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Has dark matter finally been found? ‘Big news coming soon’, say scientists

The mysterious substance has teased physicists for decades, challenging the very notions of the cosmos.
But now, with the help of a multi-billion-dollar tool, the American Association for the Advancement of Science has coyly teased they may have finally solved one of the biggest puzzles in the universe.
Exciting developments in the search for dark matter may be coming in a matter of weeks, the leader of a space-based particle physics experiment has said.

“We are so excited because we believe we are on the threshold of a major discovery,” said Michael Turner, director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, at an annual conference.
“On the cosmology side we now understand that this mysterious dark matter holds together our galaxy and the rest of the universe,” said Turner.
The first paper of results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) – a $2billion particle collector mounted on the outside of the International Space Station – will be submitted to a scientific journal soon, MIT physicist Samuel Ting added.

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Science & Technology

Abnormal particles whose origin remains inexplicable

Photo: Icecube / NSF

An international team of scientists has detected abnormal particles whose origin remains inexplicable. The discovery, which can refute modern ideas about particle physics, is reported in a preprint published in the arXiv.org repository .

Researchers have discovered several neutrino candidates using ANITA atmospheric probes (Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna). Two of the three events, which are interpreted as tau neutrinos, turned out to be associated with the atmospheric shower of high-energy particles that arose during the interaction of the Earth’s atmosphere with tau leptons. The latter flew out of the core of the Earth, with which tau neutrinos interacted, which came from the other side of the planet.

The third possible neutrino was found during the search for the Askaryan effect – radiation that occurs when particles at light speeds pass through the Earth’s substance. However, scientists also did not exclude that this event is associated with background radiation.

Physicists tested the hypothesis that all recorded neutrinos were of cosmic origin and originated in natural accelerators (for example, blazars). In this case, a secondary stream of low-energy neutrinos should have arisen, to which IceCube detectors with certain characteristics are sensitive. The data collected by the under-ice neutrino observatory over seven years were analyzed, but no signs of such a flow were found.

High-energy neutrinos were first detected by IceCube detectors in 2013. It is believed that part of these particles is born from the interaction of cosmic rays and matter (or radiation fields) in the vicinity of natural cosmic accelerators. Another type of high-energy neutrino occurs when cosmic rays interact with the cosmic microwave background. These particles pass through the Earth from all directions in a uniform flow.

According to scientists, the origin of the recorded neutrino candidates cannot be explained within the Standard Model. In the case of a uniform flow, ANITA was supposed to record similar events from different viewing angles. No possible neutrino source was also found in the direction for the neutrino candidate resulting from the proposed Askarian effect. However, these anomalies can be explained by new physics, which suggests the presence of axionic and heavy dark matter, sterile neutrinos, and supersymmetries.

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Video: Researchers in the US created the first live robots

Researchers in the US have announced that they have created tiny living machines, a kind of biological robot that can be programmed to perform various tasks, from transporting medicines into the body to cleaning up toxic waste in the environment.

Artificial biological organisms (called xenobots) were created from living cells obtained from frog embryos, designed on a supercomputer, and then assembled into completely new millimeters of life. They can move on their own to a goal and self-heal after a cut.

The researchers, led by robotics professor Joshua Bogard of the Department of Computer Science at the University of Vermont, published this in the journal of the US National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). “These are innovative living machines. They are neither traditional robots nor any known species of animal. It is a new category of creation: a living programmable organization, “said Bongard.

“We can imagine various useful applications of these living robots, which other machines cannot do, such as dispatching in radioactive contaminated environments, collecting ocean-going microplastics, or cleaning the interior of arteries from the atherosclerotic plaque ,” Mike Levin said, director of the Center for Renaissance and Developmental Biology at Tufts University, according to the Athens News Agency.

Some artificial organisms have been created in recent years, but now, for the first time, according to researchers, “completely biological machines have been designed from scratch.” A special evolutionary artificial intelligence algorithm has helped to create and test thousands of candidate designs for new forms of life, until the best possible one is found. A supercomputer – led by the algorithm – has assembled again and again several hundred simulated cells, creating various test shapes and body shapes.

After the creation plan was finally selected, embryos from the embryos of the African frogs Xenopus laevis (hence the name xenobot) were used as raw material, which were microscopically assembled on the basis of the proposed computer design. Thus were created forms of life that do not exist in nature and are capable of moving on their own.

Just as some animals in nature can regenerate their cut parts, so too can the xenobot restore its integrity. “We cut the biological robot almost in the middle, but it reattached its two parts and kept moving. This is something that typical engines cannot do, “Bogard said.

“From a cellular and genetic point of view, xenobots are frogs. Their DNA is 100% derived from frogs, although they are not frogs. So one wonders what else these cells can make, “Levin said.

The groundbreaking research is funded through the Lifelong Learning Engines program by the now-existing US Pentagon’s Advanced Defense Research Programs Service (DARPA), which is apparently also monitoring military applications.

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Lithium sulfide battery: up to 5 days without charging the mobile

Technology has made great strides in relation to rechargeable batteries, and now a lithium sulfide battery allows you to use the mobile for up to five days without charging.

It is very certain that at home you have many devices that use batteries, and because of that the industry is investing millions of dollars in improving their performance.

A team of researchers from the Monash University has submitted a lithium sulfide battery which lasts for up to 5 days without recharging

When it comes to smartphones, even the high-end ones offer only between 4 and 8 hours of battery use, and without use they can last several days.

Now, the new development can improve not only the efficiency of the batteries, it also provides greater security and provides better performance to our electronic devices.

Lithium sulfide battery

It has been developed in Australia, and its creators say it lasts up to 120 hours of use, which indicates that we can use it for more than a week on the mobile without recharging it.

Lithium sulfide battery: up to 5 days without charging the mobile

In addition, the researchers suggest that if they aew applied to electric cars, you could have autonomies of more than 1,000 kilometers.

For its development, the same materials of a standard battery of lithium are used, but a reconfiguration was made in the design of the sulfur cathodes that allow to bear larger loads without losing performance or capacity.

This modification provides at least four times greater performance than the batteries we currently use, and they are also friendly to the environment.

Improve load and stability

An unexpected factor in the design of the new battery was inspired by a method used for the first time to create powder detergent in the 70s.

This method allows to generate links between particles that better distribute the charge and offer stability not seen so far in other batteries.

Associate professor Matthew Hill, Dr. Mahdokht Shaibani and the teacher Mainak Majumder With the design of the lithium sulfide battery. Credit: Monash University

In addition, the new batteries are manufactured at a low cost, and use materials that are abundant and not so complicated to obtain.

The researchers already patented their invention and begin the manufacturing process. It should be noted that the prototypes have been successfully tested in Germany.

Now the demand for these batteries has increased, mainly in China and Europe, and even the Australian government has financed the company with 2.5 million dollars to be tested on cars and the use of electrical networks.

Will they be accessible to everyone? We hope so. Taking into account their low manufacturing cost, and their manufacturing will soon begin, it is possible that in a few years we can enjoy many hours of using our devices without having to charge them.

Source: Monash University

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