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Elon Musk just revealed new details about Starlink, a plan to surround Earth with 12,000 high-speed internet satellites. Here’s how it might work.

SpaceX, the rocket company founded by Elon Musk, is trying to launch an internet revolution.

SpaceX plans to launch a Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida. Crammed inside the nosecone will be 60 tabletop-size satellites designed to test an internet network called Starlink.

The launch was originally scheduled for Wednesday, but was delayed twice, and is now set to take place in “about a week,” SpaceX said. The delay, it said, is to allow time for a software update and to “triple-check everything.”

Starlink, once complete, would consist of nearly 12,000 satellites — more than six times the number of all operational spacecraft now in orbit. The goal is to finish the project in 2027, thereby blanketing the Earth with high-speed, low-latency, and affordable internet access.

Even partial deployment of Starlink would benefit the financial sector and bring pervasive broadband internet to rural and remote areas. Completing the project may cost $10 billion or more,according to Gwynne Shotwell, the president and chief operating officer of SpaceX. But Musk said during a call with reporters on Wednesday that it could net the company perhaps $30 to $50 billion per year.

It’s not going to be easy to pull off, though, as Musk acknowledged.

“There is a lot of new technology here. So it’s possible that some of these satellites may not work,” he said. In fact, Musk added that there’s a “small possibility that all of the satellites will not work.”

During Wednesday’s call, Musk also provided new information about Starlink. Industry experts have also used public Federal Communications Commission filings from SpaceX to make educated guesses about Starlink’s workings and scope.

“This is the most exciting new network we’ve seen in a long time,” Mark Handley, a computer-networking researcher at University College London who’s studied Starlink, told Business Insider. He added that the project could affect the lives of “potentially everybody.”

Here’s how Starlink might work and how it could change the internet as we know it.

Starlink aims to solve two big problems with the modern internet: a lack of pervasive and affordable connections, and a significant lag between distant locations. SpaceX could make billions of dollars by fixing those issues.

SpaceX founder Elon Musk.

SpaceX plans to launch 60 close-to-production Starlink satellites at a time with its Falcon 9 rockets. Each satellite weighs about 500 pounds (227 kilograms) and is roughly the size of an office desk. They’ll deploy into orbit about 273 miles (440 kilometers) up.

SpaceX stuffed a fleet of 60 Starlink internet-providing satellites into the nosecone of a Falcon 9 rocket for a launch in May.

Source: SpaceX

Musk said it will take about 400 satellites to establish “minor” internet coverage and 800 satellites for “moderate” or “significant operational” coverage. The immediate major goal is to deploy nearly 1,600 satellites about 273 miles (440 kilometers) high.

An illustration of Starlink.

To understand the motivation behind SpaceX’s Starlink project, you have to understand the current limitations of our internet infrastructure. The internet is, in its simplest form, a series of connected computers. We pay service providers for routing our data to and from a web of devices.

A router connecting multiple computers to the internet via cables.

A lot of our data is sent in pulses of light through fiber-optic cables. More packets of information can go farther with a stronger signal that way than they could via electrical signals sent through metal wires.

Source: Business Insider

But fiber is fairly expensive and tedious to lay, especially between locations on opposite sides of the Earth.

Even within a country, achieving a direct wired path from one location to another is rare. Relying on ground cables also leaves many regions poorly connected.

Cables have a speed limit, too: Light moves through the vacuum of space about 47% faster than it can through solid fiber-optic glass.

A prism bends and splits up white light into a rainbow of colors because the speed of light is slower in glass than it is in air.

Source: Florida State University

This isn’t an issue for normal browsing or watching TV. But over international distances, Handley said, it leads to high latency, or lag. The time delay is especially pronounced in long-distance videoconferencing and voice calls made over the web.

Data beamed over existing satellites is some of the laggiest. That’s because nearly all those spacecraft orbit from 22,236 miles (35,786 kilometers) up, where they can “float” above one location on Earth. That’s enough distance to cause a more than half-second of lag.

An illustration of two geostationary satellites, which orbit about 22,300 miles above Earth’s surface.

Source: University College London

Handley said that latency matters most to financial institutions. With markets that move billions of dollars in fractions of a second, any delay can lead to big losses over a competitor with a less laggy (and thus more up-to-date) connection to the web.

