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Egyptian Maze Keeps Secrets of Ancient Civilizations

Everyone knows about the existence of mysterious pyramids in Egypt, but not everyone knows that a huge labyrinth is hidden under them. The secrets stored there are able to reveal the secrets of not only Egyptian civilization, but of all mankind.

This ancient Egyptian labyrinth was located near Birket-Karun Lake, west of the Nile River, 80 kilometers south of the modern city of Cairo. It was built back in 2300 BC and was a building surrounded by a high wall, where there were fifteen hundred ground and as many underground rooms.

The total area of ​​the maze was 70 thousand square meters. Visitors were not allowed to inspect the underground labyrinth premises; there were tombs for pharaohs and crocodiles – sacred animals in Egypt. Above the entrance to the Egyptian labyrinth, the following words were inscribed:

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“Madness or death is what the weak or the vicious find here, only the strong and good find life and immortality here”

Many frivolous entered this door and did not leave it. This is the abyss that brings back only the brave in spirit. The complex system of corridors, courtyards and rooms in the maze was so confusing that without a guide, an outsider could never find a way or a way out of it. The labyrinth was plunged into absolute darkness, and when some doors were opened, they made a terrible sound, similar to peals of thunder or the roar of a thousand lions.

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Before the great holidays, mystery rituals were held in the labyrinth and sacrifices were made, including human sacrifices. So the ancient Egyptians showed their respect to the god Sebek – a huge crocodile. In ancient manuscripts, information has been preserved that crocodiles, which reached 30 meters in length, actually lived in the maze.

The Egyptian labyrinth is an unusually large structure – the dimensions of its base are 305 x 244 meters. The Greeks admired this maze more than any other Egyptian building, with the exception of the pyramids. In antiquity it was called the “labyrinth”, and it served as a model for the labyrinth in Crete.

With the exception of a few columns, it is now completely destroyed. Everything that we know about it is based on ancient evidence, as well as on the results of excavations carried out by Sir Flinders Petri, who attempted to reconstruct this building. The earliest mention belongs to the Greek historian Herodotus of Halicarnassus (about 484-430 BC), he mentions in his History that Egypt is divided into twelve administrative districts ruled by twelve rulers, and then gives his own impressions of this building :

“And so they decided to leave a common monument, and having decided this, they erected a labyrinth a little higher than Lake Meridov, near the so-called Crocodile City. I saw this maze inside: it is beyond any description. After all, if all the walls and great constructions erected by the Hellenes were assembled, then in general it would turn out that they spent less labor and money than this labyrinth alone.

Meanwhile, the temples in Ephesus and on Samos are very remarkable. Of course, the pyramids are huge structures and each of them is worth in size many of the creations of Hellenic building art combined, although they are also great. However, the labyrinth is larger than these pyramids. It has twenty courtyards with gates one on the other, with six facing north and six facing south, adjacent to each other.

Outside, around them there is a single wall. Inside this wall there are chambers of two genera: some underground, others above the earth, number 3000, namely 1500 of each. I myself had to go through the elevated chambers and examine them, and I speak of them as an eyewitness. I know about the underground chambers only from stories: the Egyptian caretakers never wanted to show them to me, saying that there are tombs of the kings who built this labyrinth, as well as the tombs of sacred crocodiles.

Therefore, I speak of the lower chambers only by hearsay. The upper chambers that I had to see surpass all the creations of human hands. The passage through the chambers and the winding passages through the courtyards, being very confusing, cause a feeling of endless amazement: from the courtyards you go to the chambers, from the chambers to galleries with colonnades, then again to the chambers and from there back to the courtyards.

There are stone roofs everywhere, as well as walls, and these walls are covered with many relief images. Each courtyard is surrounded by columns of carefully fitted pieces of white stone. And on the corner at the end of the labyrinth a pyramid was erected with a height of 40 orgies (240 feet), with huge figures carved on it. An underground passage leads to the pyramid. ”

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Manetho, the high priest of Egypt from Heliopolis, who wrote in Greek, notes in his work, preserved in fragments, dating from the III century BC. e. and dedicated to the history and religion of the ancient Egyptians, that the creator of the labyrinth was the fourth pharaoh of the XII dynasty, Amenemhat III, whom he calls Laharez, Lampares or Labaris, and about which he writes:

“He ruled for eight years. In the Arsinoi nome, he built himself a tomb – a maze with many rooms.”

Between 60 and 57 years BC. e. Greek historian Diodorus of Sicily temporarily lived in Egypt. In his Historical Library, he claims that the Egyptian labyrinth is in good condition.

“After the death of this ruler, the Egyptians became independent again and elevated to the throne a compatriot ruler, Mendes, whom some call Marrus. He did not conduct any military operations, but built for himself a tomb, known as the Labyrinth.

This Labyrinth is notable not only for its size, but for the cunning and mastery of the internal device, which cannot be reproduced. For when a person enters this Labyrinth, he cannot find the way back, and he needs the help of an experienced guide, to whom the device of the building is known thoroughly.

