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Did Extra-terrestrials Civilise man?

Did Extra-terrestrials civilise man?

By Leonard Farra

It’s said that the most sensational thing that could happen, in the history of man, would be contact with an extra-terrestrial civilisation. However, the greatest secret of all time is that it may have happened several thousand years ago. For those who are interested in learning more about this subject, my advice to you is  keep an open mind,  read the evidence and draw your own conclusions. Erich Von Daniken popularized the Ancient Astronaut theory in the 1970’s and, over the years, other alternative researchers have made their contributions to the subject.

 

 

When I began my research, more than 30 years ago, I covered the early religions, legends, traditions, and archaeology of the Ancient Middle East and what I learnt about the ‘sky-gods’ enabled me to decode the secret inner religion, allegorical stories, and the symbolism of Early Egypt . (1) I was so intrigued with what I found that I continued my research in the other parts of Asia, Africa, and in the pre-Christian New World and , to my amazement, wherever I looked, I discovered similar sky-god traditions to those of   the Ancient Middle East. (2) My study of the Stone Age also produced some fascinating results (3) including a revolutionary explanation for Stonehenge.

For millions of years, various forms of man lived on this planet as hunter gatherers but, around 5,000 years ago, something very unusual happened. Pyramid building civilisations began to appear on the coasts of Peru and Brazil, and in other countries, and tribes were on the move settling into new lands and forests were being cleared.(4) One possible explanation, for what was happening,  comes from the Ancient Sumerians but let’s first see what they said had occurred previously because, if it’s true, it was a major milestone in the history of man. The Sumerians said that, when they were living in another land, they were visited by a group of civilising beings who they called the Annunaki. (5)

Although the other early people didn’t know them by this name, there is evidence to suggest that their commanders were revered as gods, the creators, or sometimes ancestral leaders. As we shall see, however, there is evidence to suggest that they were extra-terrestrials and not gods.

One important thing, that Ancient Astronaut theorists overlook, is that if extra-terrestrials had visited to our planet, there would have been early references to their craft. In fact, early religious symbolism and rituals, and numerous allegorical stories, suggest that the aliens arrived in a fleet of discs which emerged from a huge mother-ship.(6) It seems likely that when the Ancients saw them descending from the sky, they were so shocked that they thought that the heavens, or maybe mountains, were coming down to Earth.

sungod_Enki

Five thousand years ago, people turned their attention from Earth to the heavens and they began to worship a male sky-god. Who was he? Well, he might have been the civilising deity who the Sumerians called Ea, or Enki, who appears to have been known around the world under a variety of names. This being was said to have taught people agriculture, and many useful crafts, and in cultures, where there are descriptions of him, we learn that he had the appearance of a tall, white, bearded, man and that he wore a long white robe and sandals. Some people were so amazed when they saw him that they thought that he came from the Sun. (7)

Osiris_EgyptianGod

In Egypt, he was known as the civilising god Osiris. The Egyptians made him the God of the Dead and he played a major role in their religion for thousands of years.  I knew that a circular form of symbolism, associated with him, was similar to one of Ea’s symbols and when I researched the Americas, one of the fascinating things I discovered was that this form of symbolism was also  associated with the Incan god Viracocha in Peru and that there are references to it in a North American Native legend.’

sun-god_1

With regard to the rise of civilisation, 5,000 years ago, and the re-settlement of several tribes in new lands, Sumerian, and other sources, say that after the visit of the star beings, some Earth people became wicked  and when they learned what was happening, the gods destroyed them with a flood.