High-frequency-trading companies will try almost any new technology to learn about market changes before a competitor.

SpaceX wants to cut that long-distance lag while also providing internet access almost anywhere in the world.

The planet as seen from low-Earth orbit, or about 250 miles above the surface.

Source: Business Insider

In February 2018, SpaceX launched its first two Starlink prototypes, called Tintin-A and Tintin-B. The test helped demonstrate the basic concept and refine the satellite design.

A camera on the second stage of a Falcon 9 rocket shows Earth, the freshly deployed Paz satellite, and two experimental SpaceX satellites.

Source: Business Insider

In the launch planned for tonight, SpaceX will deploy each of the 60 satellites from the stack by very slowly rotating it in microgravity. “This will look kind of weird compared to normal satellite deployments,” Musk said. “It will seem like spreading a deck of cards on a table.”

A magician does a trick with a deck of playing cards.

Source: Business Insider

From there, the satellites will use Hall thrusters (or ion engines) to rise to an altitude of about 342 miles (550 kilometers). This will be about 65 times closer to Earth than geostationary satellites — and that much less laggy.

A 13-kilowatt Hall thruster, or ion engine, tested at NASA’s Glenn Research Center.

Each final Starlink spacecraft will link to four others using lasers. No other internet-providing satellites do this, Handley said, and it’s what would make them special: They can beam data over Earth’s surface at nearly the speed of light, bypassing the limitations of fiber-optics.

An illustration of Starlink showing how each satellite connects to four others with laser beams.

Source: University College London

This initial batch of satellites won’t use laser interlinks. Instead, Musk says the company will (only at first) link them via ground connections. A handful of steerable antennas that can track satellites will be used to “talk” to the satellites.

Satellite-tracking antennas in South Texas.

In the future, Musk says, users will connect to Starlink with terminals that cost about $200 and can steer an antenna beam without moving parts. “It basically looks like a sort of a small- to medium-size pizza,” Musk said. SpaceX has asked the FCC to build 1 million of the small ground stations.

Rows of pizza boxes.

Source: FCC

That’s small enough to add to a home. “There’s also no reason one of these couldn’t be flat and thin enough to put on the roof of a car,” Handley said.

A Tesla Model Y.

Musk said Starlink terminals would also easily fit on ships, airplanes, and other mobile devices, enabling these vehicles to have better broadband connections than what’s available today.

Musk said just 1,000 satellites are required “for the system to be economically viable.” He noted that’s “obviously a lot of satellites, but it’s way less than 10,000 or 12,000.”

SpaceX founder Elon Musk.

Once Starlink has hundreds of laser-linked satellites in its network, their connections could move data at close to light-speed along fairly direct paths. Handley said he thinks Starlink’s initial layout is designed to prioritize east-west connections.

An illustration of Starlink showing the shortest path in the network between New York and London.

Starlink’s best paths will always change, since the satellites will always be moving. But the typical round-trip data speed from New York to London, for example, may be 15% less laggy than fiber-optic connections and 40% less laggy than the internet generally.

In this example, Starlink has many options to meet or exceed an ideal and theoretical fiber-optic connection’s speed.

The advantages of Starlink improve dramatically over very long distances. (Over short distances, Handley said, fiber-optic will win.)

An illustration of Starlink showing the shortest path in the network between London and Singapore.

Handley said north-south connections wouldn’t be as good at first, as data would zigzag far out of the way to make its shortest round trip. So initially, Starlink might not be as fast as fiber for these connections.

An illustration of Starlink showing the shortest path in the network between London and Johannesburg, South Africa.

After it gets about 1,600 satellites orbiting at 342 miles up, SpaceX hopes to launch another 2,800 satellites at altitudes between 684 and 823 miles off Earth’s surface (1,100 to 1,325 kilometers). Some would orbit over Earth’s poles to solve tricky north-south connections and help bring access to Alaska.

This image shows roughly 4,400 satellites of Starlink’s first phase deployed in three orbital “shells.”

Half of the maximum 4,400 low-Earth orbit satellites are supposed to be deployed by 2024, and the full constellation by 2027. If SpaceX doesn’t hit that deadline, the FCC can freeze the maximum number of satellites at the number the company already has in orbit.

