, various small images of peculiar metal, coins of the same metal and objects made of fossilized bone. Some of these objects and the bronze vase were engraved with a sentence in Phoenician hieroglyphics. The sentence read ‘From the King Chronos of Atlantis.’
You who read can imagine my excitement! Here was the first, the very first material evidence of that great continent whose legend has lived for ages throughout the world.
This material I kept secret, eager to make it the basis of investigations which I felt would prove of infinitely more importance than the discovery of a hundred Troys.
But first I had to finish the work in which I was engaged, and I was the more eager to do this because I felt that I was sure to find other objects which would bear directly upon the lost continent. I was rewarded for my faith as you will see in the document marked B.
“In 1883 I found the Louvre a collection of objects excavated from Tiahuanaco. And among, these I discovered pieces of pottery of exactly the same shape and material and objects of fossilized bone which reproduced line for line those which I had found in the bronze vase of the ‘Treasure of Priam’!
The similarity could not be a coincidence. The shapes and decorations were too complex for that.
It is beyond the range of coincidence for two artists in such widely separated locations as Central America and Crete to make two vases – I mention only one of the objects – of exactly the same shape, the same size and with curious owls’ heads arranged in just the same way on each.
“The Central American vases had no Phoenician characters upon them nor writing of any sort. I hurried away to examine again my own objects and by tests and exhaustive examinations became convinced that the inscriptions had been made by other hands after the objects themselves had been manufactured.
“I secured pieces of these simulacrums from Tiahuanaco and subjected them to chemical and microscopic analysis.
These tests proved conclusively that both the Central American vases and those from Troy had been made from the same peculiar clay, and I learned later, further and definitively, that this clay does not exist, either in old Phoenicia nor in Central America!
“The metal objects I had analyzed, because I could not recognize what they were made of. The metal was unlike any I had ever seen. The chemical analysis showed the material to be platinum, aluminum and copper – a combination never before found in the remains of the ancients and unknown to-day!
“Objects then, perfectly similar and having unquestionably a common source were found in such widely separated countries as these. The objects themselves are not Phoenician, Mycenaean nor Central American.
What is the conclusion? That they came to both places from a common center. The inscription on my objects gave that center – It was Atlantis!
“That the objects were held in great veneration is shown from their presence among the ‘Treasure of Priam’ and the special receptacle that held them.
Their character left no doubt that they were objects of sacred ceremonies and from the same temple. Were they the remains of a worship which had existed on Atlantis and which that great land had impressed upon colonies and countries as far apart as ancient Crete and Central America?
Were these things sent out by the mother land just as Bibles are sent out to-day from Christendom – and as statutes of Isis and her altar paraphernalia were sent by Egypt to her colonies?
“This extraordinary discovery and my failing health induced me to push more rapidly my investigations. I found in the Museum at St. Petersburg one of the oldest papyrus rolls in existence. It was written in the reign of Pharaoh Sent, of the Second Dynasty, or 4,571 years B.C.
It contains a description of how the Pharaoh sent out an expedition ‘to the West’ in search of traces of the ‘Land of Atlantis,’ whence ‘3,350 years ago the ancestors of the Egyptians arrived carrying with themselves all the wisdoms of their native lands.’
The expedition returned after five years with the report that they had found neither people nor objects which could give them a clue as to the vanished land. Another papyrus, in the same museum, written by Manetho, the Egyptian historian, gives a reference of a period of ‘13,900 years as the reign of the sages of Atlantis.’
The papyrus places this at the very beginning of Egyptian history; it approximates 16,000 years ago.
“An inscription which I excavated at the Lion Gate at Mycenae in Crete recites that Misor, from whom, according to the inscription, the Egyptians were descended, was the child of Taaut or Thoth, the God of History, and that Taaut was the emigrated son of a ‘priest of Atlantis, who having fallen in love with a daughter of King Chronos, escaped and landed after many wanderings in Egypt.’
He built the first temple at Sais and there taught the wisdom of his native land. This full inscription is most important, and I have kept it secret. You will find it among the papers marked D.”
I cannot go further here into more than a small part of the enormous mass of evidence, and it is material evidence of this continent of Atlantis that my grandfather had collected. I must pass to the end of this remarkable document:
“One of the tables of my Trojan excavation gives also a medical treatise of the Egyptian priests–for there was communication between Crete and Egypt for many centuries–for the removal of cataract from the eye and ulcer from the intestines by means of surgery.
I have read almost a similar formula in a Spanish manuscript in Berlin whose writer took it from an Aztec priest in Mexico. That priest had gotten it from an ancient Mayan manuscript.
“In coming to my conclusion I must say that neither the Egyptians nor the Mayan race that made the civilization of Central America before the Aztecs were great navigators. They had no ships to cross the Atlantic. Nor did they. We can dismiss the agency of the Phoenicians as a real link between the hemispheres.
Yet the similarity of Egyptian and Mayan life and civilization is so perfect that it is impossible to think of it as an accident. We find no such accidents in nature or history.