This story appears to refer to the substantial climate change, that occurred around that time, which was accompanied by extensive flooding in various parts of the world. (8) Many seas and rivers also reached their present levels. These climatic events seem to have been the subject of the hundreds of deluge legends the gist of which was that ‘The Flood’ was caused by a god, or gods, who destroyed an evil people. Many of these tales say that only two people survived and that from them was descended the human race. However, the flood did not cover the whole world and, in any event, this story was clearly allegorical as there appear to have been many survivors. Nobody, for example, knows the origin of  the Sumerians but when they arrived in their new land, in Southern Iraq, ‘5,000 years ago,  they settled among the country’s less developed population and their writings claimed that they arrived from a land called Dilmun. Nobody knows where this was but the indications are that the Sumerians were survivors of ‘The Flood’. (9)

     After they cleansed Earth of its evil people, the star-gods were alleged to have departed and they were never seen again. In the post -deluge era, the Sumerians associated their craft, with destruction (10) and many early people linked them with serpents. A North American Delaware legend, for example, tells of an early conflict with snake people which resulted in a great flood that destroyed mankind. (11) For thousands of years, throughout the entire world, snakes were associated with gods, and goddesses, and this custom was even popular in countries, or islands, where they didn’t exist.

snake_god_qutzacoatl

Snake God – Quetzacoatl Pyramid at Teotihuacan, Mexico

ZeusMelichiosSnake

Zeus Meilichios as big snake and prayers. Marble relief. (Berlin Altes Museum)

Some Romans kept snakes in their homes and this was also popular in parts of Northern Europe until a few hundred years ago. Effigies of god-like beings, with serpents, are carved on rocks in Utah (12) and in Scandinavia (13) and serpents featured, prominently, in religious art in pre-Columbian, Central American, temples. There is a famous serpent mound in Ohio, U.S.A. and there is another in the British Isles where religious rituals appear to have been enacted. (14) Many early people also celebrated with serpent dances. Some folk ,such as the North American Hopi, still do.

    In many early traditions, ‘The Flood’ was linked with the star-gods and with the Pleiades. These stars were also associated with agriculture and agricultural seasons, and festivals of renewal, commenced with their rising. Some people placed their origin in them (15) or associated them with the Creation.

Pleiades_590

In Babylon, commencing from the reign of Hammurapi, the last month of the calendar was known as Arakh-Sibuti, the month of the Seven Stars or Pleiades (16) and the New Year, which followed, was a re-enactment of the Creation.

Sumerian_Pleiades

In Mexico, the appearance of the Pleiades, at the end of the Aztec 52 year cycle, was a time for celebration as it began a new era. The Pleiades also featured in numerous religious traditions ,and legends, throughout the Americas. (17)

Pleiades_NA

Mountains, and high places, were associated with the gods and so were the huge artificial mountains, (pyramids), which several early people built. These huge structures were made from stone, brick and earth. Some had steps, or pathways, leading to their summits, where religious rituals were enacted. Egyptian pyramids only had internal features but in the South-West United States, the ruling class sometimes had their homes on top of huge flat earth mounds which indicated  that, like the gods, they were above the common people. One thing that many conventional scholars do not appreciate is that  similar sky-god symbolism was built into pyramids  in Babylon, Assyria, Central and South America, and also in Egypt such as the 4,500 year old Great Pyramid (18).

In its day, this amazing structure was one of the most important religious monuments in the country where it was linked with certain natural, annual, happenings such as the flooding of the Nile and the appearance of certain stars that were of special significance in their religious traditions.  This happened around the time of the New Year and together with the Great Pyramid, these inter related events were associated with Egypt’s sky-god linked Creation legend.  (19)

 

Photo courtesy SacredSites.com and ©Martin Gray

Easter Island is regarded, by many, as an ‘unsolved’ mystery’. This remote Pacific island was discovered by Jacob Roggeveen on Easter Sunday in 1722 and that’s how it got its name. The island has been studied by several scholars, such as Katherine Routledge, in 1913, the Norwegian Archaeological Expedition  in 1955/56, the French ethnologist Francis Maziere who visited it in 1963, William Liller, who was involved in astro-archaeological research in 1989, and archaeologist  Jo Anne Van Tilburg   who studied the  island’s moai (stone statues) . Easter Island’s most famous visitor was the late explorer,/researcher Thor Heyerdahl, of Kon Tiki fame whose theories about the history of the island are not accepted by the Establishment but they deserve to be treated seriously because they throw important light on the origin of some of its people. (20)

