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Earliest Ancient Egyptian Tattoos Found on Mummies

Ancient Egyptians were getting inked up earlier than we thought.

A new analysis of two mummies shows the pair were sporting tattoos. The mummies belong to a collection of six found in 1900. They were named the Gebelein mummies after the region in which they were found. Now in the possession of the British Museum, they were reanalyzed as part of an ongoing project to reexamine valuable artifacts.

Both individuals date anywhere from 3351 B.C. to 3017 B.C., making them some of the earliest known bearers of tattoos. The next known example of ancient Egyptians getting tattoos doesn’t appear for more than a millennia later.

Only Ötzi the Ice Man, a cave man dating back to about 3370 B.C., has earlier evidence of tattoos.

Unlike Ötzi’s tattoos, which have more geometric designs, the Egyptian tattoos are the earliest known examples of figurative tattoos, or tattoos that represent images. The new findings are published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

What initially looked like a smudge was reexamined with infrared imaging, which allows scientists to see the markings on the mummified skin with more clarity. On the male body, scientists spotted the images of a wild bull and what appears to be a Barbary sheep.

The woman’s body contains four “S”-like symbols on her top shoulder joint and an “L”-shaped line on her abdomen that archaeologists think might be a stave, or wooden staff.

Both bodies contained tattoos that were inked into the dermis, the thicker part of their skin, with an ink made of some sort of soot. Copper instruments found in nearby regions have been previously suggested as tattooing tools.

What the Tattoos Tell Us

The find suggests, for the first time, that both men and women in ancient Egyptian societies had tattoos.

Previously, archaeologists assumed that only women living during ancient Egypt’s predynastic period, from 4000 B.C. to 3100 B.C., had tattoos. This theory was based on figurines that depicted women with tattoos.

These tattoos represent the first time archaeologists have found examples of tattoos on people that mirror motifs used in art.

Both the images on the male and female seem to suggest a symbolic relevance, but archaeologists aren’t quite of their exact meaning.

“The sheep is quite commonly used in the predynastic [Egyptian period] and its significance is not well understood, whereas the bull is specifically to do with male virility and status,” says study author and British Museum curator Daniel Antoine.

CT scans on the man showed he was in his early 20s when he died. A cut in his shoulder and damage to one of his ribs suggests he died from a stab wound to the back.

As to the meaning of the woman’s tattoos?

“I don’t think there’s a good explanation at the moment,” says Antoine. “It’s meant to emphasize things, but I’m not sure why. It was maybe to draw attention to a crooked stave below. It’s an era before writing, so we can only draw parallels.”

The paper further suggests that the placement of the tattoos on the woman’s shoulder and abdomen mean the woman was someone who had religious knowledge or a high status.

Researching the tattoos further may help archaeologists better understand Egypt’s early visual language, says the curator.

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Ancient

2,500-Year-Old Chariot Found – Complete with Rider And Horses

Chariot dating back to the Iron Age has been discovered in Yorkshire, making it the second time in two years there has been such a discovery.

The discovery was made in a small town with the name of Pocklington in Yorkshire on a construction site where homes were being built. Now work on the homes has been halted while a full excavation takes place starting from October. What is interesting about the find is that not only has a chariot being discovered but also the horse’s skeletons that pulled the chariot and the human remains of the driver.

The managing director of Persimmon Homes in Yorkshire confirmed that an archaeological discovery of significant importance had been made. That discovery is a horse-drawn chariot from the Iron Age. He went on to say that excavation is ongoing by archaeologists who will date the find along with detailing it.

During the Iron Age, it was common practice to bury chariots. What the archaeologists were not expecting to find was the remains of the rider of the chariot and the horses that pulled it. The find dated back to 500 BC and at the time it was the only find of the kind in 200 years. To date, there have only been 26 chariots excavated in the UK.