Source: Space News

But SpaceX is not stopping with 4,400 satellites in low-Earth orbit. It also plans to roll out 7,500 satellites in very-low-Earth orbits, or about 210 miles (338 kilometers) in altitude.

In rural and remote areas, even a partially complete Starlink network could bring broadband internet speeds rivaling those found in well networked cities. About 800 would provide global coverage, Musk said.

While financial companies and teleconference businesses should benefit from Starlink, Handley said, regular internet users probably wouldn’t see much benefit because of limited capacity.

Each satellite launch could handle about 40,000 users streaming 4K video at once, based on statements provided by Musk. However, the exact numbers depend on how many satellites are launched, how well ground stations work, and a variety of other details.

Sources: NetflixMIT

“If millions of people want to hop on to Starlink all at one time, that is just not going to work” within a populated area like a city, Handley said. The problem is akin to a cell tower being overloaded with too many users, which can slow or disrupt connectivity.

A mobile network tower.

With so many new satellites in orbit, spaceflight experts are also concerned about the potential to create space junk that could damage other spacecraft.

An illustration of a satellite damaged by space debris.

Pieces of space debris can travel a dozen times faster than a bullet shot from a gun. At such speeds, even a small piece of metal can blow apart a satellite, leading to the creation of more high-speed debris.

A simulation of space debris created by India’s Mission Shakti anti-satellite missile test on March 27.

Handley said SpaceX’s initial plan to combat this problem seems sensible, though. Each satellite could use its Hall thruster to drop from orbit and destroy itself. The first Starlink satellites will also be at low-enough altitudes for atmospheric gases to slow them down and crash them back to Earth within one to five years.

An illustration of a spacecraft breaking apart and burning up as it reenters Earth’s atmosphere.

“They’ll be going through a very rapid learning phase, and there’s a fair chance they’ll get some of it wrong,” Handley said of SpaceX.

In addition, Musk said each Starlink satellite will be fed the latest NORAD tracking information for debris. The spacecraft will use artificial intelligence software and its thruster to avoid collisions with known hunks of space junk.

An illustration of a field of orbital debris, or space junk, circling Earth.

For the indefinite future, SpaceX plans to launch 60 Starlink satellites at a time with its Falcon 9 rockets, which are partly reusable and have already successfully launched nearly five dozen space missions.

The Es’hail-2 mission launches toward space aboard one of SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rockets on November 15.

But if SpaceX is to send up all 12,000 satellites by the end of 2027, it will have to launch, on average, about 120 Starlink spacecraft a month.

Flames spewing from the nine engines of a Falcon 9 rocket as it launches the Es’hail-2 mission to orbit.

That translates to two Falcon 9 rocket launches a month, on SpaceX’s dime, on top of its growing list of commercial and government launch customers.

SpaceX’s Crew Dragon capsule atop a Falcon 9 rocket in Cape Canaveral, Florida. The spacecraft is part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program to launch astronauts into orbit from US soil.

This also does not account for the replacement of satellites, which are designed to last about five years. “It’s not just doing it once. It’s completely ongoing,” Handley said. “So you’re committed to launching 12,000 every five years.”

A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launching toward space carrying the Spanish Paz satellite and two experimental Starlink satellites.

Handley said he doesn’t think SpaceX’s existing rockets are sufficient for full deployment. “I think this requires Starship,” he said. Starship, a giant, reusable system that’s still in development, could launch hundreds of Starlink satellites at once, perhaps at 10% of the cost of a Falcon 9 launch.

An illustration of SpaceX’s upcoming Starship spaceship (left), Super Heavy rocket booster (right), and integrated Starship-Super Heavy launch system (center).

So while Musk often speaks about Starship in terms of settling Mars, Handley said he thinks Starlink is dependent on it, too. “You will have these very, very capable, fully reusable launchers sitting around waiting to go to Mars every two years,” he said. “What are you going to do with them in between?”

Musk and SpaceX are developing a stainless-steel rocket ship called Starship.

SpaceX is developing Starship concurrently in Texas and Florida. Musk said he plans to present new details about the system next month.

A prototype of SpaceX’s Starship rocket stands vertically at the company’s launch site in Boca Chica, Texas.