Some alternative scholars are of the opinion that Easter Island’s moai were the work of extra-terrestrials or were made under their guidance. However, it’s generally accepted that the islanders made the statues themselves and then manoeuvred them into position sometimes miles from where they were cut from the rock. What, then, was the religion of the islanders? Well, the significance that they placed on the Pleiades, their legend of origin, their calendar, and the position of the sites, where they placed some of the most import moai, suggest that they followed a version of the same sky-god religion as the Incas, Aztecs, Maya, North American Native peoples, and many other folk in the pre-Christian Old World. As for the island’s ‘bird-man’ cult, that’s another fascinating story.(21)

    The Inner religion of the Druids is said to be another ‘unsolved’ mystery. The Druids, who lived thousands of miles from Easter Island, were a priestly caste in the British Isles, and Western France whose secret traditions were memorised by their bards in the form of thousands of mystical verses. The earliest influence on them dates back thousands of years but their inner beliefs may be reflected in a mystical poem, ‘The Spoils of Annwn’ which is attributed to Taliesin, Britain’s chief 6th century bard . The fifth stanza in this poem says : ‘they know not the brindled ox with the thick head-band, having seven score knobs in his collar’. (22) This animal, which was ‘reputedly unknown to the public’, was Taurus and the ‘seven score knobs’ are thought to be the Pleiades in its shoulder. The main Celtic festivals were Bel’taine, on 1st May, and Samhain on 1st November. Both were regulated by the appearance of these stars ( a new beginning). The Pleiades linked Bel’taine is the origin of May Day celebrations which are now, sometimes, a time for demonstrations and rioting.

    The symbolic layout of  a secret underground complex, in Giza,  in Egypt, not far from the pyramids, was very similar to that of an Irish Druid sanctuary where secret initiation rites were enacted. (23) It might be thought that this is just a coincidence but there is something  more to this story.  The plan of these sanctuaries resembles the claimed ‘place of origin’ of the Maya, and other peoples, in Central America.  This tradition has mystified scholars because they do not appreciate that it’s allegorical and that it was linked with the Early World star-god religion.

Druid_temple

It’s not known if the Druids enacted their sacred rites in stone circles but, in present times, it’s a custom of Welsh Bards.  There are stone circles right across the Northern Hemisphere from the British Isles in the West to Japan in the Far East. Some are on South Sea Islands and in parts of the Americas and there are also some on Easter Island. There were two sacred areas in the south of England. One was centred around Stonehenge, the most famous Stone Age structure of the Ancient world,  and the other was the huge Avebury Stone Circle complex.

Near the single surviving upright of the tallest trilithon, its fallen stones lie on the ground. Photo Copyright 2010 Frank Robbins

Some archaeologists believe that Stonehenge was dedicated to the ancestors but, occasionally, the taboo word ‘gods’ is mentioned.  What they do not realise, though, is that there is sky-god symbolism at Stonehenge and at Avebury  (24 ) and it suggests that the sky people, who were worshipped, at that time, in other parts of the world, were also worshipped at these two famous English sites. What archaeologists also tend to overlook, because they  only focus on England, is that the first phase of the Stonehenge Circle, and the date accepted as the beginning of Egyptian civilisation, is around 3,100 b.c.e. The Hindu calendar cycle begins in the year 3,102 b.c.e and that of the Maya twelve years earlier and both represent the beginning of the present era which followed  the  previous age that was reputedly destroyed by the ‘sky-gods’. We have also seen that around this time there was climate change, and substantial flooding, in parts of the world, and that advanced civilisations arose in several countries. The era around 5,000 years ago, it would seem, was the rebirth of civilisation and not its dawn  as is generally believed.   

Many Early Middle Eastern legends were sky-god linked and so were some of the famous Greek stories. The same comment applies to the Book of Enoch, written about 2300 years ago, and the Book of  Revelation, in the New Testament, which dates to about 400 years later. In the 5th and 6th centuries, versions of these legends spread across Europe, and parts of the Middle East, and some were popular during the Middle Ages. Set in a modern context, a few are still with us in the themes of famous adventure , and musical, films.