Some also say that Daedalus, who visited Egypt and admired this wonderful creation, built a similar labyrinth for the Cretan king Minos, in which was kept, as the myth says, a monster named Minotaur. However, the Cretan labyrinth no longer exists, it is possible that some of the rulers razed it to the ground, while the Egyptian labyrinth stood in complete inviolability to our time. “

Diodorus did not see this building, he only gathered together the data available to him. When describing the Egyptian labyrinth, he used two sources and was unable to recognize that both of them tell about the same building. Soon after compiling his first description, he begins to consider these building as a common monument to the twelve nomarchs of Egypt:

“For two years there was no ruler in Egypt, and riots and murders began among the people, then the twelve most important leaders united in a holy union. They gathered for a council in Memphis and concluded an agreement on mutual fidelity and friendship and proclaimed themselves rulers.

They ruled in accordance with their oaths and promises, maintained mutual consent for fifteen years, after which they decided to build a common tomb for themselves. Their plan was that, as in life, they cherished a cordial arrangement for each other, they were given equal honors, and after the death their bodies should rest in one place, and the monument erected on their orders should symbolize the glory and power of those buried there.

This was to surpass the creations of their predecessors. And so, choosing a place for their monument near Lake Meridov in Libya, they built a tomb of magnificent stone in the shape of a square, however, in size, each side of it was equal to one court. Descendants could never surpass the mastery of carved ornaments and any other work.

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A hall surrounded by columns was built behind the fence, forty on each side, the roof of the courtyard was made of solid stone, hollowed out from the inside and decorated with elaborate and multi-colored paintings. The courtyard was also adorned with magnificent picturesque images of the places where each of the rulers was from, as well as the temples and shrines there.

On the whole, it is known about these rulers that the scale of their plans for the construction of their tomb was so great – both in terms of its size and cost – that if they were not overthrown before the construction was completed, their creation would remain unsurpassed. And after these rulers reigned in Egypt for fifteen years, it so happened that the rule passed to one person … “

Unlike Diodorus, the Greek geographer and historian Strabo of Amasa (about 64 BC – 24 AD) gives a description based on personal impressions. In 25 BC e. he, as part of the retinue of the Prefect of Egypt, Guy Cornelius Gallus, traveled to Egypt, about which he described in detail in his “Geography”:

“In addition, in this nome there is a labyrinth – a structure that can be compared with the pyramids – and next to it is the tomb of the king, the builder of the labyrinth. Near the first entrance to the canal, after going forward 30 or 40 courts, we will reach a flat area in the form of a trapezoid, where the village is located, as well as a large palace, consisting of many palace rooms, numbering as many as in the old days there were nomes, because there are so many halls which are surrounded by adjacent colonnades, all these colonnades are located in one row and along one wall, which is similar to a long wall with halls in front of it, and the paths leading to them are directly opposite to the wall.

Before the entrances to the halls there are many long covered vaults with winding paths between them, so that without a guide no outsider can find either an entrance or an exit. It is surprising that the roof of each dormitory consists of one stone and that the covered vaults in width are likewise covered with slabs of solid stone of extremely large size, without any admixture of wood anywhere or any other substance.

Having risen to a roof of small height, since the labyrinth is one-level, you can see a stone plain consisting of stones of the same large size; from here, going down to the halls again, one can notice that they are arranged in a row and rest on 27 columns, their walls are also made of stones of no lesser size.

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At the end of this building, which occupies more space than the court, a tomb is placed – a quadrangular pyramid, each side of which is about a plegra in width with equal height.

The name of the buried there is Imandes. It is said that such a number of halls was built by virtue of the custom to gather here from all the nomes according to the significance of each, together with their priests and priestesses for sacrifices, gifts to the gods and for legal proceedings on important matters. Each room was assigned a hall dedicated to it. ”

A little further, in the 38th chapter, Strabo gives a description of his trip to the sacred crocodiles of Arsinoe (Crocodilopolis). This place is located next to the labyrinth, so we can assume that he also saw the labyrinth. Pliny the Elder (23 / 24-79 AD) in his “Natural History” provides the most detailed description of the labyrinth.

“Let’s say about the labyrinths, perhaps the most outlandish creation of human wastefulness, but not fictitious, as they might think. There still exists in Egypt in Heracleopolis nome the one that was first created, it is reported, 3600 years ago, by King Petesuh or Titoes, although Herodotus says that the whole structure was created by 12 kings, the last of which was Psammetich.

Its purpose is interpreted differently: according to Demotel, it was the royal palace of Moterida, according to Likey – the tomb of Merida, according to the interpretation of many, it was built as a sanctuary of the Sun, which is most likely.

In any case, there is no doubt that Daedalus borrowed from here a sample of the labyrinth that he created in Crete, but reproduced only its one-hundredth part, which contains the rotation of the paths and the intricate passages back and forth, not like the ones we see at the pavilions or in field games of men, containing many thousands of walking steps, and with many built-in doors for fraudulent moves and return to the same wanderings.

