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Aliens & UFO's

Dark forest theory – contact with extraterrestrial civilizations

The question of whether we are alone in the universe arises as soon as it has been scientifically proven that the Earth orbits the Sun, and that there are many others besides our planet.

By the 21st century, mankind had already learned to enter the hidden corners of the cosmos, to find distant exoplanets (similar to Earth), to observe nebulae and black holes. But we still cannot ( officially ) find traces of an intelligent life.

All the scientists have discovered so far are the microscopic remains of the most primitive organic matter in Earth’s meteorites. Are we alone in this huge cold world?

People try to find other civilizations by regularly sending radio signals to different parts of the Universe, but they don’t get answers. Or, if they receive something, they don’t understand what it is and whether it’s a message from an intelligent life, or just reflective signals from comets.

According to the theory of Enrico Fermi (Fermi Paradox), presented in the 1950s, in many billions of years of the universe’s development, life could theoretically occur in many places, but if we have not seen them yet, then perhaps we are the only such civilization.

A decade later, astrophysicist Frank Drake, creates a special formula based on many parameters which calculated the number of extraterrestrial civilizations in the galaxy. According to this formula, despite the fact that we do not see traces of these civilizations, there must be many of them.

Over the years, many theories have emerged that try to explain why all these civilizations do not come in contact with us, but rather, they are intentionally hidden from us.

One of the newest and most curious theories emerged in 2008 and bears the slightly ominous name “Dark Forest Theory.”

This theory is revealed in Liu Qixing’s science fiction novel of the same year. It is based on three claims:

1) All living creatures strive to secure their own survival.

2) There is no way to know if an unfamiliar life form will be friendly or try to destroy you.

3) Without guarantees to obtain accurate information about the dangers of this life form, the best thing for surviving is to remain hidden for as long as possible or to deliver the first preemptive strike yourself.

From all this, it follows that if extraterrestrial civilizations are stubbornly silent and do not respond to any attempts at contact, then they probably adhere to the “stealth” condition or they entered the war (preemptive strike) and were destroyed by its consequences.

Liu Cixin says:

“The universe is a dark forest. Every civilization, like an armed hunter, moves among the trees, carefully pushes its branches and tries not to make loud noises. This hunter tries to control himself and breathe as quietly as possible. The hunter must be careful because this forest is full of other hunters.

And if he encounters aliens, he will probably be attacked and killed, survival is the main thing. This is a picture of space civilization and it well explains the Fermi paradox. “

Cixin also explains that the resources of the universe are not infinite. Therefore, civilizations will try to conquer them earlier than others and destroy competitors. That is, any alien race for any other  alien race is a catastrophic threat.

Between their own representatives, these races can negotiate, as humans do on Earth. but with completely alien intelligent life forms, completely different rules are played, and the survival of the species is at stake.

This theory is supported by science fiction writer David Brin, and many others. Moreover, if we take this theory to be true, then it turns out that humanity is at great risk by sending radio signals to space. It’s the same as in a dark forest full of dangers, to scream:

I’m here! Come all here!

The late Stephen Hawking also realized this danger and opposed attempts to seek contact with aliens, believing that this was essentially suicide. .

Maybe people are overly dramatic and vainly imagine extraterrestrial civilizations as ruthless predators?

However, if all these civilizations evolved in a way similar to humankind, which is very likely under similar chemical and biological conditions, then we must remember what the “civilized” people in our history did when they encountered less developed tribes.

Aliens & UFO's

UK UFO case to be kept secret until 2072

The UK Department of Defense has blocked the planned release of a dossier detailing the famous UFO incident.

Back in August 1990, two tourists walking in the Scottish Highlands near Calvine, Pitlochry, witnessed a strange rhombic object hovering over the nearby landscape.

They managed to take pictures of the UFO before it flew away at significant speed.

Eager to share what they saw, the couple contacted the Scottish Daily Record and shared both their story and the photos they took.

Then the journalists shared the pictures with the UK Department of Defense.

It turned out that the tourists weren’t the only ones who saw the object – the pilot of the RAF Harrier jet also witnessed the phenomenon – again near Calvine – after being forced to investigate this UFO.

Military intelligence officers sent these images to JARIC, which is the Joint Air Intelligence and Reconnaissance Center.

It is the UK’s military center of excellence when it comes to image analysis. These intelligence officers concluded that these photographs were real and that no one had the slightest idea what they were.

Several mock ups of the photos have been made, while the real things remain hidden
Several mock ups of the photos have been made, while the real things remain classified

Thirty years later, the dossier of the Ministry of Defense, including photographs, was scheduled for declassification and publication, which is typical of such documents.

However, the release has now been postponed for another 50 years for unknown reasons.