The Early World’s sky-god religion was an influence on numerous aspects of human life over the past 5,000 years. Very few Egyptologists, for example, realise that the Egyptian Book of the Dead was based on events which, reputedly, happened in the pre-Deluge era. The sky-god religion was an influence on mystical cults, such as Mithraism, on the astronomical alignments of temples, on star-lore and astrology, and it resulted in numerous legends, traditions and customs, such as serpent dances and May Day celebrations. It’s reflected in star-lore, numerology, place names, old sayings,  early teachings at Chartres Cathedral in France, which were based upon sky-god linked Greek traditions. Therefore, in my opinion, astronomers involved in the S.E.T.I project, who are searching for evidence of Extra-terrestrial life, will obtain quicker results if they take notice of what the Ancients said about the subject and they should  also listen to the North American Native initiates who are awaiting the return of the sky-people.

 References:

  1. Leonard Farra.The Pleiades Legacy. (The Old World) Chapter two
  2.      “                  The Pleiades Legacy.(The New World)
  3.      “                  The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age) (The Return of the Gods)
  4. Don.E.Dumond. The Eskimos & The Aleuts. (p177)    Dean Snow. The American Indians. (p36)      Ivar Lissner. The Living Past. (p95)      Thor Heyerdal. Early Man and the Ocean.(p326)      Sabotino Moscati. The World of the Phoenicians. (P22)
  5. Christian O’Brien. The Genius of the Few. (p36-)
  6. Zenaide A.Ragozin. The Story of the Nations.Chaldea.( p155)      F.W.Holiday. The Dragon and the Disc. (p117)      The Gospel of the Essenes.      The Book of Revelation. Chap.4.      The Book of Enoch.      The Kalevala. –The duck linked creation story.          Donald A Mackenzie. Teutonic Myth and Legend.(p101)      Martha Beckwith. Hawaiian Mythology. (p38)      The Quiche-Mayan Popul Vuh
  7. Wendell H.Oswalt. This Land was Theirs. (p472)
  8. Paul Dunbavin. Atlantis of the West.      Ohio State team research on the Ice Cores from Mount Kilimanjaro in  Tanzania.      Jim Allen.Sailing to Paradise. (124)      Commonwealth Institute Report on the Tropics.      Thor Heyerdahl. Early Man and the Ocean. (p326)      Aubrey Burl. Prehistoric Avebury. (p112)      Rodney Castleden. Britain 3000 B.C  (p6)      Joseph Ellul.Malta’s Predeluvian Culture. (p9 & 14)      Rene Noorbergen. Secret of the Lost Races. (p122)      Wendel.H.Oswalt.This Land was Theirs. (p466)      Robert Charroux. Legacy of the Gods. (p49)
  9. Samuel Noah Kramer. The Sumerians. (p42)     Jeremy Black and Anthony Green.Gods,Demons and Symbols of Ancient  Mesopotamia. (p77)   Geoffrey Bibby. Looking for Dilmun. ( p94-)
  10. Zenaide A.Ragozin.The Story of the Nations.Chaldea. (p155)
  11. Brad Steiger. Worlds Before Our Own. (p163)
  12. National Geographic January 1980 (p98)
  13. Gelling & Davidson. The Chariot of the Sun. (P42)
  14. Leonard Farra.The Pleiades Legacy ( The Stone Age) (The Return of the Gods) (p106)
  15. Lawrence Blair with Lorne Blair. Ring of Fire .(67)
  16. The Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.  (Vol. 2 p509)
  17. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The New World)
  18. Leonard Farra. (The Pleiades Legacy.(The Old World) (Chapt.3)
  19. Ibid.
  20. Thor Heyerdahl. Aku Aku. Easter Island.
  21. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The New World).(Chapt.5)
  22. Eleanor.C.Merry.The flaming Door.(p111)
  23. Alwyn and Brinley Rees. Celtic Heritage.(P304)
  24. Leonard Farra. The Pleiades Legacy (The Stone Age) (The Return of the  Gods)

 

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Aliens & UFO's

Is Stephen Hawking right about aliens?

Stephen Hawking thinks that making contact with aliens would be a very bad idea indeed. But with new, massive telescopes, we humans are stepping up the search. Have we really thought this through?