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It was the second labyrinth after the Egyptian one, the third was on Lemnos, the fourth in Italy, all covered with ashlar vaults. In the Egyptian, the entrance and columns are made of stone from Paros, the rest is made of blocks of syenite – pink and red granite, which can hardly be destroyed even in centuries, even with the assistance of the Heracles.

It is impossible to describe in detail the location of this building and each part separately, since it is divided into regions, as well as prefectures, which are called nomes, and 21 names are allocated as many as the vast premises. In addition, it has temples of all the gods of Egypt, and in addition, Nemesis in 40 edicules of closed chapels of the memorial churches concluded many pyramids of forty girths, each occupying six arrays of 0.024 hectares at the base.

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Tired of walking, they fell into that famous intricate trap of roads. Not only that, here the second floors are high on the slopes, and the descending ninety-step porticos. Inside – columns of porphyrite stone, images of gods, statues of kings, monstrous figures. Some rooms are designed so that when the doors are opened, a terrible thunder is heard inside.

Beyond the wall of the labyrinth there are other huge structures – they are called the colonnade pteron. From there, underground passages are dug, leading to other underground rooms. Something was restored there by only one Ceremonial, an eunuch of King Nekteb [Nektaneba I], 500 years before Alexander the Great.

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It is also reported that during the construction of ashlar stone vaults, the supports were made of back trunks [Egyptian acacia] boiled in oil. ”

Description of the Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, who in 43 AD e. set forth in his essay “On the Situation of the Earth”, consisting of three books, the accepted in Rome views on the known world:

“The labyrinth built by Psammetikh covers one thousand three hundred halls and twelve palaces with one continuous wall. Its walls and roof are marble. The maze has only one entrance.

Inside it there are countless twisting passages. All of them are directed in different directions and communicate with each other. In the corridors of the labyrinth there are porticos that are pairwise similar to each other. Corridors go around each other. This creates a lot of confusion, but you can figure it out.

The authors of antiquity do not propose any single, consistent definition of this outstanding structure. However, since in Egypt of the time of the pharaohs, only shrines and structures dedicated to the cult of the dead (tombs and funerary churches) were built of stone, then all of their other buildings, including palaces, were built of wood and clay bricks, which means that the maze could not be a palace, administrative center or monument (provided that Herodotus, speaking of “a monument” does not mean “a tomb, which is quite possible).

On the other hand, since the pharaohs of the XII dynasty built pyramids as tombs, the temple remains the only possible destination for the “labyrinth”. According to a very plausible explanation given by Alan B. Lloyd, it probably served as the funeral temple for Amenemhet III, who was buried in a pyramid nearby, as well as a temple dedicated to some gods.

The answer to the question of how this “labyrinth” got its name remains unconvincing. Attempts have been made to derive this term from the Egyptian words “al lopa-rohun, laperohunt” or “ro-per-ro-henet”, meaning “entrance to the temple by the lake”.

But there is no phonetic correspondence between these words and the word “labyrinth”, and nothing similar was found in Egyptian texts either. It has also been suggested that the throne name of Amenemhat III, Lamares, whose Hellenized version sounds like “Labaris,” comes from the name of the temple of Labaris.

This probability cannot be ruled out, but this does not explain the essence of the phenomenon. Moreover, a valid argument against such an interpretation is the fact that Herodotus, the author of the earliest written source, does not mention Amenemhat III and his throne names. He does not mention how the structure was called “Amenemhet lives” by the Egyptians. He simply talks about the “maze”, not considering it necessary to explain what it is.

To describe a huge, awe-inspiring, skillfully executed stone structure, he uses the Greek term, as if this term expresses a certain general meaning, concept. It is this kind of description that is given in all other written sources, and only later authors mention the danger of getting lost.

Therefore, we can conclude that the term “labyrinth” in this case is used metaphorically, it serves as the name for a certain building, an outstanding structure made of stone. M. Budimir, resorting to historical and linguistic argumentation, came to a similar conclusion, interpreting the labyrinth as a term meaning “building of large size.”

The German Jesuit and scholar Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680), known to his contemporaries as Doctor centum artium, tried to reconstruct the Egyptian “labyrinth” based on ancient descriptions.

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In the center of the figure is a labyrinth, which Kircher may have modeled after Roman mosaics. Around are images symbolizing the twelve nomes – administrative units of Ancient Egypt described by Herodotus. This drawing, engraved on copper (50 X 41 cm), is placed in the book The Tower of Babel, or Archontology (Turris Babel, Sive Archontologia, Amsterdam, 1679).

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In 2008, a group of researchers from Belgium and Egypt began exploring objects hidden underground, hoping to find and solve the mystery of the mysterious underground complex of ancient civilization.

The Belgian-Egyptian expedition, armed with scientific instruments, and technology that allows you to look into the secret of the premises hidden under the sand, was able to confirm the presence of an underground temple near the pyramid of Amenemkhet III. Without a doubt, the expedition led by Petri led one of the most incredible discoveries in the history of Egypt out of the darkness of oblivion, shedding light on the greatest discovery. But if you think that the discovery took place, and you do not know about it, then you will be mistaken with the conclusion.

