A place in southeastern Turkey, on the Syrian border, has been amazed in recent years by archaeological discoveries that change the way we look at people who lived 10,000 years ago. In the Gobekli Tepe site, stone poles of tens of weight were found in large circles and sculpted. And everything dates back 11,500 years ago, the sanctuary being, apparently, built by hunters who did not know the wheel, neither the writing, nor the pottery, nor did they practice agriculture. Far from being a myth, Gobekli Tepe has been accepted by specialists, but its significance raises controversy, and many challenge the radical changes proposed by new discoveries.
Gobekli Tepe in Turkey is the oldest architectural complex on the planet. Surprisingly, it began to be carefully researched barely 20 years ago.
It can hardly be categorized in any way, for a simple reason: no one has any idea who built it, how – and especially – why. In this article we present some fascinating things about Gobekli Tepe.
As much as we would have liked to come up with answers in this article, the Gobekli Tepe topic actually forced us to ask more questions about the history we learned at school.
In S-E Turkey, a few tens of km from the Syrian border and near a town called Sanliurfa, a hill has attracted archaeologists since the ’70s, mostly by a large amount of limestone found there.
In 1994, when a German archaeologist, Klaus Schmidt was amazed at a large number of pieces of crema found and he realized that in ancient times there were many people working on building something big.
He decided to start digging and the first stone poles with bas-reliefs that showcased different animals: foxes, scorpions, savages, and birds.
From here, a stunning story has begun, and we now know from geomagnetic research that there are 20 circles made up of stone poles that reach more than 5 meters high and 15 tonnes in weight.
The striking aspect is that it all dates from 10,000 to 11,500 years ago, thousands of years before Stonehenge, the Egyptian Pyramids, and the invention of writing.
Schmidt, who discovered the site and supervised the work for nearly 20 years, died in the summer of 2014, but his theories questioned how we see the beginnings of complex civilizations that could have been spurred by religion, and not the economy.
The Official Version of Archeology.
According to the archaeologists, the population of Gobekli Tepe was organized into groups of hundreds of hunters that mainly caught Antilopinae. These people built a monument believed to be 6,500 years older than Stonehenge and about 7,000 years older than the Egyptian pyramids.
Created by unknown builders, Gobekli Tepe is proof of the existence of a sophisticated society on Earth, 12,000 years ago. But how many thousands of years have these people been on the planet when they created Gobekli Tepe? There is still no answer to this question.
Gobekli Tepe is at a distance of nearly 10 kilometers from Urfa, an ancient city in Turkey. It is one of the most important archaeological sites on the planet, in the vicinity of the mythological “Gardens of Eden” and near the parallel of 33 degrees.
Until today, the experts have not discovered who has built this wonderful massive complex, which seems from another world. Gobekli Tepe is considered the first temple on earth. A large part of the complex is still underground.
Gobekli Tepe, a 12,000-year-old riddle
Who built it has made colossal efforts to ensure that the monument will survive for thousands of years. The builders used a simple as an idea method, so exhausting to put into practice. They stamped everything with the ground …
Gobekli Tepe was first researched – and then totally ignored – by anthropologists at the University of Chicago and the University of Istanbul in the 1960s. Researchers thought the mound was just an abandoned medieval cemetery.
Archaeologists have spoken, including the theory that Gobekli Tepe was a place of burial. However, there was no tomb found in the area.
Gobekli Tepe is sometimes called “Stonehenge of the Desert”. The complex consists of a series of oval and circular stone structures built on the top of a hill.
Archaeologists believe that the whole complex was built 12,000 years ago. However, they have no explanation for the existence of an advanced culture in Upper Mesopotamia at the end of the last ice age.
It is supposed that, at that time, the planet was inhabited by hunter-gatherer communities trying to survive in very severe climatic conditions.
Since the rediscovery of the Gobekli Tepe complex (after nearly 50 years of abandonment), the first site excavations were made by Professor Klaus Schmidt of the German Institute of Archeology in 1995.
Until now, excavation and geomagnetic analysis results have shown that there are at least 20 temples – circular structures – in the area.
All stone pillars at Gobekli Tepe are built in the shape of the letter “T”. Monoliths have heights between 3 and 6 meters and weigh 60 tons each.
Even with today’s technology, it would be very difficult to move and assemble these monoliths.
Researchers have calculated that about 500 people would have needed to handle these enormous posts.
But in a world of chaos where every “semi-savage” individual struggled to survive, how – and by whom – were these people organized?
It remains a total mystery as to how the ancient people could carry out such a monumental project with all that this effort implied: carving the stone, finishing the strands, transporting and assembling them, and later closing the complex with the earth.
