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Aliens & UFO's

ET’s and a new history of early civilised man

By Leonard Farra

In the 4 March 2014 online edition of Huffington Post, Astronaut Leroy Chiao was reported as posing this question:
‘If there is life out there…….why don’t they just come and show themselves’.

 

Updated Answer

Something extraordinary happened, on this planet, several thousand years ago. Fully developed civilisations suddenly sprang up in the Old and New Worlds and whole tribes were  on the move settling into new lands. Major changes in human life also occurred in Ancient Sumeria whose scribes claimed that their people were survivors of ‘The Flood’. All these things happened in the era around 5,000 years ago at which time there is evidence of flooding and sudden climatic change. (1)

According to Sumerian and Babylonian texts, ‘The Flood’ was caused by the Annunaki, who appear to be aliens, when they destroyed the evil people of the previous age. (2) Their Earth visit was a major influence on traditions, religions, and legends, in the Ancient Middle East, Egypt, Greece, Scandinavia, countries in Asia, parts of Africa, among Native Americans and also on remote Easter Island in the Pacific. (3) Although they were not named, by the Ancient, the Annunaki leaders are identifiable with a group of early gods who were revered throughout the world. The Maya and, possibly, Mexico’s Olmecs, regarded them as creator gods. (4) As Christianity was the religion in Europe, in the Middle Ages, they were now ancestral leaders, or heroes, and this continued right through to present times in popular adventure stories, legends, and famous films. (5)

The E.T’s, who reputedly visited this planet, were not little green men, or the monstrous creatures of science fiction, as they resembled tall white men and they wore white robes.(6) As I suggested, in an earlier article, their dazzling appearance might be the reason why priests, in many early religions, wore white robes in the service of their gods. In religious art, angels are depicted in white robes and , in the Book of Revelation, white garmented beings described as elders, are seated around a throne in Heaven when angels send down destruction on Earth (Rev.4- ).

WhiteRobs

Although this New Testament story is a prophecy of what will happen in the future , it was adopted, by the Church, from Middle Eastern legends, dating back 3,000 years, about catastrophic events which reputedly occurred in the era of the visit of the star-people.(7)
One of the E.T leaders was reputed  to have been the great civiliser of man. The Sumerians called him Ea and the Egyptians knew him as Osiris. Aztecs and Maya called him Feathered Serpent, (Quetzalcoatl ), the Incas -Viracocha and some North American Native tribes called him Michabo-the Great White One. He was also known to the Aborigines and their tribes in Eastern Australia called him Baime. When the Spaniards arrived in the New World, 500 years ago, the Aztecs, and Incas, were convinced that the white god, and his companions, had returned and, after first being mistaken for the former, Capt Cook was killed in Hawaii.

   Few people place any significance on the custom of royalty, and leaders, of carrying ceremonial staffs or on magicians using magic wands. However, rulers have been carrying staffs, or sceptres, for 5,000 years, ever since gods were shown holding them, and stories told about them suggest that they had various functions such as healing and water divining. (9) The hook, or heqa, staff ,  shown held by Ancient Egypt’s white clothed civilising god Osiris, was later adopted by the Church as the bishops’ pastoral staff.

PastoralStaff

Stories about a staff which  was planted in the ground, sometimes with star-god links, was popular in several early cultures. There were versions of it in Jewish and Christian, English, legends, among the Ashanti in West Africa and the Incas in Peru.(10)

TulaMexico_Statues

Strange objects held by “warriors” – Tula Pyramid platform, Mexico

Animals, birds, and insects have been used in symbolism for thousands of years. The bull was a religious symbol throughout the Mediterranean Region and it was also used in rituals. In Egypt, for example, the Apis Bull was regarded as an incarnation of Osiris and a replacement was chosen when it died. (11)

WarshipofBullApis

Egyptian God-bull Apis. Louvre Museum

NandiBull

2nd Century A.D sculpture of Nandi [Bull]

the-tauroboliumTaurobolium comes from Rome the Eternal City (Clara Erskine Clement) also published 1900

The bull also played an important role in the bloodthirsty initiation rituals of Mithraism, in Ancient Rome, and, with related sky-god traditions, it appears in the Ancient Greek story of Theseus and the Minotaur (12). Some scholars believe that the bull was only a symbol of strength but what they overlook is that it also represented Taurus whose most famous stars, the Pleiades, are in its neck. These stars were associated with the Creation, the Flood, and the Star-People. Their appearance, at certain times in the year, was an occasion for joyful celebration and just as they were associated with the Creation, their dawn appearance often began a new era and the agricultural season. One of the Indonesian tribes claims to know where the craft of the Pleiades people landed. They also believe that they came from these stars and that they will return there when they die. (13 ) Similar beliefs are found among the Native American tribes, such as the Lakota, in whose traditions, the Pleiades are in the head of the ‘White Buffalo’ constellation.