According to the 30-year rule, the file was supposed to be released on January 1, 2021, but if the ministry gets it, it won’t be released until January 1, 2072 – an 82-year closure.

“By the time the world gets to see the file, the two witnesses will be dead. It is crazy. What are the authorities trying to hide?”

A complaint lodged under the Freedom of Information Act about the National Archives withholding the documents is now under investigation by the UK information watchdog, the Information Commissioner’s Office.

The National Archives refused to comment further. The MOD refused to comment at all.

What are the authorities trying to hide?

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Aliens & UFO's

FBI decrypted documents confirm that there are giant aliens

The topic of aliens has always attracted attention. Recently, foreign media disclosed that a declassified document released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) once again confirmed the existence of UFOs and aliens.

FBI Declassified Document: Describes UFO and Aliens

https://twitter.com/AgentApplebutt3/status/1303403903585718273?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw%7Ctwcamp%5Etweetembed%7Ctwterm%5E1303403903585718273%7Ctwgr%5Eshare_3&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fsputniknews.gr%2Fviral%2F202009098195787-exogiinoi-gigantes-kai-onta-apo-alles-diastaseis-ereuna-tou-FBI-mila-gia-thermo-epeisodio-me-UFO%2F

The British “Daily Star” reported that earlier this year, the FBI released the decrypted documents in 1947. The 70-page decrypted report contained a “Memorandum 6751”. The person who wrote the report was an anonymous university professor.

“Memorandum 6751″ mentioned that there were flying saucers, unidentified creatures, and ” giant aliens resembling humans “.

The report stated that these aliens are like humans, “but larger in size. They are not from any planet known to people, but from the etheric.” “Ether” is a term used in ancient Greece, generally referring to the atmosphere or sky.

Sketch of flying saucer. (Pixabay.com)

There is also a description of the flying saucer in the decryption report, which refers to the fact that most of the flying saucers are loaded with alien creatures. The flying saucers have powerful radiation, are very fast, and have powerful attack capabilities.

“These flying saucers have a kind of radiant energy or light that can easily disintegrate any spacecraft that launches an attack. They can re-enter (earth) from the ether at will, or they can simply disappear from our sight without leaving a trace.”

The report states, “If one of these (flying saucers) is attacked, the attacking aircraft will almost certainly be destroyed. As far as the general public is concerned, this may lead to proximity panic and international suspicion.”

Tesla is a ” Venusian “

In recent years, due to the expiration of the confidentiality period, the FBI has published many decrypted documents on its official website, including one about the famous inventor Nicholas. Tesla (Nikola Tesla) declassified documents, caused a public heat. The document mentioned that Tesla came from “Venus” and was an “alien”.

The FBI declassified document mentioned that the famous inventor Nicholas. Tesla came from “Venus” and was an “alien”. (Public domain)

The decrypted document is called “Nikola Tesla Part03 of03”. It is the third document about Nikola Tesla decrypted by the FBI. It has 64 pages of content, some of which are blacked out and cannot be distinguished.

The remaining content that is not blacked out contains the following passage: “The people of the universe have contacted Nikola Tesla many times and told the FBI that Tesla was from Venus. Tesla was brought to the earth in 1856 to a Yugoslav couple to raise.”

The publication of this document shocked the world. Faced with a wave of discussions and doubts from netizens, the FBI did not make any response or explanation, which is even more curious.

F-18 fighters chase UFO

“The Wall Street Journal” recently reported that the non-profit organization “National UFO Reporting Center” data shows that so far this year, UFO sightings have increased by 51% over the same period last year. The center has received approximately 5,000 sightings reported.

On September 8, the United States retired Lieutenant Colonel David. David Fravor accepted the Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientist Rex. In a live webcast interview with Lex Fridman, he talked about the bizarre experience of driving an F-18 fighter jet to chase UFOs 16 years ago.

There are American pilots chasing UFOs in F-18 fighter jets. F-18 fighter data map. (Michael Dodge/Getty Images)

On November 14, 2004, a UFO was found in the waters of San Diego, California, and Frevo piloted an F-18 fighter to investigate. Both he and the pilot of the other fighter saw a white Tic Tac mint-shaped flying object.

Subsequently, the pilot Chad Underwood flew an F-18 fighter jet, caught UFO on the radar, and successfully filmed UFO video with an infrared camera.

In April this year, the Pentagon released three videos of UFOs, one of which was taken by Underwood during this operation.

12 U.S. soldiers live on alien planets

Former Minister of Defense of Canada Paul. Paul T. Hellyer once disclosed that there are aliens living on the earth and working for the US government. Many US presidents have also admitted the existence of aliens on different occasions.