This significant discovery was hidden from society, and no one could understand why this happened. The results of the expedition, a publication in the scientific journal NRIAG, research findings, a public lecture at the University of Ghent – all this was “frozen” because the Secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, banned all reports of the find, allegedly because of the imposed sanctions of the Egyptian service security protecting an ancient monument.

Louis de Cordier, and other expedition researchers patiently waited for an answer to the excavations in the maze area for several years, with the hope of recognizing the find and the desire to make it public, but unfortunately this did not happen.

But even if the researchers confirmed the existence of the underground complex, excavations should still be carried out in order to explore the incredible conclusion of scientists. After all, it is believed that the treasures of the underground labyrinth can give answers to the countless historical secrets of ancient Egyptian civilization, as well as give new knowledge about the history of mankind and other civilizations.

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The question here is only one, why did this undeniably incredible historical discovery fall under the oppression of “silence”?

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Mysteries

The magnetic soul of the universe

“In 1945, the primitive appearance of pre-intelligent primates on planet Earth blew up the first thermonuclear device. They did not suspect that they created an echo in the super-space web, used for non-local communication and the transmigration of souls by the civilizations of the Trans-galactic union, network , which the more mysterious races call the “body of God.”

Shortly afterwards, the secret forces of intelligent races were sent to Earth to observe the situation and prevent further electromagnetic destruction of the universal network. “

The introduction taken in quotation marks looks like a plot for science fiction, but just such a conclusion can be drawn after reading this scientific article. The presence of this network pervading the entire Universe could explain a lot – for example, the UFO phenomenon, their elusiveness and invisibility, incredible possibilities, and besides, indirectly, this theory of the “body of God” gives us real evidence that there is life after death.

We are at the very initial stage of development, and in fact we are “pre-intelligent beings” and who knows if we can find the strength in ourselves to become a truly intelligent race. Astronomers have discovered that magnetic fields permeate much of space. Hidden lines of the magnetic field extend for millions of light years throughout the universe.

Each time astronomers come up with a new way to search for magnetic fields in more and more distant regions of space, they inexplicably find them.

These force fields are the same entities that surround the Earth, the Sun and all galaxies. Twenty years ago, astronomers began to discover magnetism permeating entire clusters of galaxies, including the space between one galaxy and the next. Invisible field lines sweep through intergalactic space.

Last year, astronomers finally managed to explore a much more sparse region of space – the space between clusters of galaxies. There they discovered the largest magnetic field: 10 million light-years of magnetized space, covering the entire length of this “thread” of the cosmic web. A second magnetized thread has already been seen elsewhere in space using the same methods. “We’re just looking at the tip of the iceberg, probably,” said Federica Govoni of the National Institute of Astrophysics in Cagliari, Italy, who led the first discovery.

The question arises: where did these huge magnetic fields come from?

“This clearly cannot be associated with the activity of individual galaxies or individual explosions or, I do not know, winds from supernovae,” said Franco Vazza, an astrophysicist at the University of Bologna, who makes modern computer simulations of cosmic magnetic fields. “This goes far beyond all this.”

One possibility is that cosmic magnetism is primary, tracing all the way back to the birth of the universe.In this case, weak magnetism must exist everywhere, even in the “voids” of the cosmic web – the darkest, most empty areas of the universe. Omnipresent magnetism would sow stronger fields that bloomed in galaxies and clusters.

Primary magnetism could also help solve another cosmological puzzle known as Hubble stress – probably the hottest topic in cosmology.

The problem underlying Hubble’s tension is that the Universe seems to expand much faster than expected based on its known components. In an article published on the Internet in April and reviewed with Physical Review Letters, cosmologists Karsten Jedamzik ​​and Levon Poghosyan argue that weak magnetic fields in the early Universe will lead to the faster cosmic expansion observed today.

Primitive magnetism removes Hubble’s tension so simply that Jedamzik ​​and Poghosyan’s article immediately attracted attention. “This is a great article and an idea,” said Mark Kamionkovsky, a theoretical cosmologist at Johns Hopkins University who proposed other solutions to Hubble’s tension.

Kamenkovsky and others say that additional checks are needed to ensure that early magnetism does not interfere with other cosmological calculations. And even if this idea works on paper, researchers will need to find convincing evidence of primary magnetism to make sure that it is the missing agent that formed the universe.

However, in all these years of talking about Hubble stress, it is perhaps strange that no one has considered magnetism before. According to Poghosyan, who is a professor at Simon Fraser University in Canada, most cosmologists hardly think about magnetism. “Everyone knows this is one of those big puzzles,” he said. But for decades there was no way to say whether magnetism is indeed ubiquitous and, therefore, is the primary component of the cosmos, so cosmologists have largely stopped paying attention.

Meanwhile, astrophysicists continued to collect data. The weight of evidence made most of them suspect that magnetism is indeed present everywhere.