Some early religious traditions, legends, rituals and symbolism, imply that the star-people arrived on Earth in a fleet of discs which emerged from a huge mother ship (14) and so it’s not surprising that the symbol frequently used to represent their craft appears to have been the circle and that the most prominent disc in the sky, the sun, played an important role in many festivals. Some native people, such as the North American Natchez, believed that the great civilizer, who visited their ancestors, emerged from the sun (15) and festivals were often celebrated when there was a heliacal rising of the Pleiades. Stone, and earth, circles, which have been found in most countries, also seem to have represented the ‘homes’ of the gods (16) just as temples have done for thousands of years. These circular enclosures were used for religious, and ceremonial purposes, from the Stone Age era and until comparatively recently by people who still follow their ancient traditions. (17) Archaeologists believe that the famous, ‘5,000 year old’, Stonehenge site, in Wiltshire, England,  was associated with ancestor worship but its symbolism, which was changed several times, suggests that it was dedicated to the worship of the ‘recently departed’ star people. Because they have a  different mindset, traditional researchers  have overlooked  the deeper significance of one of the important symbols, outside the main circle, as it means nothing to them, and the same comment applies to  Stonehenge’s  astronomical alignments to a group of  ‘circular earth mounds’. (18)

stonehenge

Stonehenge

Twenty four miles north of Stonehenge, near the Wiltshire town of Marlborough, in ‘ crop circle country’, is the lesser known Avebury complex whose main features are the largest  stone circle in the British Isles and the 131 ft high circular Silbury Hill, the largest man-made mound in Europe, which can be seen from miles around.

avebury-two-circle

Averbury

silbury-hill

Silbury Hill

The purpose of this hill has mystified researchers as excavations have revealed that it wasn’t a rich burial mound as was previously believed. Beside Silbury Hill there is a small lake. Many Ancient Egyptian temples had a sacred lake and religious sanctuaries were often built beside a river. But what’s  so special about water? Well, according to some creation stories, all that existed in the beginning was the Primeval Sea and from it emerged the Primeval Land ( the World Mountain). There were representations of  this mythical mount in several countries, such as the moat surrounded 12th century Angkor Wat in Cambodia, the Great Pyramid in Egypt, and pyramids in Teotihuacan, Mexico, and Tiahuanco in the Andes and some of the symbolism, built into these structures, was sky-god related.

reconstructed-pyramid

Reconstructed pyramid from Chaldea  from ‘The Story of the Nations
by Zenaide A Ragozin (per Perrot and Chipiez) published 1900

Pyramids of Giza, Egypt

great-pyramid

Great Pyramid, Giza, Egypt

Below, GeoEye’s IKONOS satellite took this image of Angkor Wat 

angkorWatt

Since this sacred symbolism is also built into Silbury Hill, it would seem that it, and its lake, were also versions of the World Mountain. (19) Incidentally, there was also a circular mound, similar to Silbury, in pre-Colombian Mexico.(20)

On 17 November 2013, at a jungle site at La Mana, Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, Alexander Putney, and his partner Suzanne Benoiton, made a remarkable discovery of a ‘river fronted’, triangular shaped, hill upon which there are parallel lines of shaped stones. This site, which is thought to have been part of a lost pyramid complex, is now known as the Hummingbird Pyramid and, like various other water linked pyramids, it seems to have been a version of the World Mountain which rose from the Primeval Sea. Those people who have read my books on this subject, will appreciate the deeper significance of the area’s other watery features which also suggest that this site had been specially chosen. (21)  Although the religious beliefs of the Hummingbird Pyramid’s builders are unknown, we need to bear in mind that there were Pleiades linked traditions throughout the Americas and that many of its peoples had legends of a civilising sky-god who visited their ancestors.

