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The First Aliens We Discover May Be Purple

The First Aliens We Discover May Be Purple 88

In our quest to discover strange new life on strange new worlds, a group of astronomers has modeled potential alien worlds using Earth’s biological history as a framework. From this they have determined that if we are to detect extraterrestrial biology, we should fine-tune our search to the color purple.

As we discover more and more worlds orbiting other stars in ever more biologically-pleasing orbits, the question “are we alone?” becomes increasingly acute. It’s inevitable that we will soon discover an alien world with Earth-like dimensions, orbiting a sun-like star within its habitable zone. But until we develop the means to remotely probe that world’s atmosphere, we can never be sure if it is truly habitable.

Looking for a “true” Earth analog is fraught with challenges. Are we looking for a planet with the same characteristics as modern Earth, or do we try to model our planets during different epochs and work out when Earth life would have been at its most detectable? Life on Earth has been around for the best part of 4 billion years, when would have been best for an alien civilization to detect terrestrial life and what would they have needed to look for?

It’s exactly this question that an international team of researchers is trying to answer.

“Clearly what we know about our planet will be our guideline for the characterization of (small rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their stars),” writes the team, headed by Esther Sanroma of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Spain, in a paper accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal. “But the Earth has been inhabited for at least 3.8 (billion years), and its appearance has changed with time.”

3 billion years ago, during the Archean eon, the Earth was likely dominated by purple bacteria, a photosynthetic microorganism that inhabited the land and ancient seas. These organisms would have had a very distinctive spectroscopic fingerprint and a tell-tail sign that Earth was covered in a basic form of life.

By modeling different distributions of this microbe throughout the planet — in the oceans, on the land, around coastlines and during different atmospheric conditions — Sanroma’s team used a radiative transfer model “to simulate the visible and near-(infrared) radiation reflected by our planet.” By doing so, they were able to determine that by using multi-color photometric observations, distant observers would be able to “distinguish between an Archean Earth in which purple bacteria inhabit vast extensions of the planet, and a present-day Earth with continents covered by deserts, vegetation or microbial mats.”

When looking for Earth-like worlds, the researchers emphasize the need for exoplanet hunters to be aware that they may not discover a modern-looking Earth-like world, they may stumble across a purple bacteria-dominated world with a very distinctive photometric signature more fitting with an ancient Archean eon Earth-like world.

“Earth is the only planet where life is known to exist; thus observations of our planet will be a key instrument for characterization and the search for life elsewhere. However, even if we discovered a second Earth, it is very unlikely that it would present a stage of evolution similar to the present-day Earth.”
The First Aliens We Discover May Be Purple 89
Purple plants may thrive under binary stars.
University of St. Andrews

This isn’t the first time that purple alien worlds have been discussed as a possibility. In 2011, researchers examined the exotic energy-generating regimes hypothetical alien plant life would need to develop under sunlight from binary stars.

Over 25 percent of sun-like stars and 50 percent of red dwarf stars exist in binary pairs. Should there be any planets in orbit around binary systems, any life — be it flora or fauna, or some alien form of life that we can’t comprehend, let alone categorize — would be exposed to a broad spectra of light, stretching far into ultraviolet wavelengths. The upshot of this would be purple hued (or even black) plant life that has evolved to optimize photosynthesis.

It seems that in the hunt for extraterrestrial life, all roads lead to purple.

Publication: Characterizing the purple Earth: Modelling the globally-integrated spectral variability of the Archean Earth, E. Sanromá, E. Pallé, M. N. Parenteau, N. Y. Kiang, A. M. Gutiérrez-Navarro, R. López, P. Montañés-Rodríguez, 2013. arXiv:1311.1145 [astro-ph.EP]

Image credit: NASA (purple added)

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Aliens & UFO's

UFO photo taken by a pilot using a mobile phone released from classified US military report

UFO photo taken by a pilot using a mobile phone released from classified US military report 102

A leaked photograph from the Pentagon’s UFO task force shows a mysterious object hovering over the Atlantic at an altitude of 11 km.

Enthusiasts have discovered the existence of two classified Pentagon UFO reports, which include this photograph of a mysterious object hovering over the Atlantic at an altitude of 11 kilometers. 

According to anonymous sources from the US Department of Defense and Military Intelligence, this photo was attached to a secret report on the observation of extraterrestrial objects in 2018.

According to The Debrief, based on interviews with multiple intelligence sources, the  Department of Defense’s Task Force on Unidentified Aerial Events has released two classified intelligence reports – one in 2018 and another this summer. For some reason, they were shared with a wide range of employees in the US intelligence community.

In general terms, the documents told about episodes of military clashes with some ” unidentified aerial phenomena” (UAP), examples of photographs were given and, most surprisingly, the extraterrestrial origin of objects was not excluded.

UFO photo taken by a pilot using a mobile phone released from classified US military report 103
© UAPTF

“These revelations are extraordinary and give the public a truly peek behind the curtain when it comes to how the US government is addressing the UFO problem,” Nick Pope, a UFO researcher for the UK Department of Defense, told DailyMail.com.

“This new information confirms that the US government is taking the UFO phenomenon more seriously than ever before,” he added. “I look forward to further revelations soon.”

UFO photo taken by a pilot using a mobile phone released from classified US military report 104
© UAPTF

This photo, published by The Debrief on Thursday, was included in a 2018 report, two sources in the Department of Defense and one intelligence source told us.