In February 2008, Nasa sent the Beatles song, Across the Universe, across the universe. Pointing the telescopes in its Deep Space Network towards the north star, Polaris, astronomers played out their short cosmic DJ set, hoping that it might be heard by intelligent aliens during its 430-year journey to the star.

The hunt for intelligent species outside Earth may be a staple of literature and film – but it is happening in real life, too. Nasa probes are on the lookout for planets outside our solar system, and astronomers are carefully listening for any messages being beamed through space. How awe-inspiring it would be to get confirmation that we are not alone in the universe, to finally speak to an alien race. Wouldn’t it?

Well no, according to the eminent physicist Stephen Hawking. “If aliens visit us, the outcome would be much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn’t turn out well for the Native Americans,” Hawking has said in a forthcoming documentary made for the Discovery Channel. He argues that, instead of trying to find and communicate with life in the cosmos, humans would be better off doing everything they can to avoid contact.

Hawking believes that, based on the sheer number of planets that scientists know must exist, we are not the only life-form in the universe. There are, after all, billions and billions of stars in our galaxy alone, with, it is reasonable to expect, an even greater number of planets orbiting them. And it is not unreasonable to expect some of that alien life to be intelligent, and capable of interstellar communication. So, when someone with Hawking’s knowledge of the universe advises against contact, it’s worth listening, isn’t it?

Seth Shostak, a senior astronomer at the Seti Institute in California, the world’s leading organisation searching for telltale alien signals, is not so sure. “This is an unwarranted fear,” Shostak says. “If their interest in our planet is for something valuable that our planet has to offer, there’s no particular reason to worry about them now. If they’re interested in resources, they have ways of finding rocky planets that don’t depend on whether we broadcast or not. They could have found us a billion years ago.”

If we were really worried about shouting in the stellar jungle, Shostak says, the first thing to do would be to shut down the BBC, NBC, CBS and the radars at all airports. Those broadcasts have been streaming into space for years – the oldest is already more than 80 light years from Earth – so it is already too late to stop passing aliens watching every episode of Big Brother or What Katie and Peter Did Next.

The biggest and most active hunt for life outside Earth started in 1960, when Frank Drake pointed the Green Bank radio telescope in West Virginia towards the star Tau Ceti. He was looking for anomalous radio signals that could have been sent by intelligent life. Eventually, his idea turned into Seti (standing for Search for Extra Terrestrial Intelligence), which used the downtime on radar telescopes around the world to scour the sky for any signals. For 50 years, however, the sky has been silent.

There are lots of practical problems involved in hunting for aliens, of course, chief among them being distance. If our nearest neighbours were life-forms on the (fictional) forest moon of Endor, 1,000 light years away, it would take a millennium for us to receive any message they might send. If the Endorians were watching us, the light reaching them from Earth at this very moment would show them our planet as it was 1,000 years ago; in Europe that means lots of fighting between knights around castles and, in north America, small bands of natives living on the great plains. It is not a timescale that allows for quick banter – and, anyway, they might not be communicating in our direction.

The lack of a signal from ET has not, however, prevented astronomers and biologists (not to mention film-makers) coming up with a whole range of ideas about what aliens might be like. In the early days of Seti, astronomers focused on the search for planets like ours – the idea being that, since the only biology we know about is our own, we might as well assume aliens are going to be something like us. But there’s no reason why that should be true. You don’t even need to step off the Earth to find life that is radically different from our common experience of it.

“Extremophiles” are species that can survive in places that would quickly kill humans and other “normal” life-forms. These single-celled creatures have been found in boiling hot vents of water thrusting through the ocean floor, or at temperatures well below the freezing point of water. The front ends of some creatures that live near deep-sea vents are 200C warmer than their back ends.

“In our naive and parochial way, we have named these things extremophiles, which shows prejudice – we’re normal, everything else is extreme,” says Ian Stewart, a mathematician at Warwick University and author of What Does A Martian Look Like? “From the point of view of a creature that lives in boiling water, we’re extreme because we live in much milder temperatures. We’re at least as extreme compared to them as they are compared to us.”