Over thirty years ago, I was present at a series of channelled communications where information was given about the visit of the star-people, and one of the messages, channelled through psychic Gerry Sherrick, said that when their craft was approaching Earth, it resembled a huge comet with its tail stretched across the sky. (22)

CometMcNaught

This image of Comet McNaught was captured by the European Southern Observatory in Chile as both the comet and the sun were setting over the Pacific Ocean. The ocean surface appears nearly flat at this distance. Credit: European Southern Observatory

I later learned that, in 1519, when a comet appeared in the sky, and other strange things occurred, including the landing in Mexico of the fair skinned Spaniard Cortes, the Aztec Emperor Montezuma was convinced that the civilising white god, Quetzalcoatl, had returned as predicted. (23) The  Bible ,(Isa.14:29), also mentions fiery flying serpents and in Mexico, comets were called ‘flaming serpents’.(24) Could it be that this is why the snake was associated with the gods, throughout the Early World, and why this creature appeared  in so many early traditions and legends. In Ancient Egypt, and several Asian countries, special importance was placed on the cobra. It’s often found in art and there were representations of it on temples. The python was revered in Africa as was the rattlesnake in parts of the Americas. Some Native Americans, such as the Hopi, celebrate with serpent dances and snakes are depicted, with tall strange figures, among the numerous rock drawings in Utah, U.S.A. In Central America, gods were also shown emerging from the mouths of snakes. Serpents were depicted in Bronze Age rock art in Bohuslan in Sweden. (25) and snake worship was popular in parts of Early Europe.

hearth-serpent-pompei

Hearth  serpent at Pompeii

One of the surviving European serpent dances  is popular in Helston, Cornwall, England, in the form of the Furry Dance in which people dance in a snake-like procession through the town’s streets. It was also common for people to keep live snakes in their homes, in parts of Northern Europe, until the 16th century. (26)

furry-dance-helston

Furry Dance

Serpent worship in Africa dates back to the mists of time and some African tribes celebrate with snake dances. In the African Dahoman kingdom of Whydah, live pythons were kept in snake houses in every village (27) and among the West African Ashanti there are ‘sky-god serpent legends’ which are remarkably similar to others in Central America. (28) Could it be, as some alternative scholars believe, that the Negroid features on many huge Olmec, stone heads, in Mexico, are evidence of an early African presence on that side of ‘The Pond’?

serpentMound

The Great Serpent Mound , Ohio

There is an astronomically aligned serpent mound in Ohio, U.S.A , whose winding shape is reminiscent of sky-god symbolism, and there’s also one in Scotland where people enacted their religious rituals.(29) The serpent also played a role in the sky-god traditions of the Australian Aborigines and small serpent mounds were used by the Warramunga Aborigines in their rituals. (30)

warramunga-ceremony 

Australian Aboriginal Warramunga Ceremony.
Source: Customs  of the World which was published around 100 years ago. 

 For thousands of years, birds, and wings, have been used to represent flight and also beings from another world. There are winged gods in Assyrian religious art and angels, in Christianity, are always shown with wings. Across the Northern Hemisphere, and North America, the eagle was associated with gods.

winged-god

This winged god is from Zenaid A Ragozin’s Story of the Nations (per Perrot and Chipiez) 1900

eagle-headed-figure

The Eagle headed figure from Chaldea is from  Ragozin  (per Smith’s Chaldea) 

In South America, the condor was a companion of the white- robed  civilising god Viracocha and there is a huge effigy of one among the  mystical drawings in Peru’s Nazca Desert. The Church adopted the dove to represent the Holy Spirit and it often appears on church windows.

doves

Doves

This white bird was previously used by the Greeks to represent the Pleiades and it appears in several early deluge stories including the biblical version.  George Catlin, (1796- 1872), was an American traveller, and author, who painted portraits of the Native Americans, and he reported that ‘the Prairie Indians regarded the turtle dove as a messenger of the cycle of rebirth.*’(31)

*In both the Old and New Worlds, traditions relating to the beginning of a new era were often linked with the appearance of the Pleiades.