The only possibility is that there was, as the legend says, a great continent that connected what we now call the New World with what we call the old. Perhaps at this time what there was of Europe and America was populated with monsters. Africa possibly had a monkey-like negro race.
Man in our sense had not overrun them. But there was a land where civilization as high as that we now know and perhaps higher was flourishing. Its outskirts were the edge of wilderness. It was Atlantis. From Atlantis came the colonies that settled Egypt and Central America.
I realized that I faced a serious problem indeed, despite all the astonishing evidence, greater far than any one dreams, left me by my grandfather.
There were other notes and allusions to the material proofs which were in the secret safe in Paris, and besides these was the strict injunction that I should keep the matter secret until I had followed up his instructions and had finished my research.
For six years I have worked indefatigably in Egypt, in Central and South America and in all the archeological museums on the globe. I have discovered Atlantis, I have verified the existence of this great continent and the fact that from it sprang all the civilizations of historic times without a doubt.
In my research I have made a principle to retire to such a seclusion that no periodical could reach me, and no curiosity of the public could disturb me in this serious and important work.
I shall pursue the same course until my book is finished. For these reasons I have avoided up to this time all notoriety, through the press and every association with any scientific expeditions.
I am an individualist and will do the work in my individual way. However, I have been willing to follow the invitation of this newspaper and to reveal this secret of my illustrious grandfather and to give some of the facts which I have discovered and why I claim to be the discoverer of Atlantis.
I proceed to what happened after I read Heinrich Schliemann’s documents.
I at once proceeded to investigate the hidden collection in Paris. The owl headed vase was unique, of obviously extraordinarily ancient origin and on it I read the inscription in Phoenician characters: “From the King Chronos of Atlantis.”
I hesitated for days to break it for I still thought that the last letter of my grandfather might have been the result of a mind weakened by the approach of death. I could not see why it should be broken. It may be that he had found other vases of the kind of Hissarlik and had broken thme.
He may have saved this last vase because he felt that an absolute proof of the evidence should be the possession of the one who should take up his work. I hesitate to write this because it seems to savor of pure romance. Yet it is absolute truth.
After all I broke it. I was not a little startled when out the bottom of the vase slipped a square of white, silver-like metal upon which were drawn strange figure and an inscription which were not like any hieroglyphs or writings I had ever seen.
These were on the head side of the coin or medal. On the obverse side was engraved in ancient Phoenician, “Issued in the Temple of Transparent Walls.” How did the metal get in the vase? I do not know.
The neck was too small for its insertion, but there it was and it had been imbedded in the clay of the bottom and my grandfather had evidently known it was there.
If the vase was from Atlantis the piece must have come from it too. And yet my examination showed me that the Phoenician letters had been cut in after the object had been under the die that made the face figures. This is a mystery to me even now. But there is the evidence.
Besides this I found in the collection the other material objects which my grandfather had said came from Atlantis. One was a ring of the same peculiar metal as the coins or the medals.
There was a strange looking elephant of fossilized bone, an extremely archaic vase and some other objects which I will not discuss now. The map by which the Egyptian captain had sought for Atlantis was there too. I prefer to save these other objects for my extended work–nor could I, under the instructions of my grandfather, tell of them.
It is sufficient to say that no scientist can controvert them. The owl vase, the archaic vase, the bronze vase and the ring have the Phoenician inscription. The elephant and coins did not.
My grandfather had written that I should first pay attention to the ruins of the Temple of Sais and the Chucuna Valley in America. I arrived first in Egypt and started to excavate around the ruins of Sais.
I worked a long time in vain. I found interesting pieces of antique ceremonial and astronomical uses, but no traces of what I wanted.
But one day, I made the acquaintance of an Egyptian hunter, who showed me a collection of old medals he had found in a sarcophagus in one of the tombs near by.
Who can describe my surprise in finding among his collection two of the same design and size of the white medal I had found in the vase of Troy? The figures were not so lain of detail and the inscription was lacking, but they were undoubtedly of the same original as of mine.
I procured them from the hunter and I investigated the sarcophagus. It proved to be that of a priest of the First Dynasty! One of the most ancient. But there was nothing else there of interest–to me.
Yet was I not progressing? Here was the coin in the vase of Troy, which, if my grandfather was right, came from Atlantis.
And here were two of the same kind in a sarcophagus of a priest of the First Dynasty of the Temple of Sais, the temple which held the records of Atlantis and whose priest had recited them to Solon – their temple which had been founded by a son of Atlantis who had run away with a “daughter of Chronos,” the name of which was on the vase of Hissarlik that held the coin! How explain?
I called to my aid two great French geological experts, and we examined the west coast of Africa at the points where my grandfather had indicated where he had believed the ancient Atlantis had touched that land.
We found the whole shore here covered with volcanic action. Some distance in from the shore those evidences stopped. For many miles it was as though the volcanic action had chopped away land from the coast. Here I found an object of inestimable value to my research.
It was a head of a child done in the same metal as that which formed the ring and the medals. It was imbedded in an encrustation of volcanic rock of great age. The chemical analysis showed it to be of exactly the same strange alloy I have described.