On Earth, life exists in water and on land but, on a giant gas planet, for example, it might exist high in the atmosphere, trapping nutrients from the air swirling around it. And given that aliens may be so out of our experience, guessing motives and intentions if they ever got in touch seems beyond the realm’s even of Hawking’s mind.

Paul Davies, an astrophysicist at Arizona State University and chair of Seti’s post-detection taskforce, argues that alien brains, with their different architecture, would interpret information very differently from ours. What we think of as beautiful or friendly might come across as violent to them, or vice versa. “Lots of people think that because they would be so wise and knowledgeable, they would be peaceful,” adds Stewart. “I don’t think you can assume that. I don’t think you can put human views on to them; that’s a dangerous way of thinking. Aliens are alien. If they exist at all, we cannot assume they’re like us.”

Answers to some of these conundrums will begin to emerge in the next few decades. The researchers at the forefront of the work are astrobiologists, working in an area that has steadily marched in from the fringes of science thanks to the improvements in technology available to explore space.

Scientists discovered the first few extrasolar planets in the early 1990s and, ever since, the numbers have shot up. Today, scientists know of 443 planets orbiting around more than 350 stars. Most are gas giants in the mould of Jupiter, the smallest being Gliese 581, which has a mass of 1.9 Earths. In 2009, Nasa launched the Kepler satellite, a probe specifically designed to look for Earth-like planets.

Future generations of ground-based telescopes, such as the proposed European Extremely Large Telescope (with a 30m main mirror), could be operational by 2030, and would be powerful enough to image the atmospheres of faraway planets, looking for chemical signatures that could indicate life. The Seti Institute also, finally, has a serious piece of kit under construction: the Allen Array (funded by a $11.5m/£7.5m donation from Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen) has, at present, 42 radio antennae, each six metres in diameter, but there are plans, if the Seti Institute can raise another $35m, to have up to 300 radio dishes.

In all the years that Seti has been running, it has managed to look carefully at less than 1,000 star systems. With the full Allen Array, they could look at 1,000 star systems in a couple of years.

Shostak is confident that, as telescope technology keeps improving, Seti will find an ET signal within the next two decades. “We will have looked at another million star systems in two dozen years. If this is going to work, it will work soon.”

And what happens if and when we detect a signal? “My strenuous advice will be that the coordinates of the transmitting entity should be kept confidential, until the world community has had a chance to evaluate what it’s dealing with,” Davies told the Guardian recently. “We don’t want anybody just turning a radio telescope on the sky and sending their own messages to the source.”

But his colleague, Shostak, says we should have no such concerns. “You’ll have told the astronomical community – that’s thousands of people. Are you going to ask them all not to tell anybody where you’re pointing your antenna? There’s no way you could do that.

“And anyway, why wouldn’t you tell them where [the alien lifeform] is? Are you afraid people will broadcast their own message? They might do that but, remember, The Gong Show has already been broadcast for years.” And, for that matter, the Beatles.

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Aliens & UFO's

The Truth about Those “Alien Alloys” in The New York Times UFO Story

Is the government really stockpiling materials in a Nevada building that scientists cannot identify?

What to make of a Las Vegas building full of unidentified alloys?

The New York Times published a stunning story (Dec. 16) revealing that the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) had, between 2007 and 2012, funded a $22 million program for investigating UFOs. The story included three revelations that were tailored to blow readers’ minds:

1. Many high-ranking people in the federal government believe aliens have visited planet Earth.

2. Military pilots have recorded videos of UFOs with capabilities that seem to outstrip all known human aircraft, changing direction and accelerating in ways no fighter jet or helicopter could ever accomplish.

3. In a group of buildings in Las Vegas, the government stockpiles alloys and other materials believed to be associated with UFOs.

Points one and two are weird, but not all that compelling on their own: The world already knew that plenty of smart folks believe in alien visitors, and that pilots sometimes encounter strange phenomena in the upper atmosphere – phenomena explained by entities other than space aliens, such as a weather balloon, a rocket launch or even a solar eruption.