Most of the thousands of rock drawings, found around the world, are linear but in Bohuslan, in Sweden, parts of Africa, Easter Island, Utah and the early Mississippi culture in the U.S, and in the Canary Islands, there are figures of a ‘bird-man’. This mythical part bird part human probably represented a god. The Thunder Bird, is a supernatural bird in North American Native legends and it’s also depicted on totem poles on the North-West Pacific Coast. One might expect that it was only linked with thunder but one North American legends, which appears to be sky-god linked, suggests that the 1960’s British Sci-fi series ‘Thunderbirds’, with its space rescue vehicles, is much closer to the truth than its makers could ever have imagined. (32)

The spiral has featured  in world symbolism for thousands of years. Although it’s shown with varying numbers of winds, there is one, more complex, type that’s been found in many  countries from Ireland in the Far West to Siberia in the Far East (33), and it’s also used by the North American Hopi Indians. I have discussed this spiral, in more detail, in ‘ The Pleiades Legacy (The Old World)’, and I have shown that it appears to  be sky-god linked. There are numerous spirals among the thousands of ground drawings in Peru’s Nazca Desert and some of them are also star-god symbols (34).

NazcaSpiral

Nazca Drawings – Spiral

What’s also there is a set of concentric circles that  has also been found in other countries, in prominent places, such as on a mountain top in Brazil (35). In Ancient Sumeria, it was a symbol of the god Ea and other forms of it were linked with his Egyptian, and Incan, counterparts – the gods Osiris and Viracocha.

The amazing story of the star peoples’ visit was also alluded to  in star-lore, astrology, in the symbolic layout, and astronomical alignment, of some Stone Age sites and temples, in traditions, legends, allegorical stories, festivals, Early World art, place names, early folk customs, astrology, calendars, the sudden rise of civilisation 5,000 years ago in the era of sudden climate change, and especially in sacred numbers, which I have not discussed in this article, which play an important role in unlocking the hidden history of civilised man.
So, what these various sources suggest is that 5,000 years ago, our world was visited by aliens, at  a  time of greed and conflict, in the history of man, and they came here, with their craft, in a huge mother-ship. The visitors, who the Ancients associated with the Pleiades, had the appearance of tall white men dressed in long white robes. Among the high tech equipment, that they brought with them, were multi-purpose staffs and replicas of these were adopted as items of royal regalia by many people in the Early World. The star-people had previously provided advanced technical information, for those people deemed worthy of it, and they had also taught people agriculture. Some people, however, misused the knowledge that was given to them and the ‘gods’ destroyed them with a massive flood. This flood was the subject of the  hundreds of simple deluge stories that were told around the world. When the Europeans colonised the Americas, they suppressed the Native Americans’ star-god religions and replaced them with Christianity.  However, the visit of the star –people has never been completely forgotten and some Native Americans are still awaiting their return.

References:

  1. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy.
  2. Edmond Sollberger. The Babylonian Legend of the Flood. (p15)
  3. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy. (The New World).
  4.      “                “     “         “        “             “      “       “       .(p60-64)
  5.      “               “   The Pleiades Legacy. (p 14/15)
  6. E.A.Wallis Budge. The Book of the Dead. (p88)
    L. Taylor.Hansen. He walked the Americas. ( p87)
    Daniel G.Brinton. Myths of the Americas. (p196)
  7. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy.
  8. Joan Oates. Babylon. (p66)
  9. L.Taylor Hansen. He Walked the Americas. (p87)
    Leonard Farra. Genesis Seven. (p9)
  10.        “            “   The Pleiades Legacy.(The New World. (p152)
  11. E.A Wallis Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians. ( bk 1 p330)
  12. Leonard Farra.The Pleiades Legacy. (p180)
  13. Lawrence Blair with Lorne Blair. Ring of Fire.
  14. Elizabeth Van Buren. Lord of the Flame. (p51)
    Chris Wissler.Indians of the United States. (p132)
    Leonard Farra.The Pleiades Legacy. (p15)
    Francois Lenormant. Chaldean Magic, Its Origin & Development)
    Zenaide A.Rogozin, The Story of the Nations- Chaldea (p182)
    Wm.R.Fix. Star Maps. (p77)
  15. Wendell .H.Oswalt. This land was Theirs .( p472)
  16. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age ).
  17. Customs of the World.(Vol.I.(p183)
  18. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age).  ( p68-)
  19. Ibid. (p83)
  20. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy) ( The New World. (p26).
  21.  http://www.human-resonance.org/hummingbird_pyramid.html
  22.  Leonard Farra. Genesis Seven.( p33)
  23.  Anna Benson Gyles and Chloe Sayer. Of Gods and Men.(p77)
  24.  The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols. (p226)
  25.  Peter Gelling & Hilda Ellis Davidson. The Chariot of the Sun. (p40)
  26.  James Ferguson. Tree and Serpent Worship. (p22)
  27.  G.T.Bettany. The World Religions. (p57/8)
  28.  Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy. (The New World.( p24)
  29.  Customs of the World. (p164)
  30.  H.Davenport Adams. Curiosities and Superstition. (p192)
  31.  The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols. (p307)
  32.  Norval Morriseau. Legends of my People (The Great Ojibwa). (p6)
  33.  Adrian Fisher & Georg Gerstler. The Art of the Maze. (p19)
  34.  Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The NewWorld). (p142)
  35.  Erich Von Daniken. In Search of Ancient Gods.(p77)

