Connect with us

Apocalypse & Armageddon

Expert Says The San Andreas Fault Is About To Crack – Here’s What Will Happen When It Does

Expert Says The San Andreas Fault Is About To Crack – Here’s What Will Happen When It Does 86

The director of the Southern California Earthquake Center, Thomas Jordan, made an announcement recently that would have sent a chill down the spine of every Californian: that the San Andreas fault appears to be in a critical state and as such, could generate a large earthquake imminently. Of course, the reiteration of the seismic hazard to Californians will be nothing surprising, but what is new is the warning that the southern portion of the fault “looks like it’s locked, loaded and ready to go”.

Why is this eminent seismologist making these alarming statements? Well, the fact is that there has not been a major release of stresses in the southern portion of the San Andreas fault system since 1857. In simple terms, the San Andreas is one of many fault systems roughly marking the border between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. Both plates are moving in an approximately northerly direction but the Pacific plate is moving faster than its North American counterpart, meaning that stresses between the plates are constantly building up.

In 1906, some of these stresses were catastrophically released in the San Francisco Bay area in a 7.8 magnitude event and again, in northern California, during the 6.9 magnitude 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Events of these magnitudes, however, have not occurred along the San Andreas fault in the south of the state – the 1994 Northridge event was associated with a nearby, but separate, fault system – leading to the suggestion that one is imminent and, given the amount of stress that might actually have accumulated, when it arrives it will be the “Big One”.

How big is ‘Big’?

So just how big could this potential earthquake be and is it possible that the destruction demonstrated in the film San Andreas could actually come to fruition?

In short, Californians will be (reasonably) pleased with the answers to these questions. In the film, the San Andreas fault produces an earthquake with a magnitude of 9.0. While not unheard of globally, earthquakes of this size are generally confined to regions of the earth where subduction – where one tectonic plate is being forced below another – is happening, for example in Chile and Japan. The tectonic situation in California is different. Here, two plates are sliding past each other.

As such, recent predictions limit the possible maximum earthquake magnitude along the San Andreas fault system to 8.0, although with a 7% probability estimate that such an event could occur in Southern California in the next 30 years; over the same period, there is a 75% chance of a magnitude 7.0 event. While magnitudes of 7.0, 8.0 and 9.0 might sound negligibly different, the energy that such events would unleash varies significantly, with a magnitude 9.0 event releasing 32 times more energy than a magnitude 8.0 and 1,000 times more energy than a magnitude 7.0.

Obviously, however, be it a 7.0 or an 8.0, damage is inevitable, but the whole sequence of events, as depicted in the film, is unlikely. For example, the San Andreas fault is not beneath the ocean and as such, any slippage along it could not displace water to the extent that a tsunami would be generated. The opening up of a massive chasm is also from the land of fantasy, as the plates are sliding relative to each other, not away from each other.

What is realistic, however, is that a great amount of destruction is likely. While the building codes in California are stringent, recommending retrofitting of seismic protection measures to older buildings and preventing the construction of new buildings near to known fault lines, there is no way to make a building 100% safe.

Predicting devastation

In an attempt to understand the effects of a large, southern San Andreas earthquake, the U.S. Geological Survey modelled a 7.8 magnitude event, with slippage of 2-7 metres, to represent the stresses that have built up in the area since the last large event.

From this model, it was found that damage would be most severe to constructions straddling the fault. Fortunately, constructions of this sort are few and far between following the 1972 Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act. What would be affected by this slippage, however, are the 966 roads, 90 fibre optic cables, 39 gas pipes and 141 power lines that cross the fault zone.

The total cost of damage to buildings was estimated at $33 billion, with modern buildings faring well but older buildings being particularly susceptible. Fires would rage – as they did following the Northridge earthquake – as gas mains, and mains water pipes, become severed; in fact, the damage from resulting fires is estimated as more costly than that resulting from the initial shaking.