Sources said the photo was taken in 2018 off the east coast of the United States by a military pilot using his cell phone camera. The photograph was described as depicting an “unidentified silver” cube “object” hovering over the ocean at an altitude of approximately 30,000 to 35,000 feet. The image was captured by a weapons operator in the back seat of an F / A-18 fighter.

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Ufologists accuse NASA of hiding materials with evidence of the existence of aliens

Ufologists accuse NASA of hiding materials with evidence of the existence of aliens 105

The question of whether we are alone in the universe remains open. Recently, ufologists are more and more inclined towards a positive answer. In 2020, several UFO reports came from the International Space Station. The “attack” of one such spacecraft was captured by NASA cameras. Experts are confident that the agency is hiding more information proving the existence of aliens.

Although modern equipment has made it possible to detect many planets resembling Earth, scientists have no reliable evidence of the habitability of even one of them. But ufologists are sure that humanity is not alone in the universe. Space agencies and the government have repeatedly accused such specialists of hiding information.

UFO materials from NASA

The American Space Agency has been asked several times about the encounters of astronauts with unidentified objects and the reason for the rejection of lunar expeditions. In 2007, the answer was published on the official NASA website.

“As far as we know, no astronaut has seen a UFO in space. Not all observed objects could be identified immediately. But on the other hand, there is no evidence that any of them was an alien craft. Flights to the moon were terminated by politicians. They are now considering resuming the program again, ”wrote David Morrison, NLSI’s interim director.

Over the past 13 years, the databases of ufologists have been replenished with new records. In 2017, WikiLeaks hackers reported gaining access to secret archives. They, in particular, contained information about the attempts of astronaut Edgar Mitchell to talk with Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama about the alien issue. 

He claimed that the American authorities were cooperating with the aliens. Another astronaut, Gordon Cooper, had earlier reached similar conclusions.

Ufologists accuse NASA of hiding materials with evidence of the existence of aliens 106

NASA doesn’t seem to give up on the idea of ​​extraterrestrial life. In 2020, the agency announced its readiness to finance a project to search for alien intelligence. Its signs could be unusual gases in the composition of extraterrestrial atmospheres. 

The agency’s still unexplained material supporting the existence of aliens also includes a recent video from the ISS. NASA cameras recorded a diamond-shaped object flying near the station at a speed of 78 km / s.

Moon City and other possible signs of aliens

Scott Waring, an alien hunter, is confident in the existence of life on a natural satellite of the Earth. The truth about the city was accidentally revealed by NASA employees themselves, having published a book with photographs of the moon. They tried to edit the pictures, but failed.

“This white, ceramic-like structure with crisp contours is highly visible,” wrote the expert on his blog.

Ufologists accuse NASA of hiding materials with evidence of the existence of aliens 107

Analyzing images of NASA’s Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), ufologists suggested that it recorded a UFO 25 times larger than Earth. 

The radius of the UFO is approximately 159 thousand kilometers, while the radius of the Earth is only 6 371 kilometers. 

Waring believes that the object flew out of the core of the star, where it was fueled by energy. This could support the theory that there is empty space inside the sun. 

Scientists working with NASA attribute the appearance of the object to the presence of “space dandruff” – as the researchers call the debris that appears in front of the lenses of telescopes. According to scientists, the object can be anything – from pieces of ice to the wreckage of spaceships.

Ufologists accuse NASA of hiding materials with evidence of the existence of aliens 108

Previously, the press published a video from the ISS showing a flotilla of unknown objects flying from Earth. According to one version, these were satellites. Skeptics explain “man-made” structures on the Moon and other planets by pareidolia.

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Aliens & UFO's

The unusual hobby of the husband of Elizabeth II is unveiled. The uncle of Prince Philip had a UFO encounter

The unusual hobby of the husband of Elizabeth II is unveiled. The uncle of Prince Philip had a UFO encounter 109

The unusual hobby of the 99-year-old Prince Philip has been unveiled. According to the newspaper The Sun, the husband of the British Queen Elizabeth II, for many decades collected an assortment of books about UFOs and space aliens.

Philip became interested in this topic after his uncle Lord Mounbatten in 1955 wrote an official report on an alien encounter. The admiral and last Viceroy of India (who was killed by Irish terrorists in 1979) reported that a silver spaceship had landed on his estate in Hampshire. 

According to Mountbatten’s report, the “flying saucer” hovered above the ground before someone wearing overalls and a helmet descended from the ship. Then, Mountbatten’s bricklayer Fred Briggs, who witnessed the event, was reportedly knocked off his bicycle and pinned to the ground by an “invisible force.” Lord Mountbatten kept this a secret from the general public.

The Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip is still adding to his collection. So, he made his last purchase last year. And last summer, he read The Halt Perspective, by retired US Air Force Colonel Charles Holt and Police Detective John Hanson, about the Randlesham incident. In late December 1980, a series of alleged UFO landings, accompanied by unexplained fires, took place in Randlesham Forest, British County Suffolk. 

It was not far from an American Air Force base. Dozens of base personnel witnessed these events for several days, observing unidentified triangular-shaped objects, and then strange tracks were allegedly found in the forest. One of the witnesses claimed that he even allegedly touched the triangular UFO. Charles Holt was deputy base commander at the time.

The personal secretary of the Duke of Edinburgh wrote to John Hanson that the prince would read this book with interest, as well as another work by Hanson – “Haunted Heaven: An Encyclopedia of British UFOs.”

“His Royal Highness will add this piece to his collection … This will be the most anticipated addition to his library,” Secretary Archie Miller Bakewell wrote.

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