Copyright 2014 by Leonard Farra

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Aliens & UFO's

Aliens blamed for spate of cow mutilations in Argentina after ‘strange lights’ seen in sky

© Express, UK

Sean Martin
Express, UK

Local farmers in Santa Fe, north-eastern Argentina, have seen seven cows killed and mutilated with some believing extraterrestrials are killing the bovine animals.

Witnesses claim the cows look as if they were attacked with lasers, while strange markings were also found on their tongues and genitals.

Farmers in the region are blaming aliens or the mythical chupacabra – a myth from South America which supposedly feeds on animals’ blood.

Norberto Bieri, owner of one of the seven cows, told local media: “They did not have tongues or flesh around the jaw, but they did not take any animals away or remove their bones.

“It seems as though the clean incisions were done with a laser as there is no trace of a knife being used. The cows did not have signs of blood and nothing had appeared to eat them.

“Some people say chupacabra or aliens did it. Others believe it was rodents.

“The truth is, the cows are dead and there are no answers as to why.”

Mr Bieri added that there had been other recent cases of mutilated animals.

Samples were sent to the lab to be analysed and results indicated the cattle had not been shot or poisoned, adding more mystery to the case.

However, experts offered their, more logical, opinion.

A rat-like animal called hocicudo is endemic to South America and some believe they are responsible.

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Aliens & UFO's

The day that the Aliens attacked Tuscany, in Italy

During the autumn of 1954 throughout western Europe several surprising events occurred of encounters with strange flying objects (UFOs) and encounters with extraterrestrial beings, according to the sources of the testimonies and victims that relate their experiences, most were peasants and villagers. Let’s talk about a case that happened in a small town in Tuscany, Italy.

Aliens attacked Tuscany

Rosa Lotti Dainelli was a forty-year-old peasant, mother of four children, owner of a farm called “La Collina” in the locality Cennina7 (a small town near Biicine, in the province of Arezzo, Italy).

Monday, November 1, 1954. That morning Rosa was going to go as usual to the church in her town where she used to go, that day she had got up very early at half past six in the morning as the feast of all was celebrated Saints and had several important things to do. Rosa that day decided to release a new dress that she had kept for the occasion and some new shoes.

He left his house with a large bouquet of flowers that he had taken the day before with the intention of going to church after going to the cemetery to visit his deceased relatives as usual on that day. He took a small path that would take her first to the place where he was going. Halfway through he realized that there was a lot of humidity at night because of the abundant morning dew, he stopped to take off his shoes so they would not get wet holding them with his left hand since in the other hand he was carrying the bouquet of flowers and he continued the path barefoot on the path.

Rosa went somewhat distracted looking at the flowers she was carrying and went through a small forest, when she suddenly stopped and was surprised to see a strange device parked on the ground by the side of the road.

Rosa for a few seconds remained motionless and not knowing how to act but minutes later decided to continue moving slowly down the path of the forest. The farmer, without being able to look away from the apparatus, was curiously observing this strange object as she continued to walk, an object which has the shape of two cones, was of a brilliant brown metallic color with golden reflections.

Afraid of this, she decided to approach very slowly to observe more details of that machine. Approached about 5 meters away from the device, Rosa from there could already appreciate the dimensions of that object, which had a height of more than 2.5 meters by almost 2 meters in diameter and a little further down there was a small door which was totally open.Aliens attacked Tuscany

Curiosity overcame him at that moment, making him approach the opening, where he could see two small armchairs facing what looked like a very illuminated board. A kind of broad band surrounded the junction of the cones and above this band were observed several small windows similar to blinking lights similar to “portholes”. Suddenly Rosa heard a noise among the branches and in the distance, a few meters away, she saw two little beings appear among the bushes, which caused the woman to be petrified by such an apparition.