The overall death toll is estimated at 1,800. And just when things don’t look like they can get any worse, the main event will have destabilised the tectonics of the region to such an extent that a series of potentially powerful aftershocks will begin. For example, in 2011, Christchurch, New Zealand was struck by a 6.2 magnitude event and since then the city and surrounding region have experienced more than 10,000 aftershocks.

Fortunately, the film San Andreas is pure fiction, featuring the levels of exaggeration we are all used to from film makers who are, ironically, also based in southern California.

Even so, in all probability, the San Andreas is likely to generate a significant earthquake in the not too distant future. When it arrives, the damage will be significant and southern California will be massively affected. But Californians are no strangers to these events and the infrastructure of the state, in recent times, has been designed with earthquake protection in mind.

Forget tsunamis and deep chasms opening up, but do expect violent shaking, building damage, fires and widespread economic impacts as the region is out of action for potentially a long period of time.

Matthew Blackett, Senior Lecturer in Physical Geography and Natural Hazards, Coventry University

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

Apocalypse & Armageddon

China has officially proposed a global “mark” with a barcode for the coronavirus!

China has officially proposed a global "mark" with a barcode for the coronavirus! 99

Are we seeing a global “mark” being unveiled in front of our eyes on the occasion of the coronavirus, the pandemic that threatens to change lives globally? One after another, the signs of the imposition of a global system of control of humanity are appearing.

China has officially proposed a global "mark" with a barcode for the coronavirus! 100

This time, not by “accident”, but by the Chinese President Xi Jinping himself (the country where the pandemic started) who clearly proposed the imposition of QR codes (of the well-known barcode) on the entire population so that, according to him to “improve trade and travel” affected by the coronavirus.

A “mark” to travel or make trade deals

Speaking during the G20 summit, the Chinese president said:

“As we try to control the virus, we need to restore the security and smooth running of global industry and the supply chain,” the Chinese president told a G20 teleconference on Saturday, referring to the need to “reduce tariffs and barriers.” “trade” and “liberalization” of trade in critical medical products to go on to say that to do so must create mechanisms that will simplify the flow of products and services at a time when it is being tested for coronavirus.

This can come in the form of QR codes that will contain information about each person’s health status, Xi said.

“China has proposed a global mechanism for a universally accepted health certification process based on nucleic acid testing and QR codes that will be universally accepted. We hope that more and more countries will accept this mechanism. “

In fact, supporters of the “new era” and the new “big restart” are no longer in hiding, but say so openly as the Chinese president, one of the main proponents of globalization:

A commonly agreed health certificate that will be valid in all countries of the world and that will be in the form of a barcode for everyone to carry it on, without which they will not be able to make trade agreements or, of course, travel.

And of course, because nothing is accidental, the first mention of a global marking system for our health always fell elsewhere, but at the World Economic Forum (WEF) where the so-called ‘CovidPass’ was proposed to restore tourism and travel which affected by the pandemic.

The book “Covid-19: The Great Reset” also sprang from the World Economic Forum. Everything is interconnected but the worst thing is that no one is hiding “anymore but they say it clearly:

Imposition of a global control system for our good and our health.

Continue Reading

Apocalypse & Armageddon

Axis of disasters in November 2020: The Unknown is approaching at the end of November

Axis of disasters in November 2020: The Unknown is approaching at the end of November 101

2020 has been a difficult year for many people. We have already managed to wait out several negative periods, but in November the last one will begin – the axis of disasters.

The time has come to shed some light on what awaits us in late autumn and early winter.

What is the axis of disasters

There are two very important stars in the sky, symbolizing the beginning and end of any business and process – Aldebaran and Antares, respectively. They are located almost directly opposite each other and the imaginary line between them symbolizes this very axis of catastrophes. When some planets fall on this axis, various problems, disasters, man-made disasters begin to occur in the world.

The axis of catastrophes is often associated, for example, with the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, the Tianshan earthquake, the earthquake in China in 1556, and the September 11 terrorist attack in the United States. The astrologer notes that this axis is associated precisely with global problems that have arisen due to human activities, our imprudence. Sometimes the axes of catastrophes are associated with diseases, tornadoes, earthquakes and tsunamis.