The magnetic soul of the universe

In 1600, an English scientist William Gilbert, studying mineral deposits — naturally magnetized rocks that humans have created in compasses for millennia — came to the conclusion that their magnetic force “mimics the soul.” “He correctly suggested that the Earth itself is“ a great magnet, ”and that the magnetic pillars“ look toward the poles of the Earth. ”

Magnetic fields occur at any time when an electric charge flows. The Earth’s field, for example, comes from its internal “dynamo” – a stream of liquid iron, seething in its core. Fields of fridge magnets and magnetic columns come from electrons orbiting around their constituent atoms.

Cosmological modeling illustrates two possible explanations of how magnetic fields penetrated galaxy clusters. On the left, the fields grow out of homogeneous “seed” fields that filled the space in the moments after the Big Bang. On the right, astrophysical processes, such as the formation of stars and the flow of matter into supermassive black holes, create magnetized winds that exit galaxies.

However, as soon as a “seed” magnetic field arises from charged particles in motion, it can become larger and stronger if weaker fields are combined with it. Magnetism “is a bit like a living organism,” said Thorsten Enslin, a theoretical astrophysicist at the Institute of Astrophysics Max Planck in Garching, Germany – because magnetic fields connect to every free source of energy that they can hold onto and grow. They can spread and influence other areas through their presence, where they also grow. ”

Ruth Durer, a cosmologist and theoretician at the University of Geneva, explained that magnetism is the only force besides gravity that can shape the large-scale structure of the cosmos, because only magnetism and gravity can “reach you” at great distances. Electricity, on the contrary, is local and short-lived, since the positive and negative charge in any region will be neutralized as a whole. But you cannot cancel magnetic fields; they tend to take shape and survive.

And yet, despite all its power, these force fields have low profiles. They are intangible and are perceived only when they act on other things. ”You cannot just photograph a magnetic field; it doesn’t work like that, “Van Reuen, an astronomer at Leiden University who was involved in the recent discovery of magnetized filaments, told Reinu Van.

Last year, Van Verin and 28 collaborators suggested a magnetic field in the filament between clusters of galaxies Abell 399 and Abell 401 is the way the field redirects high-speed electrons and other charged particles passing through it. As their paths spin in the field, these charged particles emit faint “synchrotron radiation.”

The synchrotron signal is strongest at low frequencies, making it ready to be detected with LOFAR, an array of 20,000 low-frequency radio antennas scattered across Europe.

The team actually collected data from the filament back in 2014 for one eight-hour span, but the data sat waiting as the radio astronomy community spent years figuring out how to improve the calibration of LOFAR measurements. The Earth’s atmosphere refracts the radio waves passing through it, so LOFAR considers space from the bottom of the swimming pool. The researchers solved the problem by tracking the vibrations of the “beacons” in the sky – the emitters with precisely known locations – and adjusting the vibrations for this to release all the data. When they applied the de-blurring algorithm to the data from the filament, they immediately saw the glow of the synchrotron radiation. LOFAR consists of 20,000 individual radio antennas scattered throughout Europe.

The filament looks magnetized everywhere, and not just near clusters of galaxies that move towards each other from both ends. Researchers hope the 50-hour dataset they are currently analyzing will reveal more details. Recently, additional observations have revealed magnetic fields propagating along the entire length of the second filament. Researchers plan to publish this work soon.

The presence of huge magnetic fields in at least these two strands provides important new information. “It caused quite a bit of activity,” Van Faith said, “because now we know that magnetic fields are relatively strong.”

Light through the Void

If these magnetic fields arose in the infant Universe, the question arises: how? “People have been thinking about this issue for a long time,” said Tanmai Wachaspati of Arizona State University.

In 1991, Vachaspati suggested that magnetic fields could arise during an electroweak phase transition – a moment, a split second after the Big Bang, when electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces became distinguishable. Others have suggested that magnetism materialized microseconds later when protons formed. Or soon after: the late astrophysicist Ted Harrison claimed in the earliest original theory of magnetogenesis in 1973 that turbulent plasma of protons and electrons may have caused the appearance of the first magnetic fields. Nevertheless, others suggested that this space became magnetized even before all this, during space inflation – the explosive expansion of space that supposedly jumped up and launched the Big Bang itself. It is also possible that this did not happen before the growth of structures a billion years later.

A way to test theories of magnetogenesis is to study the structure of magnetic fields in the most pristine parts of the intergalactic space, such as the calm parts of filaments and even more empty voids. Some details — for example, whether the field lines are smooth, spiral, or “curved in all directions, like a ball of yarn or something else” (according to Vachaspati), and how the picture changes in different places and at different scales — carry rich information that can be compared with the theory and modeling, for example, if the magnetic field occurred during the electroweak phase transition, as suggested by Vacaspati, the resulting power lines should be spiral, “like a corkscrew,” -. he said.

The catch is that it is difficult to detect the force fields, who have nothing to press on.