The full results of this survey I cannot go into here. They were immensely important, and they are supported by other testimony than my own.
I went to Paris and sought the owner of the Central American collection which my grandfather had alluded to. He consented that I break his owl headed vase for the purpose of investigation. I broke the vase.
And out of it slipped a medal exactly the same size and material as the three I had! The only difference was in the arrangement of the hieroglyphs!
Here there were three links: The coins in my grandfather’s secret collection. The coin in the Atlantis vase. The coins in the Egyptian sarcophagus. The coin in the vase from Central America. The head from the Moroccan Coast!
I at once went to Central America, to Mexico and to Peru. I have dug up graveyards and excavated in the cities. The cemetery of the Chucuna Valley, where the ancient Chimus are buried, gave me immense material for other clues.
I will say that although I found fragments of the owl-headed vases, I found no more medals there. But what I did find was just as important.
These are inscriptions which will startle the world. And I found other medals at the Pyramid of Teotihuacan in Mexico of the same alloy, but with different script!
I have reasons for saying that the strange medals were used as money in Atlantis forty thousand years ago. These reasons are based not only on my own researches, but upon those of my grandfather which I have not mentioned.
The “Temple of Transparent Walls” was one of the National Treasuries of the Lost Continent.
As the Atlanteans and after them the Egyptians, the Mayans and the Chimus were hieratic nations, it is natural that a temple was considered as the center and foundation of social, political life as well as the cradle of art, science, education and religion.
Among the facts that I have to reveal in my book there are clear indications that of the City of the Golden Gates, as it was called, and two clear references to the Temple of Transparent Walls.
The Atlantean Temple of Transparent Walls was usually a high public place. Its operations were open for the masses. Did the words “transparent” have a symbolic meaning or did there really exist a temple with transparent walls?
I do not know. However, I can prove that the Phoenicians got there knowledge of glass making from the “people who lived beyond the pillars of Hercules.”
It is necessary to say that the country which used the ancient medals as an equivalent of labor had a more advanced currency system than we have at present.
I pass, for lack of space, over the hieroglyphics and other evidences which I have discovered that show that the civilizations of Egypt, of Mycenae, of Central America, South America and the Mediterranean had a common origin.
They will be incontrovertible”. I pass on to the translation of a Maya manuscript which is part of the famous collection of Le Plongeon, the Troano manuscript. It can be seen in the British Museum. It reads:
“In the year of 6 Kan, on the 11 Muluc, in the Month Zac, there occured terrific earthquakes which continued without interruption until the 13 Chuen. The country of the hills of mud, the Land of Mu, was sacrificed.
Being twice upheaved it disappeared during the night, being continually shaken by the fires of the under earth. Being confined these caused the land to sink and rise several times and in various places.
At last the surface gave way, and then ten countries were torn asunder and scattered. They sank with their 64,000,000 of inhabitants 8,000 years before the writing of this book.”
In the records of the old Buddhist Temple at Lhasa there is to be seen an ancient Chaldean inscription written about 2,000 years B.C. It reads:
“When the star Bal fell on the place where is now only sea and sky the Seven Cities with their Golden Gates and Transparent Temples quivered and shook like the leaves of a tree in storm. And behold a flood of fire and smoke arose from the palaces. Agony and cries of the multitude filled the air.
They sought refuge in their temples and citadels. And the wise Mu, the hieratic of Ra-Mu, arose and said to them: ‘Did not I predict all this?’ And the women and the men in their precious stones and shining garments lamented: ‘Mu, save us.’ And Mu replied:
‘You shall die together with your slaves and your riches and from your ashes will arise new nations. If they forget they are superior, not because of what they put on, but of what they put out, the same lot will befall them!’
Flame and smoke choked the words of Mu. The land and its inhabitants were torn to pieces and swallowed by the depths in a few months.”
How account for these two stories – one from Tibet, the other from Central America, each mentioning the same cataclysm and each referring to the land of Mu?
When I throw open all the facts that I have, there will be no mystery about it.
Let me now go back for a moment to that document of my grandfather which I have quoted and which was the basis of my research. After telling of the inscription which he had found in the Dome Tombs of Mycenae, he continued:
“The religion of Egypt was pre-eminently sun worship. Ra was the sun god of the Egyptians. The religion of the Mayas in Central America was the same. Ra-Na was the sun god of the ancient Peruvians.
“My long archeological studies of various nations have proven that all of them show their earliest childhood and maturity. But I have failed to find any traces of a rude and savage Egypt or a rude, barbarous Maya race. I have found both these nations mature in their very earliest period, skilful, strong and learned.
I have never found a time when they lacked in ability to organize their labor nor lacking in ability to dig canals, build highways, pyramids and temples, to irrigate fields nor a time when they did not know medicine, astronomy and the principles of highly organized government.
Like the Mayas the Egyptians practiced monogamy, and they built their cities and temples in the same style, exhibiting a technical knowledge and skill that remains a puzzle to the engineers of this age. Neither Egyptians nor Mayans were a black race.