Axis of disasters in November 2020

In 2020, the last period in which the planets will begin to actively interact with the axis of catastrophes will begin on November 30 and end on December 4. It will be a very dangerous time.

No one can predict exactly what problems, disasters and aggravation of troubles can await us. It is logical to assume that this could be new political unrest, clashes of interests of various segments of the population.

Try to visit mass events and public places as little as possible. No one is canceling the increased caution regime for coronavirus either. Most likely, these days the number of cases may increase. Take care of yourself, your loved ones and do not risk your health. Make informed decisions and don’t blindly follow other people. Look at everything from your own experience and remain calm: if increased anxiety interferes with making informed decisions, it is better to limit the flow of news.

An extended Astrological view

November 20 stands out, when there will be a new moon, and Jupiter will enter Capricorn and launch some kind of global transformation cycle that will last right up to April 5. The astrologer does not specify what kind of transformation it will be, but in the end all this will lead to the cancellation of the struggle against COVID. That is, either the virus will die by April 5, or the main fighters against it will depart. 

But before this glorious moment, there will be a lunar eclipse on November 30, after which there will be a kind of eclipse corridor until December 14, which in itself is not healthy from the point of view of astrology. Another problem is that at this moment the star Antares will enter the sign of Scorpio, which is practically a guarantee of some major war. 

The astrologer mentioned China especially, because there will be some kind of drama – either the yuan will collapse, or everything will collapse. It will be somehow unexpected for everyone. 

Also, December 14th will go down in world history with some kind of global disclosure – people will receive an answer to a question that has been asked for decades. But what kind of question the astrologer again does not specify and only makes the assumption that either the government will merge something about the aliens, or the aliens will land themselves. It is also possible with the disclosure of some kind of world conspiracy, about which everyone seems to guess, then mostly in the kitchen and unofficially. And then, as it were, everything secret will become apparent. 

Continue Reading

Apocalypse & Armageddon

Secrets of symbolism of Dürer’s apocalyptic engraving “Four Horsemen”: What the genius wanted to tell

Secrets of symbolism of Dürer's apocalyptic engraving "Four Horsemen": What the genius wanted to tell 102
Illustration source / photo: Depositphotos

Albrecht Dürer is a painter and printmaker who is generally considered the greatest German Renaissance painter. His work is rich in religious works, numerous portraits and self-portraits, and, of course, engravings on copper and wood. An interesting engraving “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”, in which among the depicted chaos and horror of the end of the world, there is the author’s glimmer of hope.

Dürer was a German Renaissance master, the man declared by the Venetian Renaissance painters the best painter of the kingdom in 1506.

He was born the second son of the Hungarian jeweler Albrecht Dürer the Elder, who settled in Nuremberg in 1455, and Barbara Holper. Dürer began his training as a draftsman in his father’s jewelry workshop. His precocious abilities and exceptional talent are proved by the magnificent self-portrait painted at the age of 13, as well as “Madonna Crowned by Two Angels” (made at the age of 14). 

In 1486, Dürer’s father organized the practice of his son with the woodcut painter Michael Wolgemuth, whose portrait Dürer would paint in 1516. In 1490, Dürer completed his earliest known painting, a portrait of his father, which marks the familiar characteristic style of the mature master.

Self-portrait and Madonna Durer
Self-portrait and Madonna – Albrecht Dürer

Dürer’s talent, ambition, sharp and broad intellect won him the attention and friendship of the most prominent figures of German society. He became the official court painter of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and his successor Charles V, for whom Dürer developed a number of artistic projects. In particular, for the Nuremberg town hall, the artist painted two panels depicting the four apostles with texts by Martin Luther that pay tribute to Lutheranism.