They were beings that seemed very smiling, gesticulating, without giving any sign of being a threat to her. In fact it seemed as if they were trying to make themselves understood and wanted to start a conversation with her, they had small and very dark eyes (according to Rosa), they were short (they would not be more than one meter tall), they looked very Similar to humans, their faces were almost perfect, although their trail was rather aged by the wrinkled skin.

The beings wore a bluish-gray one-piece suit with a cape on their backs and over their heads they wore a kind of helmet. They approached her slowly with a funny and friendly face speaking loud and sharp in a strange language. Rosa at that moment remained motionless, so the beings took the opportunity to jump on him and snatch the bouquet and his shoes. At that moment, Rosa proved that despite the size, these beings had great strength.

She tried to recover her belongings, but the one who was closest to her insisted on taking everything she had in her hands. Then Rosa already panicked for fear of being harmed and ran to the trees, hiding as she could in the forest.

When he left, he saw how these creatures stayed in custody and with great curiosity inspected the bouquet of flowers, took some objects that had been left on the ground and then approached the ship, deposited everything inside and then returned to the place and began to search the surroundings are supposed to be looking for Rosa who already died of fear, continued crawling among the grass and thus managed to get away more than 50 m. Once refugee, from that place he observed how those beings, climbed the small ship minutes later and closed the door of the ship. Soon after, with a great sonic vibration and releasing a lot of smoke and flames, that device began to rise and in an instant disappeared into the sky ..

Aliens attacked Tuscany

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Aliens & UFO's

Life on Enceladus? complex organic molecules on Saturn’s satellite?

From stories about the inhabitants of the Moon to the costly research programs set up by space agencies, identifying the presence of life on another heavenly body seems to be an endless concern for mankind. As the margins of the known Universe are still moving away from the Earth, the possibility of discovering living beings on another planet is increasing even though we have no certainty, but only hope and probability.

For the moment, we are grateful for these probabilities, awaiting the day that it will undoubtedly confirm that we and our planet do not represent the only life-assembling complex of this huge universe.

But to host life, a heavenly body must give it certain conditions. (Here, it seems that we still need to expand our ideas a little, because we tend to believe that any living thing on another planet must be made up just like the living things on Earth, not necessarily like them, but be the same at the molecular level.

If one of the great scientific discoveries of recent years – bacteria capable of using arsenic instead of phosphorus – is confirmed – that means that our perspective on what is living must change. And then, it is possible that some planets with attributes that today seem inappropriate to become more interesting in the future in the light of our changed concepts.)

But, by the way, all people, at all times, think about the ideas of their time, so let us also thank ourselves to the contemporary ideas regarding what life means and the conditions that a planet must fulfill for that the miracle of life should appear there and perpetuate.

Extraterrestrial life could develop into Enceladus’s hidden oceans

The first observations of Saturn’s satellite were made in 2005 when hydrothermal jets were detected for the first time. Now, there may be the answer that raises the chances of alien life.

“From where Enceladus has the energy to support the phenomenon has always been a mystery to us,”said astrobiologist Gael Choblet of Nantes University in France.

“I have now considered with greater detail how the structure and composition of the solid core can play a key role in generating the necessary energy,”he added.

Enceladus
This diagram illustrates the possible interior of Saturn’s moon Enceladus based on a gravity investigation by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and NASA’s Deep Space Network, reported in April 2014.

It is estimated that the ice thickness is 25 kilometers, but only one kilometer around the southern polar region, where these hydrothermal phenomena occur.

The small pieces of minerals detected in jets suggest that salts and silica dust are formed by the interaction of water that can reach up to 90 degrees Celsius with the rocks of the Enceladus satellite. For this interaction to take place, there must be space in the core for water to coexist, so the core must be porous.

“Whatever the mineralogical composition of the core, it must contain water,” Choblet explained, “maybe 20-30% water.”

In the new simulations, the team found that the tides generated by the orbit around Saturn can heat the water inside Enceladus due to the frictional force produced as the liquid circulates through rock fragments.

When the water rises in temperature (reaching up to 90 degrees in the orange sections in the image below), it rises through the porous core through the ocean to the surface in the form of jets.

Enceladus
Saturn’s moon Enceladus has ‘all of the basic requirements for life as we know it’, claims NASA

Previous studies state that this heat would have been from radioactive material, but if that was the case, the process would have provided the heat needed to emerge the jets for several million years, so somehow the radioactive material would have appeared recently on Enceladus.

The new theory offers a more plausible explanation, with a phenomenon that takes place over a longer period.