One of the methods, first proposed by the English scientist Michael Faraday back in 1845, detects a magnetic field by the way it rotates the direction of polarization of the light passing through it. The magnitude of the “Faraday rotation” depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the frequency of light. Thus, by measuring the polarization at different frequencies, you can conclude about the strength of magnetism along the line of sight. “If you do it from different places, you can make a 3D map,” Enslin said.

Researchers have begun making rough measurements of Faraday rotation using LOFAR, but the telescope has problems emitting an extremely weak signal. Valentina Wakka, an astronomer and colleague of Govoni from the National Institute of Astrophysics, developed an algorithm several years ago for the statistical processing of thin Faraday rotation signals, adding together many dimensions of empty spaces. “In principle, it can be used for voids,” said Wakka.

But the Faraday method will really take off when the next generation radio telescope, a gigantic international project called “an array of square kilometers”, is launched. “SKA should create a fantastic Faraday grid,” said Enslin.

At the moment, the only evidence of magnetism in voids is that observers do not see when they look at objects called blazars located behind voids.

Blazars are bright beams of gamma rays and other energy sources of light and matter, fed by supermassive black holes. When gamma rays travel through space, they sometimes collide with ancient microwaves, turning into electron and positron as a result. These particles then hiss and turn into low-energy gamma rays.

But if blazar light passes through a magnetized void, then low-energy gamma rays will appear absent, argued Andrei Neronov and Evgeny Vovk from the Geneva Observatory in 2010. The magnetic field will deflect electrons and positrons from the line of sight. When they decay into low-energy gamma rays, these gamma rays will not be directed at us. Indeed, when Nero and Vovk analyzed the data from a suitably located blazar, they saw its high-energy gamma rays, but not its low-energy gamma signal. “This is the lack of a signal, which is the signal,” said Vachaspati.

The absence of a signal is hardly a smoking weapon, and alternative explanations have been proposed for missing gamma rays. However, subsequent observations increasingly point to the hypothesis of Neronov and Vovkov that the voids are magnetized. “This is a majority opinion,” said Dürer. Most convincingly, in 2015, one team superimposed many dimensions of blazars behind voids and managed to tease the faint halo of low-energy gamma rays around blazars. The effect is exactly what one would expect if the particles were scattered by weak magnetic fields – measuring only about one millionth of a trillion as strong as a refrigerator magnet.

The biggest mystery of cosmology

It is amazing that just this amount of primary magnetism can be exactly what is needed to resolve the Hubble stress – the problem of the surprisingly fast expansion of the Universe.

This is precisely what Poghosyan understood when he saw the recent computer simulations of Carsten Jedamzik ​​from the University of Montpellier in France and his colleagues. Researchers added weak magnetic fields to the simulated plasma-filled young Universe and found that protons and electrons in the plasma flew along the lines of the magnetic field and accumulated in areas of the weakest field strength. This coalescence effect caused protons and electrons to combine into hydrogen — an early phase change known as recombination — earlier than they might otherwise have.

Poghosyan, reading an article by Jedamzik, realized that this could relieve Hubble’s tension. Cosmologists calculate how fast space should expand today by observing the ancient light emitted during recombination. Light shows a young Universe dotted with blots that were formed from sound waves lapping around in the primary plasma. If recombination occurred earlier than anticipated due to the thickening effect of magnetic fields, then sound waves could not propagate so far forward, and the resulting drops would be smaller. This means that the spots that we see in the sky from the time of recombination should be closer to us than the researchers assumed. The light emanating from the clots had to travel a shorter distance to reach us, which means that the light had to pass through a faster expanding space. “It’s like trying to run on an expanding surface; you cover a smaller distance, ”said Poghosyan.

The result is that smaller droplets mean a higher expected speed of cosmic expansion, which greatly brings the estimated speed closer to measuring how fast supernovae and other astronomical objects actually seem to fly apart.

“I thought, wow,” said Poghosyan, “this may indicate to us the real presence of [magnetic fields]. Therefore, I immediately wrote to Karsten.” The two met in Montpellier in February, just before the prison closed, and their calculations showed that, indeed, the amount of primary magnetism needed to solve the Hubble tension problem is also consistent with the blazar observations and the estimated size of the initial fields needed for the growth of huge magnetic fields , covering clusters of galaxies and filaments. “So, it all somehow converges,” said Poghosyan, “if that turns out to be true.”

References: Quanta Magazine

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Mysteries

The Montana base incident: UFO disconnects 16 nuclear missiles

In central Montana, on Thursday morning, March 16, 1967, an E-Flight nuclear missile crew was located underground at the Echo-Flight Mission Control Center (LCC) in a fortified bunker.

During the early morning, there were several reports from security patrols that they had seen a UFO. A UFO was spotted directly above one of the E-Flight (LF) launchers above the mine. It turned out that at least one security officer was so scared by this meeting that he never returned to the Security Service.