Correction (May 26, 2019): A bandwidth of 1 Tbps per launch might support 40,000 users trying to stream 4K (or ultra-high-definition) content at once, not 1,100 users, as we previously reported.

This story has been updated with new information.

Source www.businessinsider.com

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Science & Technology

Smartphones have two more years left to live: what will happen after?

Cristiano Amon, Qualcomm brand leader, predicted the imminent demise of smartphones. According to him, after 2 years they will slowly leave the market of mobile gadgets, and a new device will be available to users. The success of this evolution is directly dependent on the proliferation of 5G technology.

This is not an alternative, but evolution

In an interview with Business Insider, Mr. Amon said that top-end modern manufacturers are already developing a new device. In the near future, it will become as common as smartphones today. It is the appearance of these devices that will gradually negate the demand for phones.

According to the expert, now Microsoft, Facebook, Amazon and Apple have concentrated on the development of virtual and augmented reality (VR, AR) technology. As soon as commercial 5G networks start functioning in most countries of the world, the above brands will be the first to launch smart glasses on the market. They will have nothing to do with the modern prototype. These will not be bulky helmets, but the most ordinary, familiar-looking glasses.

Cristiano Amon notes: this will not be a replacement for the smartphone, but simply a device of a completely new type. But it will definitely be higher at the evolutionary technological level.

Smart glasses will be suitable for everyday use. They will provide the necessary communications, Internet access, the use of social networks – in general, all the functionality for which smartphones are now being bought. And that’s not it.

For example, smart glasses will simplify user identification. Retinal scanning is one of the most reliable authorization options. This will provide instant access to the necessary proprietary information. Voice calls with the display of the “hologram” of the interlocutor is also a completely feasible technology.

There will be 5G – there will be progress

Much depends on the development of 5G: it is the high speed and stability of the connection with a minimum of delays that will make it possible to implement all plans. Using a high-speed connection, you can transfer almost all communication processes to the cloud, which will make future gadgets easier and thinner.

Amon claims that all this is not his fantasies, but real forecasts. He personally saw prototypes that are already able to surprise. And it is true. For example, Apple is preparing a presentation of its own AR-headset by the year 2023. Amazon is already trying to release massive solutions (not very impressive yet). Microsoft is focusing on the business segment. Facebook collaborated with Ray-Ban. They intend to show the fruit of collaboration until 2025.

Of the current realities, the replacement of many phone functions with a fitness bracelet is most popular. The most popular, of course, Xiaomi Mi Band

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Science & Technology

Natural born alpha males. How do leaders emerge?

Among those in leadership positions, there are many carriers of a particular variation of the CHRNB3 gene, British researchers found. Apparently, it is somehow connected with the innate leadership qualities. However, there are works showing that heredity is not the main thing and completely different factors contribute to the high social status.

In 2013, researchers from University College London (UK) reported that they discovered a DNA site responsible for human leadership qualities. It was a variant of the gene for the acetylcholine receptor CHRNB3.

This is a receptor for neurotransmitters – substances that transmit a nerve signal to the brain. One of the varieties of CHRNB – rs4950 – is more common in the DNA of people in leadership positions. Scientists came to such conclusions by analyzing the genetic data of four thousand volunteers and information about their professional and personal lives. However, scientists estimate the contribution of the rs4950 variant to the formation of leadership qualities at 24 percent probability. The rest depends on other factors.

As suggested by Chinese neurophysiologists, there may be a special zone in the cerebral cortex, the stimulation of which can turn the most insecure person into a leader. So far, it has been found only in mice. Scientists pushed two adult males in a narrow aisle and watched their reaction. As a rule, such situations ended in conflict, and one animal replaced another. But it was not only his physical strength. Rodent behavior was influenced by past victories and defeats. So, the mice behaved more aggressively if they were lucky in the course of preliminary experiments, or they were overly cautious if they had previously lost in fights with alpha males.

The researchers hypothesized that information about these events is stored in the frontal cortex of animals. They infected mice with a retrovirus, which caused neurons to produce proteins, which, in turn, made nerve cells susceptible to light: when they were irradiated with a blue laser, they turned on or off. Modified in this way, the mice again began to push against each other. And it turned out that if you activate these neurons in the omega brain, then the animals begin to push even the strongest and obviously dangerous males for them. This increased the number of their victories and increased the social status of losers among the congeners.