As an admirer of his compatriot Martin Schongauer, Durer revolutionized engraving, elevating it to the level of an independent art form. He expanded her tonal and dramatic range and gave the images a new conceptual basis. By the age of 30, Dürer had completed three of his most famous series of engravings on religious themes: Apocalypse, Great Passions, and The Life of the Virgin.

Dürer engravings
Dürer engravings

The impressive results in engraving led to the fact that Maximilian himself appointed Dürer a life pension – 100 guilders a year – paid from the sums annually contributed by Nuremberg to the imperial treasury.

The art of engraving reveals the talented soul of Durer, rich in images and secret accumulated treasures of the heart. Durer is the most profound and greatest poet-artist that art history could only know.

“Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”

There is a fantastic series of woodcuts in 1498 in Dürer’s work. Dürer’s Apocalypse was published as a book with 15 full-page illustrations, each directed to a page of text. The third print from the Apocalypse, entitled The Four Horsemen, is a dramatically revised version of a passage from the book of Revelation (6: 1–8). a part of which is the iconic work – “The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse”. 

The approaching end of the 15th century gave rise to rumors about the approaching end of the world. Therefore, all natural and climatic phenomena in the form of comets, eclipses, floods and epidemics were certainly associated in the minds of the people with the end of the world. The scenes of the Apocalypse in The Four Horsemen only reinforced the prevailing eschatological mood.

Albrecht Durer Apocalypse
Albrecht Dürer – Apocalypse

Symbolism

A powerful engraving by Albrecht Durer from the late 15th century depicts the four horsemen of the apocalypse (death, famine, war and plague). The concept of the apocalypse runs through the writings of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. 

In this scene, the main message is traced – the punishment of God for the sins of mankind. Many, on the eve of the 15th century, lived under the impression that this sentence had come into force. That is why, taking advantage of the mood in society, Dürer in the period from 1496 to 1498 created 15 “apocalyptic” engravings, which were very popular. The engraving shows:

1. The first – the archer is the winner. His victory is symbolized by the white color of the horse. However, conquest brings not peace, but the tyranny of humanity. The dire consequences of this sin have prevailed in every generation since the Garden of Eden and can be seen in all walks of life (from government to family).

2. A rider holding a sword over his head symbolizes War. Scripture tells us that the second horse is bright red. This is the color of bloodshed. The rider wields a mighty sword. The tyranny seen in the first horseman leads to a large-scale lust for domination that brings the evil of war. Interestingly, Dürer represents the first two horsemen in Turkish hats, since the Turks were dangerous enemy invaders at the time.

3. Their third companion, Hunger, holds the scales. Dürer places the third rider and his black horse in the center of the engraving. He waves a scale to measure the volume of food as if it were a weapon. The engraving also shows the economic imbalance caused by human greed.

4. The fourth horseman is Death. The fourth rider is exhausted. He rakes his prey with a pitchfork. The horse here has a pale, terrible color. “His rider was called Death.” (v.8)

5. The monster crawling after them personifies hell, where all sinners will suffer after death.

In the Bible, these horsemen appear in turn. Therefore, the artists who illustrated it before always depicted them separately. Dürer first combined them in one composition

Not a very pleasant plot. But Durer gives people hope! The whole sky shines with the Gospel! There is a sign of the presence of God on the engraving. The rays from His halo can be seen in the upper left corner. 

The Angel of the Lord hovers over the entire stage. The left hand practically touches the sword – and this is a symbol of the fact that although the destruction is great and sweeping, God sees everything. The angel’s hand blesses. The evil of sin will continue to the end of the ages, but God will not leave His children.

Looking at the work “The Four Horsemen” it is not difficult to imagine the furor and horror that the engraving caused among Durer’s contemporaries. In 1500, everyone lived in anticipation of the end of the world. The “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” amaze even now the imagination. 

It seems that the horsemen are about to descend from the engraving into the real world and begin to wreak havoc, destruction and death. But the main thing is a symbol of Dürer’s hope.

Continue Reading
Advertisement

DO NOT MISS

Trending