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Giant black hole at centre of Milky Way exploded ‘recently’ – and blast was felt 200,000 light-years away

Giant black hole at centre of Milky Way exploded ‘recently’ – and blast was felt 200,000 light-years away 90

THE SUPERMASSIVE black hole at the centre of the Milky Way exploded 3.5million years ago, according to astronomers.

This is considered to be ‘astonishingly recent’ in galactic terms and is changing what scientists thought they knew about our galaxy.

Giant black hole at centre of Milky Way exploded ‘recently’ – and blast was felt 200,000 light-years away 91
This artist’s impression shows the huge bursts of radiation exploding from the centre of the Milky Way and reaching the Magellanic Stream

Professor Lisa Kewley, who worked on the study, said: “This is a dramatic event that happened a few million years ago in the Milky Way’s history.

“A massive blast of energy and radiation came right out of the galactic centre and into the surrounding material.

“This shows that the centre of the Milky Way is a much more dynamic place than we had previously thought. It is lucky we’re not residing there!”

The cataclysmic blast ripped through our galaxy and was likely felt 200,00 light years away in the Magellanic Stream.

Giant black hole at centre of Milky Way exploded ‘recently’ – and blast was felt 200,000 light-years away 92
The diameter of the Milky Way itself is thought to be up to 200,000 light years in size

It is considered to be a recent event because when it happened the dinosaurs had already been wiped out for 63million years and human ancestors were already walking on Earth.

This black hole blast phenomenon is known as a Seyfert flare.

The astronomers think it would have created two enormous ‘ionisation cones’ that would have sliced through the Milky Way.

They think it was caused by nuclear activity in the gigantic black hole, known as Sagittarius A.

It is estimated to have lasted for around 300,000 years, which is extremely short in galactic terms.

Co-author Magda Guglielmo from the University of Sydney said: “These results dramatically change our understanding of the Milky Way.

“We always thought about our Galaxy as an inactive galaxy, with a not so bright centre.

“These new results instead open the possibility of a complete reinterpretation of its evolution and nature.

“The flare event that occurred three million years ago was so powerful that it had consequences on the surrounding of our Galaxy.

“We are the witness to the awakening of the sleeping beauty.”

The research was led by by Professor Joss Bland-Hawthorn from Australia’s ARC Centre of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D).

During the study, data was gathered by the Hubble Space Telescope and used to calculate when and how the explosion took place.

It will soon be published in The Astrophysical Journal.

What is a black hole? The key facts

Here’s what you need to know…

What is a black hole?

  • A black hole is a region of space where absolutely nothing can escape
  • That’s because they have extremely strong gravitational effects, which means once something goes into a black hole, it can’t come back out
  • They get their name because even light can’t escape once it’s been sucked in – which is why a black hole is completely dark

What is an event horizon?

  • There has to be a point at which you’re so close to a black hole you can’t escape
  • Otherwise literally everything in the universe would have been sucked into one
  • The point at which you can no longer escape from a black hole’s gravitational pull is called the event horizon
  • The event horizon varies between different black holes, depending on their mass and size

What is a singularity?

  • The gravitational singularity is the very centre of a black hole
  • It’s a one-dimensional point that contains an incredibly large mass in an infinitely small space
  • At the singularity, space-time curves infinitely and the gravitational pull is infinitely strong
  • Conventional laws of physics stop applying at this point

How are black holes created?

  • Most black holes are made when a supergiant star dies
  • This happens when stars run out of fuel – like hydrogen – to burn, causing the star to collapse
  • When this happens, gravity pulls the centre of the star inwards quickly, and collapses into a tiny ball
  • It expands and contracts until one final collapse, causing part of the star to collapse inward thanks to gravity, and the rest of the star to explode outwards
  • The remaining central ball is extremely dense, and if it’s especially dense, you get a black hole

Source newsamed.com

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Space

In 200 light years from us, six planets emit an amazing “melody”

In 200 light years from us, six planets emit an amazing "melody" 105

Astronomers have discovered a system of six exoplanets orbiting a star with a specific orbital resonance.

The star system known as TOI-178 is located about 200 light years from us and includes six planets, five of which form a resonant chain, that is, they revolve around the central star in a strictly specified rhythm, and their densities, on the contrary, do not follow the regularity we are used to, according to Forbes.

In the video, the melody plays when the planet passes either full orbit or half of it, and when they line up at these points, they begin to play in resonance. TOI-178 is a really strange star system. Its innermost planet orbits in two days, while the slowest in 20. 

A similar orbital resonance is observed, for example, in the satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa and Ganymede. While the farthest, Ganymede makes one complete revolution, Europa makes two, and the closest to Jupiter Io – four. This means that they play the same melody in different octaves. 

However, the planets orbiting the TOI-178 star are in a much more complex resonance circuit, obeying the 18: 9: 6: 4: 3 rule. This is the longest resonant pattern known among planetary systems.

Only after the discovery of a kind of “melody” of the TOI-178 star system, astronomers discovered the sixth planet. They used resonance rhythm to calculate where the additional planet would be in its orbit. 

An amazing “rhythm dance” was discovered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. However, this is not just an orbital curiosity. 

“The orbits in this system are very strictly ordered. This tells us that since its formation, it has developed extremely smoothly and calmly,” – Yann Alibert explained, co-author of the study at the University of Bern. 

But even if the arrangement of the orbits in the system is so delicately ordered, everything is much worse with the densities of the planets.

“Here we see that a planet as dense as the Earth is located in the neighborhood of a“ bloated ”one, which has a density half that of Neptune. And after it comes a planet with a density like Neptune. not what we’re used to,” Nathan Hara notes, another study author at the University of Geneva.