Both nations had slaves and an intellectual caste, but the relations between the classes were cordial and humane. Their basic principles of government were the same.
“Lepsius found the same sacred symbols in the ceremonials of the Egyptians as in the Peruvians. Le Plongeon, the great French archeologist, recovered at Chichen-Itza in Yucatan the figure of a god who was club-footed and bore in every way the attributes of the great god Thoth, of the Egyptians!
In the Egyptian and the American pyramids the outside was covered with a thick coating of smooth and shining cement of such strength as our builders are unable to get. Humboldt considered the Pyramid of Cholula of the same type as the Temple of Jupiter at Belus.
In both America and Egypt, the pyramids were built in the same style. I have found the pyramids on both sides of the Atlantic with their four sides pointing astronomically like the arms of the cross, in the same directions.
In both the line through their centers is on the astronomical meridian. The construction in grades and steps is the same and in both cases the larger pyramids are dedicated to the sun.”
What the Lost Atlantis is Supposed to Have Been
A GREAT island in the Atlantic opposite the Mediterranean; the remnant of a mighty continent which once reached from the west coast of Africa and Europe to the shores of Central America. The ancient world had a clear tradition of it.
It was utterly destroyed in a day and a nigh by cataclysmic volcanic outbursts and sank beneath the sea with all except a few of its millions of inhabitants.
It was the region where mankind first rose from barbarism to a civilization more advanced than that of ours today.
It became in the course of hundreds of thousands of years a world-conquering nation. It colonized Egypt, the west coast of Africa and Europe, Central America, the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, the Mississippi Valley, the Pacific Coast of South America, the Mediterranean, the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Caspian.
It was the cradle of civilization, and the civilization of the ancient world and our civilization today are direct shoots of the Atlantic culture.
The racial memory of Atlantis is found in the legends of the Garden of Eden of the Bible, the Garden of the Hesperides of the Greeks, the Asgard of the Scandinavians, the Tir n’Og of the Celts and in all the legends of a wonderful, mysterious land in which dwelt gods or godlike mortals.
The stories of the Deluge, versions of which are found in the traditions of almost every ancient and modern race, are simply the memory of the stupendous catastrophe which wiped out Atlantis, the tale of which was carried by those who escaped to all the lost land’s colonies–and these represented all the civilization of the world at that time.
In the same way the escape of some of the Atlanteans over a narrow land bridge, which connected Atlantis with what is now Brittany, survives in the legends of the Rainbow Bridge Perilous with the razor edge which the Scandinavians believed was the only road to Asgard, the dwelling place of the gods, in the famous Hell’s Causeway of the religious books of the Middle Ages and in similar legends of the Hindoos, the Mayans and the Turanians.
The gods and goddesses of the ancient Greeks, the Phoenicians, Hindus and Scandinavians were simply the Kings, Queens and heroes of Atlantis, and the acts attributed to them in mythology are a confused recollection of real historical events.
The religions of Egypt, Peru and that of the Mayans, the vanished race that built the buried cities of Central America, and upon the wrecks of whose civilization the Aztecs built their empire, were the original religion of Atlantis.
The oldest colony formed by Atlantis was Egypt, whose civilization was a provincial reproduction of that of the mother country. The next oldest were those of Peru and Central America.
The Phoenician alphabet, parent of all the European alphabets, was derived from and Atlantis alphabet, which was also conveyed from Atlantis to the Mayans.
The symbols and hieroglyphics of both Egypt and the Mayans came from the same source, and so is explained their similarity, to great to be accidental.
Atlantis was the original site of the Indo-European family of nations, as well as the Semitic and possibly the Turanian.
The Atlanteans had full knowledge of electricity, steam and other natural forces. They had also airplanes, power ships and explosives. They were prodigious engineers and the first workers of iron.
They used gold and silver and a vanished precious metal known as orichalcum in enormous quantities for ornamentation.
Who Dr. Heinrich Schliemann Was and the Treasures He Found
Heinrich Schliemann whose work was to give a new impetus to the study of Greek origins and to be the beginning of the revelation of an unknown world of ancient days, was born at Neu-Bucknow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Germany, on January 6, 1822. He was the son of a country minister.
When he was barely seven years old, he received a child’s history of the world in which the picture of the destruction of Troy made a profound impression on him. At that age he vowed to search those sites when “he was rich.”
By the time he was ten he had produced a prize-winning essay on the Trojan War.
But his father was poor, and Schliemann, for all his dreams, had to work prosaically. In St. Petersburg, during the Crimean War, he married secretly a Russian noblewoman.
Through her he became a buying agent of the Russian army and made a fortune. In 1850 he was forced to leave Russia, came to America, went to California and became an American citizen. He made a second fortune in America, and in 1868 started to Greece to fulfil his ambitions.
Brilliant beyond any other archaeologist of his time, and filled with curious intuitions that ran counter to current beliefs and which were uncanny in their accuracy, he met with instant success. One of his learned compeers has said of him that:
“If it did not seem so absurd, one might say that Schliemann is an incarnation of some ancient Mycenaean, and remembers just where to look.”