After a while, the deputy calculation commander (DMCCC), 1st lieutenant, informed the calculation commander (MCCC), the captain, about the condition of the missiles in the mines when an alarm sounded. Over the next 30 seconds, all ten of their missiles issued a No-Go status report. One by one, each rocket became inoperative, From that moment, as his former rocket launcher describes:

“All hell broke loose! Among the many calls to the electronic switch. The matter was compounded by the fact that the same event happened on another launcher on the same morning (6 rockets disconnected)”.

In this case, we have a strategic nuclear missile stop coinciding with the sighting of a UFO over a missile shaft! These were missiles lost by the American nuclear deterrence forces. According to Robert Salas, who was counting that morning:

“As far as I remember, while on duty as deputy commander of a missile combat crew underground in the LSS, in the morning hours of March 16, 1967, I received a call from the sergeant responsible for the security of the facility Launch control center”.

He said that he and other guards observed unidentified flying objects in the immediate vicinity, which several times flew over the mines in which the rockets were. At that time, he could only describe them as “lights.” I did not take this message seriously and told him to continue observing and reporting if something more significant happened. I believed that this first call was a joke.

A few minutes later, the security sergeant called again. Now he was thrilled and upset, saying that the UFO hovered right behind the front gate. I ordered him to guard the fenced area. While we were talking, he had to leave, because one of the guards approached the UFO and was injured. I immediately woke up my commander, who was just resting and began reporting on telephone conversations. Immediately, our missiles began to quickly move from an “alarm” state to a “no launch” state. Some kind of signal was sent to the missiles, which made them emerge from a state of alert.

Having reported this incident to the command post, I called my guard. He said that the man who approached the UFO was not seriously injured, but was evacuated by helicopter to the base. Once at the top, I spoke directly with the guard about the UFO. He added that the UFO has a red glow and saucer shape. He repeated that it was right behind the gate and soared silently.

We sent a security patrol to check our ODS after a trip, and they reported that they saw another UFO during this patrol. They also lost radio contact with us immediately after reporting the UFO. Later that morning, we were replaced by our full-time shift crew. The missiles were still not put on alert by on-site maintenance teams.

Again, UFOs were spotted by security personnel during or around the time of the shutdown of Minuteman strategic missiles. An in-depth investigation of the incident was conducted. Full-scale field and laboratory tests were conducted at the Seattle-based Boeing plant.

Both the declassified documents of the strategic rocket wing and the interviews with Boeing engineers who tested after the investigation of the incident, confirm that no reason was found for shutting down the missiles. The most that could be done was to reproduce the effects by directly injecting a 10-volt pulse into the data line. One of the conclusions was that the only way to do this from outside the shielded system was through an electromagnetic pulse from an unknown source.

During the events of that morning in 1967, UFOs were spotted by members of the Security Service on the east side of the base and one on north. Other members of the Security Service witnessed UFO’s on the west side. These observations were reported by separate security teams at about the same time that Minuteman strategic missiles were stopped at both sites. The U.S. Air Force confirmed that all Echo flights shut off within a few seconds, one after the other, and that they did not find any reason for this.

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Mysteries

Ship of death. What happened to the sailors of the mysterious vessel Ourang Medan?

“The ship of death” – that is what the American sailors boarded the ship in distress called the Ourang Medan. The entire crew of the ship was dead. Eyewitnesses assured that the faces of the crew were turned to the sky and distorted by torment.

Save our souls

In June 1947, British and Dutch radio stations received a very strange SOS signal, which someone transmitted in Morse code. The message transcript read:

“This is the Dutch ship, Ourang Medan. The captain and all the officers are dead in the cockpit and on the bridge. Perhaps the whole crew is dead.” 

Then came an incomprehensible series of dots and dashes, but they still managed to decipher the end of the message. Somewhere in the expanses of the Indian Ocean, an unknown radio operator clearly tapped out:

“I am also dying.”

Despite the brevity of the message, a few distress ships managed to receive the distress signal not far from the Strait of Malacca, which separates the island of Sumatra from Malaysia. Among these ships, by a strange coincidence, there were two American ships that were the first to establish the approximate location of the ship in distress. One of them – Silver Star (“Silver Star”) – went to the rescue of “Medan”.

Despite the fact that the width of the Strait of Malacca is only 40 kilometers, the length of the strait is more than 800 kilometers, so the drift ship was not immediately found. Sailors with Silver Star immediately noticed something was wrong – no one answered the greeting signals, and even a soul was not visible on the deck. Therefore, the captain of Silver Star decided to send a boat with a reconnaissance detachment to Medan.

The Americans who got on board got a terrible picture: the deck and bridge of the ship were littered with corpses. Even the dog died – apparently, the favorite of one of the officers. The radio operator who transmitted the SOS was found in the radio room – he was also dead, and his hand still lay on the transmitter. What terrified the Americans most of all was the fact that most of the dead lay with wide eyes and contorted faces, which testified to unbearable torment at the time of death. The sailors wanted to go down into the hold to inspect the cargo, but quickly abandoned this idea – an incredible cold reigned inside the ship, in some places the corridors were covered with hoarfrost.