What’s most interesting is that the warm water, the long time and the chemical composition found on Enceladus are key elements in the emergence of life.

Thus, this study can be the basis for the search for extraterrestrial life.

Scientists have found evidence of complex organic molecules on Saturn’s satellite

Using mass spectrometry data collected by NASA’s Cassini probe, scientists have found that large organic carbon molecules are ejected through the cracks on the frozen surface of Enceladus, one of the many natural satellites of the giant gas giant, Saturn.

Researchers at the Southwest Research Institute, who discovered the presence of these molecules, believe that the chemical reactions between the solid core of the satellite and the warm water in the ocean under ice are responsible for these complex compounds, Phys.

“ONCE AGAIN, WE ARE AMAZED BY ENCELADUS. PREVIOUSLY, WE IDENTIFIED ONLY THE SIMPLEST ORGANIC MOLECULES CONTAINING A FEW CARBON ATOMS, BUT EVEN THOSE WERE VERY INTERESTING, “SAID CHRISTOPHER GLEIN, A SCHOLAR AND CO-AUTHOR OF THE WORK RECENTLY PUBLISHED IN NATURE.

“NOW WE HAVE FOUND ORGANIC MOLECULES WITH MASSES OF OVER 200 ATOMIC MASS UNITS. THESE ARE TEN TIMES HEAVIER THAN METHANE. WITH COMPLEX MOLECULES EMANATING FROM THE LIQUID WATER OF THE OCEAN, THIS SATELLITE IS THE ONLY BODY BESIDES THE EARTH THAT SIMULTANEOUSLY MEETS ALL THE NECESSITIES OF LIFE AS WE KNOW IT. ”

“EVEN AFTER ITS END, CASSINI CONTINUES TO TEACH US ABOUT ENCELADUS’S POTENTIAL IN ASTROBIOLOGY,” GLEIN ADDED.

Enceladus
View of Enceladus’s orbit from the side, showing Enceladus in relation to Saturn’s E ring

During the flight, near Enceladus, on October 28, 2015, with the help of the INMS (Neutral Mass Spectrometer) instrument, molecular hydrogen could be detected when the ship passed through a jet.

Previous studies have already shown that the satellite has an ocean under the ice layer and above the solid core. The molecular hydrogen jet is probably formed by the geochemical reactions between water and rocks in hydrothermal environments.

“HYDROGEN PROVIDES A SOURCE OF CHEMICAL ENERGY THAT SUPPORTS MICROBES LIVING IN THE EARTH’S OCEANS NEAR HYDROTHERMAL SPRINGS,” SAID HUNTER WAITE, THE SCIENTIST WHO HEADS THE TEAM AT INMS AND CO-AUTHOR OF THE NEW STUDY. “ONCE YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FOOD FOR MICROBES, THE NEXT QUESTION IS ABOUT THE NATURE OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE OCEAN. THIS WORK IS THE FIRST STEP IN THAT UNDERSTANDING OF THE COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BEYOND OUR EXPECTATIONS. ”

“ALSO, THE FINDINGS IN THIS STUDY HAVE IMPORTANT SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION,” GLEIN ADDED. “A FUTURE SHIP CAN FLY THROUGH THE JET TO ANALYZE THESE COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETER TO HELP US DETERMINE EXACTLY HOW TO FORM THEM.”

Year after year, benefiting from advances in exploration technology, astronomers discover more planets that seem to be “good for life.” Let us understand: we do not necessarily speak of “good for us”, that is, good to live on, but some that offer similar conditions – identical – to those on Earth, conditions that could allow them to live there beings, adapted to those conditions.

And on Earth there are many places where people do not live, but they live enough life forms, some with a very original metabolism. And some creatures on the Earth can withstand almost unimaginable harsh conditions.

If experts will persuade those who decide the money destination to provide funds for the preparation of such a mission, Enceladus could become the next star on alien life searches.

He deserves it, say “his admirers”, because he has a lot to offer – he has qualities that can feed hope much more than the planet Mars, the one that “consumes” currently the funds for the research of the profile.

Well, what can I say? Let’s be healthy to take the time when the world explodes the news that the space mission to Enceladus has found signs of biological activity there, undeniable evidence that there is what we have been looking for decades – life-forms living on another heavenly body from our solar system.

References:
  1. https://news.nationalgeographic.com
  2. https://www.wired.com
  3. http://www.descopera.ro

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