At any rate he began to cut the soil from Hissarilk in 1870, and in 1873 he discovered the “Great Treasure of Priam.” It has always been said that Schliemann did not reveal all of this treasure, and this wonderful story of his grandson confirms this.
Schliemann started at the virgin soil, and of course, the first city he found was the oldest. It was in the second city that he fond the treasure. This city he though was ancient Troy. But above this were the remains of seven other cities.
It was afterward proven that the sixth, city above the second was really ancient Troy! The second city was immensely more ancient, and very conservatively, its destruction may be placed at 20,000 B.C.!
It had been a very great city, with Cyclopean architecture and a high grade of civilization. All this is immensely important in view of the announcement of the “Chronos of Atlantis” vase found there. The priests of Sais told Solon that Atlantis had been destroyed 9,000 years before their conversation.
This would seem to prove that the second city of Schliemann was actually the metropolis of an Atlantean colony, and that the mother country was still existing at the time the Treasure was placed in the second city!
A dispute with the Turkish Government over the Treasure stopped his Hissarlik work, and he turned his attention to Mycenae, on the Island of Crete, the historic capital of Agamemnon of the Iliad.
He excavated the wonderful Lion Gate, the famous Shaft Tombs and Dome Tombs, but not till now has the news of the Atlantean inscription he found in the Dome Tombs been made public. He found, too, in the Shaft Tombs the most remarkable hoard of treasure that ever greeted the eye of a discoverer.
In them was gold in profusion. It was beaten into face masks and wrought into hundreds of articles.
It can be said that in this treasure were other vastly more precious objects having a direct bearing upon Atlantis, which Dr. Schliemann kept secret, as he had his discoveries in the second city. What these were will be told in due time by his grandson.
The other extraordinary discoveries of Dr. Schliemann in Crete can be found in the records. In 1890 he died.
This brief sketch is necessary to explain how great and authority and discoverer was the man whose grandson speaks in these pages, and to show upon what real foundations this article, whose astonishing claims are bound to raise some incredulity, is based.
Secrets of the Forbidden City are being solved by modern archaeologists
If we compare the millennia during which palaces were built and restored in China with an epic novel, then the Forbidden City in Beijing is its last impressive chapter.
An exhibition celebrating the 600th anniversary of the completion of the Forbidden City opened in Beijing on September 10. Photo: Jiang Dong / CHINA DAILY
The previous pages of this story, although no less amazing, were partially or even almost completely lost during the rise and fall of dynasties and turned into ruins, similar to archaeological puzzles. Experts are still solving them. However, in the heart of Beijing, there is a 720,000-square-meter palace complex built of wood and clay bricks – the last surviving structure of its kind in the world. This area, which served as an imperial palace from 1420 to 1911 and where 24 emperors once lived, celebrates 600 years since the completion of construction this year.
In honor of this event, the Umen Gate galleries at the entrance to the Imperial Palace Museum became a kind of lobby, where visitors to the exhibition “Eternal Splendor: Six Centuries in the Forbidden City” enter. It will run until November 15th.
“There is so much that has happened in 600 years that can be said,” says Zhao Peng, director of the museum’s architectural heritage department and chief curator of the exhibition. “It is best to focus on the ‘city’ itself, that is, on architecture: to understand how this place was formed and modified … This is the crystallized wisdom and talent of the ancient Chinese. “
Yet it is not easy to select just 450 items, including structural elements and imperial relics, to reveal a panorama of such architectural splendor. In order to chronologically show how the complex originated, expanded and developed with the help of the exhibits, 18 significant years were selected from the entire centuries-old history.
“These time periods help to see a fuller historical picture,” Zhao says.
In 1406, Zhu Di, the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), proposed to move the capital from Nanjing (today it is the administrative center of Jiangsu Province) to Beijing in order to better guard the northern borders. Zhu Di himself lived in Beijing as a prince.The Forbidden City was built according to rules derived from centuries of Chinese history.
The construction was completed in 1420, after almost ten years of preparation and three years of active work. The following year, the capital was officially moved to Beijing.
“A striking feature of the Forbidden City is how, despite the changing eras, certain architectural forms are strictly adhered to,” Zhao says. “This reflects traditional Chinese thought that emphasizes the importance of ritual and harmony between people and the sky.”
The Forbidden City was built according to rules derived from centuries of Chinese history. The exhibition presents “Notes on the Study of Crafts” (Kaogongji) – a treatise that spells out the basics of building a palace. It was published during the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 BC) and is part of the classic Chinese work Zhou Rituals (Zhouli) on rituals and notions of order.
“Notes on the Study of Crafts” regulate the symmetrical layouts of the capital cities, in the center of which on the north-south axis should be a palace. The historic districts of modern Beijing, including the Forbidden City, fully comply with this rule.
“Finally, this ideal layout, which has been guided for nearly 2,000 years, has been faithfully embodied in Beijing,” Zhao says.
Following the rituals is reflected in the architectural details.