But disabling a group of nerve cells in the prefrontal cortex of alpha males, on the contrary, made them too cautious. They retreated even in absolutely winning situations when rivals were much weaker. A similar area may be present in the human brain, the authors note. The study would help to better understand the causes of some mental illnesses. After all, it is known that men who consider themselves macho and often demonstrate their power over women are prone to mental disorders.

Unhappy alpha males

Health problems are common for alpha males in many animal populations. And it’s not just about the increased risk of injury. As Kenyan and American biologists have found, dominant males live in a state of constant intense stress. As a result, too many glucocorticoids accumulate in their blood – hormones that stimulate the body to work in minutes of danger. In a calm time, an increased concentration of these substances negatively affects the functioning of the immune system.

Scientists have observed for five years five flocks of baboons. They recorded the behavior of monkeys within communities and periodically measured the levels of testosterone and glucocorticoids in the excrement of males. It turned out that the concentration of stress hormones in the feces of leaders is on average several times higher than in the excrement of their deputies – the so-called beta males. These individuals support the leader and, as a result, enjoy the same benefits as he.

Moreover, the amount of glucocorticoids in the feces of the leaders was approximately the same as in the waste of the lowest-ranking males. It turned out that they experience the same level of stress, and in this sense, the position of the leader is not better than the status of “omega”. Earlier, it was shown that outsiders in primacy communities are weaker in immunity and more often suffer from heart problems and endocrine disruption. But with an increase in their position in the hierarchy, the monkeys begin to recover. As it turned out,  until they become leaders.

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Why Hide Ether From Mendeleev’s Periodic Table?

There are few who know that D. I. Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century, who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied significance in revealing the secrets of the Creation and to improve the people’s economic life.

The table of chemical elements officially taught at schools and universities is a Mendeleev-forged version. Mendeleev, in a work entitled “An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether“, provided a slightly different table (Polytechnic Museum, Moscow).

The last time, in an undistorted form, the real Mendeleev Table was published in 1906 in St. Petersburg (textbook “Fundamentals of Chemistry”, VIII edition). The differences are visible: the zero group is moved to the 8th, and the element is lighter than hydrogen, with which the table should begin and which is conventionally called Newtonium (ether), is generally excluded.

An Attempt at a Chemical Conception of Universal Ether ” (Polytechnical Museum, Moscow)

Mendeleev was the organizer and the permanent leader (1869-1905) of a Russian public scientific association called the Russian Chemical Society (since 1872 – the Russian Physical and Chemical Society), which published throughout its existence the world-famous journal of the RFLF, until the liquidation by the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1930 – of both the Society and its journal.

But few know that Mendeleev was one of the last world-famous Russian scientists of the late 19th century who defended the idea of ​​ether as a global substantial entity in world science, who gave it fundamental scientific and applied importance in revealing the secrets of Being and for improving the people’s economic life.

Even fewer are those who know that after the sudden (!!?) death of Mendeleev (01/27/1907), he was then recognized as an outstanding scientist by all scientific communities around the world except the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. His main discovery – the “Periodic Law” – was deliberately and universally falsified by the world academic science.

There are also very few who know that all of the above is tied together by the thread of sacrificial service of the best representatives and bearers of the immortal Russian Physical Thought for the benefit of people, public good, in spite of the growing wave of irresponsibility in the upper layers of society of that time.

The great alchemist, Mendeleev, revealed in his table the secret of the Creation of the physical world from … ether.

At First it was Ether. It is from ether that the substance of the material world appears, which is divided into four elements (fire, air, earth, water) – and again through radioactive substances at the end of the table they turn back into ether … All this can be traced in Mendeleev’s table.

The gravity problem and the tasks of the entire energy sector cannot be imagined to be really solved without a real understanding of the ether as a global medium that transfers energy over distances . A real understanding of the ether cannot be achieved by ignoring its chemistry and not considering it an elementary substance” 

Modern material science has limited itself to the framework of the matter, and therefore is not capable of explaining what goes beyond this framework. The end of the 19th century was the dawn of a “different” science, but the puppeteers led mankind to a materialistic impasse and the discoveries of Mendeleev, Tesla and other ascetics were nothing to them.

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