Point No. 3, though – those buildings full of alloys and other materials – that’s a little harder to hand wave away. Is there really a DOD cache full of materials from out of this world?

One of the authors of the Times report, Ralph Blumenthal, had this to say on MSNBC about the alloys: “They have, as we reported in the paper, some material from these objects that is being studied so that scientists can find what accounts for their amazing properties, this technology of these objects, whatever they are.” When asked what the materials were, Blumenthal responded, “They don’t know. They’re studying it, but it’s some kind of compound that they don’t recognize.”

Here’s the thing, though: The chemists and metallurgists Live Science spoke to – experts in identifying unusual alloys – don’t buy it.

“I don’t think it’s plausible that there’s any alloys that we can’t identify,” Richard Sachleben, a retired chemist and member of the American Chemical Society’s panel of experts, told Live Science. “My opinion? That’s quite impossible.”

Alloys are mixtures of different kinds of elemental metals. They’re very common – in fact, Sachleben said, they’re more common on Earth than pure elemental metals are – and very well understood. Brass is an alloy. So is steel. Even most naturally occurring gold on Earth is an alloy made up of elemental gold mixed with other metals, like silver or copper. [8 Important Elements You’ve Never Heard Of]

“There are databases of all known phases [of metal], including alloys,” May Nyman, a professor in the Oregon State University Department of Chemistry, told Live Science. Those databases include straightforward techniques for identifying metal alloys.

If an unknown alloy appeared, Nyman said it would be relatively simple to figure out what it was made of.

For crystalline alloys – those in which the mixture of atoms forms an ordered structure – researchers use a technique called X-ray diffraction, Nyman said.

“The X-ray’s wavelength is about the same size as the distance between the atoms [of crystalline alloys],” Nyman said, “so that means when the X-rays go into a well-ordered material, they diffract [change shape and intensity] – and from that diffraction [pattern] you can get information that tells you the distance between the atoms, what the atoms are, and how well-ordered the atoms are. It tells you all about the arrangement of your atoms.”

With noncrystalline, amorphous alloys, the process is a bit different, but not by much.

“These are all very standard techniques in research labs, so if we had such mysterious metals, you could take it to any university where research is done, and they could tell you what are the elements and something about the crystalline phase within a few hours,” Nyman said.

Sachleben agreed.

“There are no alloys that are sitting in some warehouse that we cannot figure out what they are. In fact, it’s pretty simple, and any reasonably good metallurgical grad student can do it for you,” he said.

Nyman said that if metals did fall from some mysterious aircraft, some forensics experiments would quickly answer a lot of questions about that aircraft. [UFO Mysteries: These Sightings Have Never Been Solved]

“How has the hunk of metal changed?” Nyman said. “From my scientist’s perspective, that’s the kind of question I’d be asking. Maybe, if it has to do with world politics, and we want to know where the metal comes from, maybe there’s some analysis that can lead you to where it was mined, or what country uses that particular alloy, that kind of thing.”

If the aircraft had come from space, Nyman said, that travel would leave telltale signs in the metal as well, in the form of spacefaring debris and ionization (changes to the electrical charges of the substance’s atoms).

Even if a chunk of alloy that hadn’t been seen before did fall to Earth from outer space, both Nyman and Sachleben agreed that it wouldn’t necessarily have come from an alien craft. In fact, Sachleben said, alloys strike the planet regularly – space-traversing alloys like those found in fairly common nickel-iron meteorites – leaving behind telltale signs. The meteor that wiped out the dinosaurs was even identified by the rare-Earth metals it left behind in certain geological formations in Earth’s crust.

It’s important to point out that while Blumenthal did go on cable news and say the alloys were unidentifiable mysteries, helping to spur speculation, that’s not what his article actually stated. Here’s the full quote from Saturday’s piece:

“The company [involved in the DOD research] modified buildings in Las Vegas for the storage of metal alloys and other materials that … program contractors said had been recovered from unidentified aerial phenomena. Researchers also studied people who said they had experienced physical effects from encounters with the objects and examined them for any physiological changes. In addition, researchers spoke to military service members who had reported sightings of strange aircraft.”