It seems absurd and frustrating, but we do not know anything else about complexity. We only know: someone from the night of history built it, and then buried it.
Archaeologists claim that, in order to complete the Gobekli Tepe project, there were stoned craftsmen, people with knowledge of the transport of heavyweights, planners, and priests, who carried out and supervised rituals.
What kind of rituals? Here’s another unanswered question. This whole system of organization exists 12,000 years ago – proves the Gobekli Tepe complex.
The builders of this magnificent place must have been part of an advanced society with complex hierarchical relationships, but about which we do not know anything today. The theory has been advanced that the “T” -like pillars are stylized human beings, especially since they each depict human extremities (hands, feet).
Besides, there were several strange signs carved on the pillars. These are foxes, snakes, boars, cranes and wild ducks. They appear to be real or mythological animals and stars and planets.
What’s stranger is that some of the artifacts found in the area are very much like ancient objects in South America (Peru, Bolivia), Asia (Indonesia), and Easter Island.
Gobekli Tepe was built very … strange. The first pillars were seated on a straight square platform. A mound of earth was built over them, over which other structures were laid, for two thousand years.
The final layer, which covered everything like a capsule, supports the last stone structures.
These were made more rudimentary than those buried in the earth. As if the first people were more technologically advanced than those who built the last stage of the Gobekli Tepe project.
The irregular, puzzle-shaped walls of blocks weighing more than 20 tons each have a unique style that was thought to be specific to lost civilizations in South America.
The irregular, puzzle-shaped walls of blocks weighing more than 20 tons each have a unique style that was thought to be specific to lost civilizations in South America.
This until similar structures began to be observed in Italy, Easter Island, Egypt, but also in Greece, Albania, Saudi Arabia and Japan.
Even if they were built thousands of years and thousands of miles away, the special architectural pattern that all these walls follow is the same, unmistakable.
It is also the most difficult in the world. And that’s because each stone place has to be carved with great precision so that all the pieces fit perfectly, in an absolutely unique layout.
Laboratory tests have shown that such walls resist even the most powerful earthquakes. Moreover, it has been found that if they are subject to seismic shocks, the walls “gather,” all the pieces behave as a unitary, organic ensemble.
The need to believe in the gods was before anything else
Schmidt’s theory overthrow the rooted theory that first people became sedentary, specialized in agriculture, organized in complex settlements and only then built sanctuaries.
Gobekli Tepe would be a proof that the need to believe in gods and divine them was before agriculture and people with rudimentary means built fantastic efforts on the complex.
An agricultural revolution has changed everything. 10,000 years ago there was a transition from “wild” to “domesticated” cereals, grown in an organized and cared way. In wild cereals, the production was small because the beans shriveled from the spice immediately after baking and the harvest were impossible.
Organically harvested cereals are possible and farmers could take advantage of their work.
After the end of the last ice age, over 11,000 years ago, it is believed that people “domesticated” the animals and plants and settled in villages that had more than 500 inhabitants. After these developments, religion emerged from the need for social cohesion.
Gobekli Tepe proposes a completely different theory: immediately after the climatic conditions improved, people felt the need to create the first forms of spirituality and built sanctuaries.
According to the theory, from the need to nourish the people who came to the sanctuary began to domesticate the animals and create an organized agriculture.
The theory of the first temple built by hunters-martyrs was challenged, the most vocal being a Canadian anthropologist on the E.B. Banning, who says that 11 years ago, Gobekli Tepe was a covered home site where people held magic and religious rituals.
Banning says that the people of those times did not need a special temple because they could combine the sacred and the profane in the place where they took their daily lives. He also says that it is very possible for the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe to have practiced agriculture at an early stage, so they had a safe source of food.
It is impossible to reconcile the two theories and so few traces of ten millennia ago that certainties cannot be found.
But it is certain that the monumental rings are 6,000 years older than Stonehenge and 7,000 than the pyramids. And although the “father” of the site, Klaus Schmidt, died this summer, digging is continued by Lee Clare, who says the site is more fascinating because it puts more questions than answers. “Some had 30, 40 or 50 tons, probably carrying them on the logs.
Clare says that those who made these constructions were specialists of their time and had to be fed, so domestic animals and the cultivation of cereals must have been a consequence of what is happening in the sanctuary.
1000 Pillar Temple – Impossible Ancient Technology Found
Today we are going to look at one of the strangest ancient sites in India – this is the Thousand Pillar Temple which is at least 750 years old. On first sight, it looks like a regular temple, but there is something fundamentally different about this temple, because there are no visible joints at all between the stone blocks in the walls of this temple.