Archaeologists said that it was unusual for horses to be buried along with the chariot and human remains.
Paula Ware the managing director of MAP Archaeological Practice Ltd said:

“The chariot was located in the final square barrow to be excavated and on the periphery of the cemetery. The discoveries are set to widen our understanding of the Arras (Middle Iron Age) culture and the dating of artifacts to secure contexts is exceptional.”

In the Iron Age, the chariot was seen to be something of a status symbol owned by those with money. Including horses in the burial of human remains of such a person is unknown. It is something that has the researchers puzzled.

The Dig Revealed Numerous Artifacts

Archaeologists found pots, shields, swords, spears, and brooches among the many findings. These all gave researchers a good look into the lives of the people who lived more than 2,500 years ago. Yorkshire has been a good spot to find the remains of the Arras culture, which have been very well preserved. Around 150 skeletons were found in the region during 2016, with researchers believing the skeletons were those of the Arras culture. The skeletons along with their possessions were found in the Yorkshire Wolds, a small market town.

The Iron Age

This is a period of time in Britain lasting 800 BC to 43 AD when the Romans arrived.

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Michael Tellinger Deepest Anunnaki Mysteries in Human History [FULL VIDEO]

Michael Tellinger says Southern Africa holds some of the deepest Anunnaki mysteries in all of human history. What we are told is that at around 60,000 years ago the early humans migrated from Africa and populated the rest of the world.

It estimated that there are well over 1,000,000 (one million) ancient stone ruins scattered throughout the mountains of southern Africa. Various tools and Anunnaki artefacts that have been recovered from these ruins show a long and extended period of settlement that spans well over 200,000 years.

Scientist and researcher Michael Tellinger discusses the Anunnaki Ruins, evidence in support of Zecharia Sitchin’s revolutionary work showing that these Extraterrestrial beings created us using pieces of their own DNA, in order to mine gold on Earth for them. The more work he does on these beings called the Anunnaki, the more mysterious and also the more devious they become…they are not necessarily what we think they are. It’s turning out that where they came from– Nibiru, could actually represent a star system rather than a planet, with its sun being a brown dwarf. Further, the gold they were extracting from Earth could have been used for a device that concealed their activities from other consciousnesses even more advanced than themselves.

Source: Disclosed TruthTV

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Scientists Are Finally Certain What Caused The Collapse Of Maya Civilization

Even though the ancient Maya civilization was very advanced in every scientific field, it still fell apart about 1,000 years ago. Scientists have considered many reasons for this historic collapse, but none of them wasn’t certain. Maybe, however, until today.

Applying modern methods, scientists managed to confirm their theory of collapse. They further presented specific numbers of how much dry the climate came to be at the time.

Lake Chichancanab on the Yucatán Peninsula was located near the center of the popular Maya civilization in order to serve as a climate indicator.

In the middle 90s, scientists detected variations in the balance of heavy to light oxygen isotopes in shells dropped on the lake’s floor. This was a sign that the last years of the Maya civilization were very dry.

At the time, scientists didn’t have the proper devices to measure how dry the period was before and after it. In other words, whether it was so dry it managed to destroy a whole civilization.

However, according to a recent paper in Science, Central America’s environmental conditions did change with drastic steps.

During the dryness period, Lake Chichancanab’s water levels fell. Hodell et al.

Cambridge University student Nicholas Evans measured oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water molecules from gypsum sediments of the lake floor.

He and his crew realized there was a drop of between 41 and 54 percent in yearly rainfall within the lake range in a period of over 400 years.

Moreover, humidity declined between 2 and 7 percent. Although this number doesn’t sound dramatic, it still had a serious impact on drying.

The evaporation, on the other hand, had a severe effect on the agricultural products. Rainfalls were also probably down by 70 percent.

No society would have had the food supplies to survive such an event, including the Maya civilization.

The whole Maya society didn’t die with the end of the Late Classic Period. However, a large number of people did die along with the technology which greatly degraded.

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