For example, only the roof of the Hall of Higher Harmony – the most prestigious structure in the palace, where the most important ceremonies took place – can be decorated with ten figures of deified beings. The simpler the roof is decorated, the lower the status of the building.
The Hall of Supreme Harmony also has 11 rooms – more than any other building in the complex. (In ancient Chinese architecture, a room was a square space between four columns.)
Roof shape is another important indicator by which you can determine the status of a building. For example, the roof of the Hall of Higher Harmony is four-pitched and two-tier, its ends protrude and bend upwards. Only buildings of the highest status can have such a roof.
In 1734, Emperor Yongzheng of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) issued an official guide to the construction of palaces. The book, which is over 2,700 pages, spells out all the architectural criteria, including the size of the columns and the decoration of the roofs. According to Zhao, this is an important milestone in the history of the fusion of rituals with Chinese architecture.
The Forbidden City in Beijing has two older brothers. When Zhu Yuanzhang founded the Ming Dynasty and became emperor, he made the capital of his hometown, which is today in Fengyang County, Anhui Province. However, the construction of a huge palace complex for unknown reasons suddenly stopped, and Zhu Yuanzhang decided to build an imperial city in Nanjing.
Both imperial cities fell into ruins, but some important details have survived to this day, such as stone fences and tiles in the galleries of the Umen Gate. They help to imagine what the early architecture of the Forbidden City might have looked like.
“The original appearance of buildings can often be seen in the paintings,” says the deputy director of the architectural heritage department of the museum, Di Yajing.
No matter how the new emperors followed the precepts of their ancestors, it is clear that they wanted to decorate their new home. “The Ming emperors preferred simple yet stately architecture, and therefore large buildings were built during their reign,” Di says. “However, the Qing emperors tended to be more sophisticated.”To understand whether the pictures correspond to historical reality, you need to conduct additional checks
Sometimes this was a forced decision, since it was difficult to find giant pieces of valuable timber to renovate the palace. However, the Qing emperors demonstrated their wealth and status with handicrafts of the most skillful work. Thanks to Emperor Qianlong (1711-1799), who adored fine arts, this trend reached its peak. In 1766, he ordered the construction of the Palace of Serenity and Longevity in the Forbidden City, where he planned to live after leaving the throne. The garden of this palace has become a real treasure trove of exceptional decorative objects.
The lacquered gauze fabric, which used to be placed on the window, allows visitors to appreciate its uniqueness, because the garden has never been opened to the public before. The decor of this silk combines techniques such as paper cutting, gilding, dyeing and varnishing. This means that several artisans worked on its creation at once. 12-ply fabric is paper thin.
“We tried to replicate this decor, but even modern manufacturing techniques did not help us,” Dee says. “This lost technique reminds us that cultural heritage must be carefully preserved.”
Complex renovation of the main buildings of the complex has been going on since 2002. Although it was originally planned to be completed by a round date this year, in the end the architects decided not to rush to complete the work with full responsibility and respect for history.
From “living” runes to a hologram. Ancient technologies are making a comeback
Human civilization develops thanks to accumulated knowledge. Without knowledge and experience, there is no movement forward to progress. People make discoveries, bring them to life and pass this information on to subsequent generations. The most faithful and reliable storage is memory. But, unfortunately, it is limited to the framework of one human life or generation.
Therefore, in past centuries, when people were closer to each other, the continuity of generations was maintained. Wisdom was passed down orally: from grandfather to father, from father to son. So, epics and legends were composed. The image embedded in them was able to live for centuries. After all, only that which is felt is remembered. All events in the senses are imprinted with all the multifaceted connections.
We can say that feeling is a kind of “hard drive” that is turned on with the help of a computer brain.
In that distant era, when our ancestors lived in harmony with themselves and nature, they had developed imaginative thinking. Sounds had a special meaning because they created reality. But the means for transmitting information or extracting it from the past were musical instruments. Each of them had its own purpose. With the help of some, people remembered their past lives, others were introduced into an altered state of consciousness, in which it was possible to perform miracles.
Various folk tales have preserved the legends of “magic words” that open doors and launch flying ships. The Byzantine chronicles say how the northern people came to negotiations without weapons, holding only a folk psaltery in their hands. The sounds drawn from the strings decided the outcome of the negotiations.
Runes – the first material carrier
At this level of interaction with information, any drawn symbol had a magical effect. The ancestors called these signs – Runes. Not everyone could “work” with them. Due to the ability to materialize thoughts instantly, only initiates had access to them. For everyday needs, they used features and cuts that did not have such tremendous power. As the spiritual decline and loss of skills, it was necessary to create books, but they were so amazing that for a modern person they seem completely fantastic.
Ancient stereo books
These were ordinary pre-Christian books, which were then burned as a devilish “black book”. Although they had nothing to do with the devilry. Their whole secret was the ability of our ancestors to use bioenergetics.
Such books have been carefully crafted for centuries. Every detail of her material had to have certain physical qualities.