This is a large temple, but look carefully as I go from the ground to the top, do you see any joints? This makes people wonder if this entire temple is made of one solid rock, like the Kailasa Temple, but archeologists confirm that it is in fact made of many many blocks of stone.
In 1300 A.D , an army of the Muslim King Allauddin Khalji tried to demolish this temple, and they took out many of the stone blocks from the ground and the ceiling, because it was easier to dismantle them, but they could not dismantle the blocks on the walls. If you look at the floor, these are newer stone slabs placed by the Archeology department, and you can see how these blocks are loosely connected.
If you compare the modern day stone masonry with the ancient technique, modern technology appears quite primitive, because you can clearly see the joints. The archeology department has been trying to restore the temple from the destruction and graffiti by Allauddin Khalji’s army.
Now, why is this temple called ‘The thousand pillar temple’? Most visitors wonder why this is known as the thousand pillar temple because it doesn’t have a thousand pillars. It is called so because it is made of one thousand blocks of stone, this is the actual reason why this name is used. But even in most sophisticated temples like the Lepakshi temple, we can see clear evidence of joints between the blocks, but in this temple, the joints are not visible.
What is fascinating is that there was no cement, mortar, or glue used to join these blocks. How did ancient builders achieve such an extraordinary level of jointing, many centuries ago? What kind of technology existed and how was such a temple built?
The underlying technology is this:
Ancient builders created a complex interlocking system with at least a dozen different cuts in each stone block. These complex cuts maximize the amount of surface area shared by the connecting blocks, and will create an extremely tight fit.
This is hard enough to do between 2 stone blocks, but imagine using several stone blocks on all sides and how many cuts would have been needed to connect 4 or 5 blocks together. I mean, this is just an extraordinary technology. This can be done on wood, but how did they manage to make these cuts on large stone blocks many centuries ago? Making these cuts is one thing, but the level of precision, to make these joints invisible can be achieved only with advanced machines.
We can clearly see that building a massive temple with no visible joints is impossible with primitive tools. Did ancient builders use cutting, drilling and polishing tools, just like today? If so, do we have any evidence of these tools in the temple itself?
How about these carvings which resemble modern drilling and polishing tools? In most temples, we usually see carvings of Gods, but in this temple, we can see these tool like carvings, with a conical, striated top with a long shaft, which is remarkably similar to modern day tool bits.
Just compare these carvings with today’s tool bits side by side. You have to admit there is an uncanny similarity. Is this a coincidence, or did ancient builders use tool bits just like us, to make these precise interlocking system?
The pillars in the temple confirm that drilling machines were in fact used. There are very tiny holes drilled on these pillars. My friend is struggling to send a thread through the small holes, but these holes are too small even for a thread. The priest is happy to help us, he picks up something thinner than a thread and inserts it successfully through these holes.
If you think these carvings are not drill bits, how do you explain such tiny holes carved on the pillars? How do you explain the construction of an entire temple with no visible joints? Were they created with advanced machines, or with simple tools like chisels and hammers?
1,000-Year-Old Mammoth Bone Pendant With A Mysterious Message In Turkic Runes Discovered In Yakutia
An 11-year-old boy in the village of Yakutia has discovered a 1,000-year-old message on a pendant that was carved into a mammoth bone with Turkic runic inscriptions.
The four mysterious words are believed to be in the Orkhon-Yenisei type script. Such writings are normally found in rock art in Yakutia, also known as Sakha Republic, the world’s coldest region.
Academic Ninel Malysheva said: ‘Runes rarely occur on such things as talismans and amulets. ‘If it is confirmed that this bone found in Namsky district is genuine, it will be a great scientific discovery for the republic. ‘A comprehensive study is now required involving paleontologists, archaeologists and Turkologist. Studies on exact dating and decoding the inscription are underway at the Museum of Writing, part of the North-Eastern Federal University (NEFU).
Photo © Michil Yakovlev (Image Source)
Photo ©Michil Yakovlev (Image Source)
One of the earliest recorded Turkic language is in the form of a script called “Turkic Runes”, found in Russia’s southern Siberia and the Xinjiang uygur Autonomous Region of China (a region not surprisingly also known as Chinese Turkestan) beginning at around the 8th century CE.
Example of Turkic runes. “Irk Bitig Fal Kitabı” page 7. 9th century. ©The International Dunhuang Project (Image Source)
What are the four mysterious words?
One theory is that the words express ‘good wishes’, but scientists hope to find the exact meaning.