However, in addition to the fact that astronomers talk a lot about how TOI-178 was formed, they hope that further study of it will provide important clues about how planets form and evolve in planetary systems.

“This contrast between the rhythmic harmony of orbital motions and the disordered densities of planets completely contradicts our understanding of the formation and development of planetary systems,” Adrien Leleu added, an astrophysicist at the University of Bern in Switzerland who led the study. 

map, constellation Sculptor
This map shows the location of the planetary system TOI-178 in the constellation Sculptor. The map includes most of the stars visible to the naked eye under good conditions, and the location of the system is indicated by a red circle.[ – ]+Photo: ESO, IAU AND SKY & TELESCOPE

The article even argues that resonances and density variations found in the TOI-178 star system could make it the “Rosetta Stone” in understanding the formation and evolution of planets. 

If researchers manage to find planets in the “habitable zone” of a star, where liquid water can exist on their surface, this will be an important and turning point for science. 

Scientists hope that by continuing the resonance chain and using ESO’s upcoming Extremely Large Telescope, they will be able to find more planets and capture them. 

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Space

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns 106
Photo: (Caltech / R. Hurt (IPAC))

To us, the Sun alone seems perfectly normal, but our solar system is actually a strange exception.

Most stars in the Milky Way galaxy have at least one companion star. In a system 1,800 light-years away, astronomers have finally confirmed the existence of a gas giant planet orbiting stars in a triple star system.

Called KOI-5, the system is located in the constellation Cygnus, and the exoplanet was confirmed ten years after it was first detected by the Kepler space telescope.

In fact, the planet – now known as KOI-5Ab – was discovered by Kepler when it began operations back in 2009.

“KOI-5Ab was dropped because it was difficult and we had thousands of other candidates,” astronomer David Siardi of NASA’s Exoplanet Science Institute said.

“There were lighter dives than the KOI-5Ab, and every day we learned something new from Kepler, so the KOI-5 was almost forgotten.”

Exoplanet hunters tend to avoid the complexities of multi-star systems; of the more than 4,300 exoplanets confirmed to date, less than 10 percent are multi-star systems, although such systems dominate the galaxy. As a result, little is known about the properties of exoplanets in multi-star systems compared to those orbiting a lone star.

After Kepler’s discovery, Chardy and other astronomers used ground-based telescopes such as the Palomar Observatory, Keck Observatory, and the Gemini North Telescope to study the system. By 2014, they had identified two companion stars, KOI-5B and KOI-5C.

Scientists were able to establish that the planet KOI-5Ab, is a gas giant that is about half the mass of Saturn and 7 times the size of Earth, and is in a very close five-day orbit around KOI-5A. KOI-5A and KOI-5B, both of roughly the same mass as the Sun, form a relatively close binary system with an orbital period of about 30 years.

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns 107

A third star, KOI-5C, orbits the binary system at a much greater distance, with a period of about 400 years – slightly longer than Pluto’s 248-year orbit.

“By studying this system in more detail, perhaps we can understand how planets are created in the universe.”

The discovery was announced at the 237th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

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Space

Why the universe does not fit into science

Why the universe does not fit into science 108
Photo: YouTube

Science can be compared to an artist painting what he has never seen, or to a writer describing other people’s travels: objects that he has never seen, places where he has never been. Sometimes such scientific “arts” turn out to be beautiful and interesting, but most of them will forever remain only theories, because they are beyond human capabilities.

In fact, science has the right only to speculate: how our universe appeared, how old it is, how many stars and other objects it contains.

Universe model

Why the universe does not fit into science 109

How many stars are there in the sky?

With an unarmed eye, a person can see about nine thousand stars in the sky in one cloudless and moonless night. And armed with binoculars or a telescope, much more – up to several million. However, this is much less than their true number in the universe. Indeed, only in our one galaxy (the Milky Way) there are about 400 billion stars. The exact amount, of course, is not known to science. And the visible universe contains about 170 billion galaxies.

It is worth clarifying that scientists can see the universe 46 billion light years deep in all directions. And the visible (observable) universe includes the space accessible to our eyes from the moment of the Big Explosion. In other words, only this (accessible to human perception) space science refers to our universe. Science does not consider everything that follows.

It is believed that there are supposedly a ceptillion (10 to 24 degrees) stars in our universe. These are theoretical calculations based on the approximate size and age of the universe. The origin of the universe is explained by the Big Bang theory. This is why the universe is constantly expanding and the more time passes, the more complex the universe and its components become.

Why the universe does not fit into science 110

It is not entirely correct to consider and perceive this scientific theory “head-on”. Scientists always claim that that explosion was not exactly an explosion, and the point that exploded was not the only one. After all, it was everywhere, because space did not exist then. And in general – everything happened quite differently from what is described in the Big Bang theory, but all other descriptions of the origin of the universe are even more incredible and inaccurate.

Separate but interconnected

That which is beyond the reach of human perception is usually discarded by science, or recognized as non-existent. Recognizing one thing, science does not want to recognize the existence of the other, although everything in our world is interconnected and is not able to exist separately – by itself.

Each object of the universe is a part of it much more than an independent, separate object.

Any person, like any material object of our world, consists of components: organs, cells, molecules, atoms. And each of its constituent parts can represent the whole world. Separate, and at the same time connected with all the others.

However, science, as a rule, perceives all the components of the universe – people, animals, plants, objects, the Earth, the Sun, other planets and stars – as separate subjects, thereby limiting itself.

Why the universe does not fit into science 111

Even what is considered the visible universe, one of the atoms of which could be called our solar system, is not subject to the boundaries of human perception. But perhaps the atom is an exaggeration, and our solar system is not even an atom, but one of its elements!

How, being so far from the truth, can one reason about something with the degree of probability with which science tries to reason about the origin of the universe?

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