The text of the future book was first written down with a metal stylus on wax-covered boards, where any corrections could be made. It is impossible to write straight away. Trying to accurately convey his thought, the author “runs after her”, not worrying about spelling. The well-known expression “to spread the thought along the tree” comes from there.
Nevertheless, the main thing in the creation of the book was not the author, but a scribe who would have had imagination and such body cells that emit bioenergy. In this case, all the pictures that appear in his imagination, together with the biocurrents, are absorbed into the parchment as on a film strip. The effect of titles is created, as if hanging in the air between a person and those living pictures that the suede parchment has absorbed. For these purposes, it was manufactured in a special way. As well as cinnabar for writing.
Then the sheets of parchment were stitched like modern thick notebooks with a metal spiral on the spine. The cover was made of bog oak boards. Its name was engraved on the cover. To make it better read, silver and niello were poured into the grooves of the letters. At the same time, the same massive oak-copper case was made for the book, closed with copper clasps.
Incredibly, the natural ingredients and techniques used in this book produced a 3D effect. The only difference is that a modern person needs special glasses, and our ancestors developed such abilities. It’s just that some could emit biocurrents, while others perceive them. In short, living people were transmitters and receivers.
Gold and stone discs – the prototype of modern discs
In addition to such wonderful books, there were also discs that contained a huge layer of information in a compressed form. Perhaps they are “read” in the same way as “miracle books”, but it is possible that there was a certain computer into which these disks could be inserted.
In any case, according to the first version, attempts were made to decipher the Phaistos disc, a phenomenon that made a lot of noise at one time. It was discovered that the disc contains layered information. It cannot be read like an ordinary letter.
The hologram is the library of the future
With the advent of Christianity, all ancient knowledge and skills were declared devilish, and the possessors of these abilities were witches and sorcerers. Both books and people were burning in the bonfires. In order to preserve the rest, the manuscripts were rewritten, but already in an ordinary linear letter. Of course, distortions were inevitable and the picture of past events, presented in this way, did not correspond to reality.
Pen books have proven to be a rather primitive way of conveying information. Although, for many centuries, they remained a guiding thread for knowledge. And yet, as we can see, important discoveries were and are being made as a result of practical research, often thanks to insight, which proves the existence of an information field, from where you can get the necessary information.
Now, humanity is approaching again the stage when the need for the usual carriers of information will disappear. Everything will be transferred to a virtual memory base. But if earlier holograms were created and accepted by people themselves, now machines will do it for us.
In the event of another disaster, we will lose access to the electronic library. And then everything will have to start over. And our descendants, just like we are now, will believe that at this period people were illiterate, because they did not have a written language …
What secrets and mysteries of Angkor baffle modern scientists?
Angkor was discovered in the Cambodian jungle by French naturalist Henri Muo in 1861. Almost 160 years have passed, and the mysterious city has not yet revealed its secrets to us.
Angkor is not only numerous temple complexes, among which Angkor Wat is the most famous. But there are also huge hydraulic structures of ideally verified shapes and gigantic dimensions. These are ditches with water surrounding each complex, and huge reservoirs – “man-made seas” – barai , and the famous river in the valley of a thousand lingams.
The view of Angkor from space resembles a plan-drawing perfectly calculated and executed by an engineer-architect. Historians cannot explain how the Khmers managed to “bring to life” such a grandiose plan in the 9th-12th centuries, while maintaining strict geometry. The lines are well-parallel for over 8 km, and all angles are straight. It was simply impossible to do this in those days with those instruments.
Angkor has been studied not only by historians and archaeologists, but also by enthusiastic researchers, including those from the Laboratory of Alternative History. And they came to the conclusion that the ancient architects either built the structures of Angkor using the preserved secret knowledge and technologies, or restored and completed what they inherited from more ancient civilizations.
According to legend, the capital of the Khmer state was founded in a different place, but the astrologers indicated where to build the city.
Many sources mention the correspondence of the location of the temples of Angkor to the constellation of the Dragon , and in the position in which the stars were twelve and a half thousand years ago. The Bayon Temple , according to legend, symbolizes the heart of the Dragon.
Why, in the 9th-12th centuries, correlate buildings with the most ancient map of the sky? And how could they know about her? This, perhaps, confirms the hypothesis of the creation of the city on the already existing foundations left over from prehistoric civilization.
In addition, most of the temples of Angkor are designed as five-step pyramids. And the pyramids around the world were built at a much earlier period than the officially accepted dating of Angkor Wat.
All the temples of Angkor are oriented with front facades along the north-south line. The main entrance to all the temples is on the east side, and only Ankor-Wat, according to legend, being built as a place where King Suryavarman II was to be reborn, has a western entrance.
The moat around the temple complex raises many questions. This is a real hydraulic engineering miracle, the construction of which required the deepest knowledge in many fields of science.
The channel was “calculated” and built in the shortest possible time. Before starting the construction of the foundation of buildings. And the complex itself was under construction for about 35 years, which is extremely short, given the huge amount of work and the primitive level of technology (according to official science).