Village where the ancient pendant was discovered is some 100 kilometres north of Yakutsk, the regional capital, and the world’s coldest city. Another example of Turkic runes in Yaktutia is the so-called Petrov inscription. It is a writing made using ocher some 200 km from Yakutsk. It is known as the most northerly rune inscription in the world.
Researchers in the middle of the last century believed that the inscription indicated the location of medieval treasure.
A literal translation is said to read: ‘Pearls of the tribe Az.’ Scientists claim such Turkic scripts date back 1,000 years or more.
The Old Turkic script – also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisei script – is the alphabet used by the Göktürks and other early Turkic khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries.
The script is named after the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia where early 8th century inscriptions were discovered in an 1889 expedition by Nikolai Yadrintsev. These Orkhon inscriptions were published by Vasily Radlov and deciphered by the Danish philologist Vilhelm Thomsen in 1893. This writing system was later used within the Uyghur Khaganate.
Additionally, a Siberian variant is known from 9th century Yenisei Kirghiz inscriptions, and it has likely cousins in the Talas Valley of Turkestan and the Old Hungarian alphabet of the 10th century. Words were usually written from right to left.
Yakut runic letters are the least studied in Siberia. They provoke heated discussions among the linguists and Turkologists. But most new finds of inscriptions are made in Yakutia. Now the total number all Yakutian finds is close to 90. Most runic inscriptions of Yakutia have not yet been deciphered.
The Secret Of Cappadocia
Who built the underground City of Derinkuyu?
The worldwide known region of Turkey – Cappadocia it has magical beauty not only on its surface but also in the bottom. Every part of this region is magical. Above ground, there are ancient volcanic stone chimneys, known as “fairy chimneys”. There are no words to describe this excellence. Оr as someone once said: Cappadocia – it looks like Mars but it’s in Turkey. Over the years, generations and cultures have changed, but they all contributed to the unique appearance and structure (in and out) of these chimneys today. The “fairy chimneys” have very impressive architecture.
But Cappadocia is not just what we see on the surface. In the heart of Cappadocia lie hidden places. Also it has beauty inside, within, like a human being you know. The underground city of this region number about 200 and they are spread across the entire region. It’s assumed there could be more lying below the surface, waiting to be discovered. Of all the underground cities discovered so far, the most interesting story brings the city of Derinkuyu. The city was discovered by accident. when a local family decided to renovate their home. Suddenly a wall gave way to reveal a room and passage that led to this underground network. Derinkuyu it’s like a huge building.
According to some research, it is on 11 floors or levels descending about 280 feet, with an area of a little over 4 miles squared (10.4 kilometers squared). Inside there are many chambers for everyday activities, tombs, temples, living quarters etc. This underground city can also be connected to other local underground networks as well as wineries, underground water well systems providing fresh water, and a security system made up of enormous stone doors that can close the city from the inside. Each section, or level, can be separated from the following. Heavy stone doors could close Derinkuyu from the inside in order to fend off intruders, and each story could be shut off individually.
The most frequent guests throughout the years are tourists and archaeologists. The place by itself it’s safe considering its solid structure. The underground rock is very strong. Despite the good structure of the stone, there are no signs of the existence of any cave-ins. Furthermore, the engineer of this masterpiece had a good knowledge of the stone, stonework, architecture, and the local geography.
And the real question is: Who built this underground kingdom and why?
It is really difficult to determine the age of the structure. Furthermore, there is no recorded documentation of the construction and the people who lived there moved over the years. Common assumptions are that they are built by the early Christians but later research has shown that early Christians were only temporary residents. According to UNESCO, the first signs of monastic activity in Cappadocia date back to the 4th century, at which time, acting on the instructions of Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea, small anchoritic communities began inhabiting cells dug into the rock. It is believed that these underground premises were mostly refugee shelters.
There are many theories about who built the underground city. There are beliefs that the caves were constructed by the Persian King Yima. But in fact, he was more a mythological figure than a real king. The story of the king Yima is similar to the story of Noah in the Bible: The king built an underground city on the orders of the god Ahura Mazda, to protect his people from a catastrophic winter. He collects pairs of the best animals and people as well as the best seeds in order to reseed the Earth after the winter cataclysm.
The story of the ‘winter’ it’s in fact maybe the period of the ice age. And the last ice was between 110,000 to 10,000 years ago. The diverse labyrinths, so many floors and security doors point to the fact that these rooms are built to protect something or someone. The most impressive fact is that the network would have taken an immense amount of time to construct without advanced tools. The mystery of who built these underground networks is huge and heavy as the rolling stones on the doors of Derinkuyu.
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