In addition, some U.S. military personnel disclosed that a top-secret exchange between the U.S. military and aliens was named “Operation Zeta,” and an alien envoy came to the United States. In July 1965, 12 American soldiers secretly boarded an alien spacecraft to the planet Zeta.

Of these 12 people, 4 never returned to Earth. Of these 4 people, 2 died, 2 chose to stay on Zeta, and the remaining 8 returned to Earth 13 years later.

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Aliens & UFO's

How many extraterrestrial civilizations can exist nearby?

Still from the movie "Prometheus" 20th Century Fox

In the 12th episode of the series ” Space”, Which aired on December 14, 1980, co-author and host of the program Carl Sagan introduced viewers to the eponymous equation of astronomer Frank Drake. 

Using it, he calculated the potential number of advanced civilizations in the Milky Way that could communicate with us using the extraterrestrial equivalent of our current radio communication technology. 

Sagan’s estimate ranged from a “paltry few” to millions. If civilizations don’t always destroy themselves shortly after the discovery of radio astronomy, then the sky can literally buzz with messages from the stars,” Sagan said in his inimitable manner. And yet Sagan was pessimistic about the fact that civilizations are able to survive their own technological “Youth” – a transitional period when the development of culture, say, nuclear energy,

If aliens exist, then why don’t we “hear” them?

Life in the universe

Sagan and other scientists suggested that the emergence of life on planets should be a cosmic inevitability, since according to geological data, it arose on earth amazingly quickly: more than four billion years ago, almost immediately after our planet cooled down enough. And if, as in our world, life on other planets arose quickly and evolved, becoming more complex over time, perhaps intelligence and technology could also be ubiquitous throughout the universe.

However, in recent years, some skeptical astronomers have tried to lend more empirical weight to such claims, using a sophisticated form of analysis called Bayesian statistics. The researchers focused on two unknowns: the likelihood of life on Earth-like planets from abiotic conditions – a process called abiogenesis – and therefore the likelihood of intelligent life. But even with such estimates, astronomers disagree about what they mean for life in other parts of the cosmos.

Drake’s equation, introduced by an astronomer in 1961, calculates the number of civilizations in our galaxy that can transmit or receive interstellar messages using radio waves. It is based on the multiplication of a number of factors, each of which quantifies some aspect of our knowledge of the galaxy, planets, life, and intelligence. 

These factors include: stars with exoplanets; the number of inhabited planets in the exoplanetary system; the number of inhabited planets on which life originates, and so on.

We may never know if there is life beyond Earth.

Today we know that worlds around stars are the norm, and that Earth-like worlds are common in the universe. However, one of the biggest uncertainties in the entire chain of factors is the likelihood that life, which originated in other worlds, makes the leap from chemistry to life. Ignoring this uncertainty could lead astronomers to make some pretty bold claims.

For example, astronomers from the University of Nottingham in England recently made headlines when they calculated that our galaxy must have at least 36 intelligent civilizations capable of communicating with us. This estimate was based on the assumption that intelligent life appears on other habitable terrestrial planets approximately 4.5-5.5 billion years after their formation. 

However, it is difficult to answer questions about the probability of abiogenesis and the emergence of intelligent life, because scientists have only one information: life on Earth.

Another problem with assumptions based on what we observe locally is the so-called selection bias. Imagine buying lottery tickets and winning on your 100th try. In this case, it would be reasonable to designate the probability of winning the lottery as 1%. 

This misleading conclusion is, of course, a selection bias that occurs if you only survey the winners and none of the losers (i.e. tens of millions of people who bought tickets but never won the lottery). When it comes to calculating the probability of abiogenesis, exactly the same thing happens, since scientists simply do not have information about all the worlds where life did not appear.

Abiogenesis probability

If you apply Bayes’ theorem to calculate the probability that an event, such as abiogenesis, will occur, astronomers first come up with a probability distribution for that event — a better guess, if you will. For example, it can be assumed that abiogenesis is as likely between 100 and 200 million years after the formation of the Earth, as it is between 200 and 300 million years after that time or any other 100-million segment of our planet’s history. These assumptions are called Bayesian a priori . Statisticians then collect data or evidence and combine the previous and actual data to calculate the posterior probability.

The answer to the question of how common life is in the galaxy remains unknown

In 2012, astronomers at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton were the first to apply Bayesian analysis to abiogenesis. According to their approach, life on a planet like Earth orbiting a star like the Sun does not arise until a certain minimum number of years (tmin) after the formation of this world. If life does not arise before a certain maximum time (tmax), then, as its star ages (and eventually dies), conditions on the planet become too hostile for abiogenesis.

However, this study is not without its drawbacks. For example, some researchers have questioned the assumption that intelligence emerged at a specific time after abiogenesis. This prior could be another example of selection bias, a concept influenced by the evolutionary path that our own intelligence has taken.

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