A number of towers and temples reach a height of 60 meters, this is the height of a twenty-story building. In the modern world, such structures are presented as high-rise objects of increased complexity. The foundations of such structures are performed on a pile foundation using sophisticated construction equipment.
According to the research carried out , the soil was dug out under the complex and sand was poured, which was carefully tamped. A layer of soil was laid on it, or, as modern builders say, backfill soil, and then another layer of compacted sand. Or, in modern construction language, preparation has been made for the base of a floating foundation.
This technology began to be applied in practice only in the 70s of the last century. Until now, they try to install high-rise buildings on a pile foundation, since they cannot foresee all the nuances.
And the ancient builders could. Apparently, they had a lot of experience (or possessed some knowledge) of erecting high-rise buildings and structures on floating foundations in tropical conditions.
It is also striking with what precision the ancient builders adjusted and processed stone blocks. And they did it easily, without thinking about the size and shape.
There are also quite large blocks with polygonal masonry , typical of the ancient structures of South America.
In the temples of Angkor there are columns of different quality. Some show traces of processing on some kind of machine, as suggested by alternative researchers.
But not only the temple complexes of Angkor are surprising.
Valley of a Thousand Lingams – Kbal Spien River
For example, the river Kbal Spien , which originates in the mountains and reaches Angkor. The entire river bed is lined with stone slabs with lingams carved on them.
The Khmers believed that the lingas (lingams) fertilized and purified the water that irrigated the rice fields. It was believed that it was because of this that the Khmer empire had rich harvests and flourished.
It is believed that the construction of Qbal Spien was started by King Suryavarman I (1001/06 – 1050). and later finished by King Udayadityavarman II . (1049/50 – 1066)
The researchers were interested in this fact. The length of the river channels is about nine kilometers. To accomplish such a task, it is necessary to run the river along a different channel, scoop out all the silt, light fractions along the entire length of the river and to the entire depth of river sediments, then add an unthinkable amount of sand and lay on top not just sandstone slabs, but decorated with bas-reliefs.
This requires special hydrotechnical knowledge and a huge number of working hands.
The Qbal Spien bed is covered with thousands of images of lingams, which are arranged in even rows. Alternative researchers believe that the lingams worshiped in Hinduism are in fact the oldest artifacts – the legacy of prehistoric civilization. And the purpose of the lingams was not religious and cult, but quite technological, as evidenced by its unusual design.
So, it is likely that the lingams of the Kbal Spien River performed some kind of technical function, which gave the water flowing through them special properties.
Is Kohker a “pyramid of death”?
90 km from Angkor there is a very unusual place called Kahkay or Kohker. This ancient temple complex. Of the surviving buildings in Kahkai: the Prasattom pyramid temple. It is seven-step, 32 m high and 55 m long, reminiscent of the stepped pyramids of South America.
The Garuda , carved into the stone block, guards the top of the pyramid. Henri Parmentier , a French architect, historian and archaeologist, estimates that the colossal lingam, which, according to the inscriptions, was erected at the top, reached at least 4 meters in height and weighed 24 tons.
According to legend, one of the rulers of Angkor was the sorcerer king – Jayavarman IV. It is believed that he erected this pyramid in one night.
In 921, Jayavarman IV laid claim to the kingdom and then left the capital and decided to create his own center of power. About 10,000 supporters fled with him, including women and children.
In 928, Jayavarman IV became the sole ruler of the Khmer Empire, but did not return to Angor. He died in 941, and Kahkay was the capital of the Khmer Empire until 944.
The most amazing thing is that in the Kohker area, archaeologists found an inscription carved on a stone, which indicates the exact date of illumination of the main lingam at the top of the pyramid – December 12, 921, at 8:47 am (translated from the ancient Hindu chronology). And Jayavarman IV came here just a few days before that date.
Experts cannot explain how this is possible. Clear the site from the jungle, cut down huge stone blocks, process, deliver and lay in the masonry walls, raising them to a height of 30 meters, and all this in one night?
Official science does not study this issue, and ancient legends give their explanation for this.
In the 9th century, a certain nobleman of non-royal blood lived at the court, who married a woman from the royal family. He practiced witchcraft and communicated with the demon of the underworld, which helped the nobleman become king – Jayavarman IV.
Legend says that Jayavarman IV turned to a certain “architect” for help, who was able to create a pyramid overnight using a magic tool. Sources call this weapon “white fire”. They could whip enemies at a distance.
Legend also says that Jayavarman IV made sacrifices to this demon by throwing people into a deep well in the Kohker pyramid. Since then, it is believed that the pyramid is the gateway to the demon world. Locals call it the “pyramid of death” and do not like it.
Scientists are still exploring the jungle around Angkor and discovering new complexes . Since they are all covered with thickets, it is very difficult to explore them.
But everything discovered only confirms the hypothesis that Angkor was built in the deepest antiquity by some highly developed civilization. And its creation is unsubstantiatedly attributed to the Khmers, just as the construction of a grandiose monument in Baalbek is attributed to the Romans. The Khmer Empire was only completing and restoring the prehistoric heritage that it inherited.
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