From this statement, there’s no actual sign that there’s anything unusual about the alloys themselves. All the Times wrote was that the DOD researchers tasked with finding weird UFO stuff collected some metal, interviewed some people who had claimed startling experiences with it, and decided that it was UFO-related.

In an email to Live Science regarding these metal alloys, Blumenthal said, “We printed as much as we were able to verify. Can’t go beyond that.”

As for whether there’s an explanation at least for the metals themselves, Sachleben said: “There’s not as many mysteries in science as people like to think. It’s not like we know everything – we don’t know everything. But most things we know enough about to know what we don’t know.”

Source www.scientificamerican.com


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Aliens & UFO's

Astronaut Buzz Aldrin Passes Lie Detector Test About Alien Encounter

Aldrin reportedly passed the lie detector test during his recollection of his close encounter with alien life during the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.  

He was part of the test that also analyzed interviews from astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper.

Experts said their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that their claims of alien life were genuine.

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin has reportedly passed a lie detector test after recalling his apparent encounter with alien life during the historic 1969 mission to the moon.

Aldrin, 88, was a part of the test that also analyzed interviews from astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper.

Recorded interviews of the astronauts were tested using the latest technology at the Institute of BioAcoustic Biology in Albany, Ohio.

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin (right) has reportedly passed a lie detector test after recalling his apparent encounter with alien life during the 1969 mission to the moon. Pictured are Neil Armstrong (left) and Michael Collins (center)

Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin (right) has reportedly passed a lie detector test after recalling his apparent encounter with alien life during the 1969 mission to the moon. Pictured are Neil Armstrong (left) and Michael Collins (center)

Aldrin (pictured on the moon), 88, participated in the test along with astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper

Aldrin pictured in February 2018

Aldrin (left on the moon and right in 2018), 88, participated in the test along with astronauts Al Worden, Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper

Experts claim their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that their claims of aliens were genuine, according to the Daily Star.

Aldrin has always maintained he spotted a UFO on the way to the moon.

‘There was something out there that was close enough to be observed, sort of L-shaped,’ Aldrin, who is the second human to set foot on the moon, recalled.

The Institute of BioAcoustic Biology conducted an analysis of the astronauts’ voice patterns as they spoke about their encounters.

BioAcoustic’s Sharry Edwards told the Daily Star that their tests revealed Aldrin is sure he saw the UFO even though his logical mind ‘cannot explain it’.

Last year, Apollo 15 pilot Al Worden, 86, told Good Morning Britain that he saw extra-terrestrials during his mission.

Cooper (pictured) had previously described trying to chase a cluster of objects

In a 2009 interview, Mitchell (pictured), who was a part of the Apollo 14 mission, claimed he saw multiple UFOs

Last year, Apollo 15 pilot Al Worden (pictured), 86, said he saw aliens during his mission

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The Institute of BioAcoustic Biology conducted an analysis of the astronauts’ voice patterns as they spoke about their encounters. Last year, Apollo 15 pilot Al Worden (right), 86, said he saw aliens during his mission. Pictured are Edgar Mitchell (center) and Gordon Cooper (left)

Experts claim their results prove they were 'completely convinced' that signs of alien life they claimed to have witnessed were genuine. Al Worden is pictured (center) next to astronauts David Scott (left) and James Irwin (right)

Experts claim their results prove they were ‘completely convinced’ that signs of alien life they claimed to have witnessed were genuine. Al Worden is pictured (center) next to astronauts David Scott (left) and James Irwin (right)

Voice recordings of NASA astronauts Edgar Mitchell and Gordon Cooper, who are both deceased, were also analyzed.

In a 2009 interview, Mitchell, who was a part of the Apollo 14 mission, claimed he saw multiple UFOs.

Cooper had previously described trying to chase a cluster of objects.

According to the Daily Star, the tests revealed that Cooper and Mitchell believed they were telling the truth.

The technology is still top-secret, but it has been claimed that these tests are more reliable than current lie detector tests.

Daily Mail

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