After consulting with the captain, the Silver Star sailors decided to take the Medan in tow and deliver it to the nearest port, where it would be possible to find out the cause of the death of the sailors. But as soon as the ship was towed, a trickle of smoke appeared over the deck of the ill-fated ship – a smoldering fire began to break out. This was a paradox – despite the polar cold, fire raged inside the ship.

Photo © Andrew H. Hochheimer

The members of the Silver Star team barely had time to cut off the towing ropes and escape from the ship, when in the hold of the Medan there was such a strong explosion that the ship lifted above the water, and then it quickly sank, forever depriving the Americans of the opportunity to find out what happened.

The Research Begins

60 years later, American researchers became interested in the story of Medan. But they were surprised to find that the only document confirming the authenticity of the story of the Medan crew was a brochure published by the US Coast Guard in 1952. The brochure published the testimonies of sailors boarding the “flying Dutchman.” This proved that the story really happened.

As it turned out, the US archives confirmed the existence of the Silver Star ship. According to the papers, it was sold in the same 1947 to Grace Line and received a new name – Santa Juana. But finding documentary evidence of the existence of the Dutch vessel Ourang Medan was not so simple. Neither in the International Register of Ships, nor in the Singapore Maritime Archive, nor in the archives of Amsterdam, a ship of that name has ever been.

But it turned out that the traces of the ship must be sought in … Germany. The scientist Theodor Sirsdorfer, who devoted 50 years to the study of Medan and managed to establish the names of American ships that received the SOS signal (the second was a vessel called City of Baltimore), found a brochure by another German author – Otto Milke; the brochure was called Das Totenschiff in der Südsee (“Death Ship in the South Sea”) and was published in 1953.

In it, the author spoke in detail about the Ourang Medan ship, indicated its technical characteristics and claimed that the ship really died with the crew in 1947. Moreover, Milke shed light on the causes of the death of the ship, hinting that the fourth compartment in the hold of the ship was indeed filled with dangerous cargo, which caused the death of the crew – potassium cyanide and nitroglycerin.

Photo © Andrew H. Hochheimer

Versions for the Crew Death

But there was an even more terrible version of the death of the Medan crew, and it led from Nazi Germany to another country with a militaristic regime – Japan.

Division 731, which the Japanese called the “division of Togo,” was founded in 1932 by the Japanese bacteriologist Shiro Ishii and gained such terrible fame that people did not call it “cannibal lair”. The task of the department was to develop the deadliest bacteriological weapons and the most terrible poisonous substances.

In Harbin’s laboratories, the Japanese tested these substances on prisoners of war – Chinese and Russians, as well as on the civilian population of China – on women and children. The Japanese doctors did not stop the suffering of people – they opened the victims alive to see the effects of poisonous gases on their internal organs, froze the still alive “patients” and infected them with various combinations of infections.

Despite the war crimes of scientists, the Americans granted them immunity in exchange for research results. For transportation of toxic substances of unit 731, Medan, a ship of Sumatran or Malaysian smugglers, not registered in any of the marine registers, whose task was to take out the deadly substances to the United States, could be chartered. In the hold of the Medan, containers were leaked, the crew died, and the gas managed to disappear by the time the Americans approached.

However, this is only one of many versions of the death of the team “Medan”. Some researchers suggested the impact on sailors of powerful ultrasound, which can occur in the ocean and kill people. Conspiracists believed that the team was killed by the undead or met with a UFO. Scentists spoke of a cloud of methane that rose from the depths of the Strait of Malacca, covered the ship, and the crew simply suffocated without oxygen.

Photo © Historic Mysteries

The version with the Nazis was continued – the researchers found a publication in the Indonesian newspaper Lokomotiv dated February 3, 1948. It said that after the explosion on Medan, a boat with a starving man was thrown ashore on one of the Marshall Islands. This man spoke German and told the translator that the Ourang Medan actually belonged to Germany and sank 400 miles southeast of the Marshall Islands. In 1945, it supposedly transported containers of nerve gas, but, learning about the surrender of Germany, it began to hide, moving from port to port and moving on to South America. The Germans’ journey was interrupted by an accident – one of the containers was depressurized, the team died.

But there is another plausible explanation for what happened on the ship. Perhaps the smugglers’ vessel was transporting such a seemingly ordinary cargo as ammonium nitrate. This is a fertilizer that is used in the manufacture of explosives. After getting into the hold of sea water, ammonium nitrate entered a chemical reaction with water and began to decompose, releasing laughing gas, which causes drug intoxication and dulls vigilance. At the same time, a decrease in temperature occurred, since the reaction proceeds with the absorption of heat, which could explain the severe cold in the hold. And the introduction of ammonium nitrate into the reaction with any alkali that came on board could lead to the formation of ammonia, the choking from which could explain the terrible torment of the crew. Heating the fertilizer near a steam or diesel engine could lead to heating of the cargo,

Most likely, the violation of safety rules during transportation of hazardous chemicals is to blame for the death of the crew. The smugglers simply pushed the containers into the cargo compartments of the ship and went to sea, hoping for good luck. But this time she turned away from them.

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