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Crashed Israeli Lunar lander Likely Left Thousands of Tardigrades on the Moon

When Israeli lunar lander Beresheet crash-landed onto the Moon in April, watched live by millions across the world, the spacecraft left a rather serious dent in the lunar surface.

According to a report published Monday by American magazine Wired, however, Beresheet may have left more on the Moon than previously thought. The SpaceIL spacecraft was apparently carrying thousands of microscopic tardigrades, also known as “little water bears,” which are among the most resilient animals known to man.

The tardigrades, only 0.5mm in length when fully grown, joined the lunar-destined journey as part of an initiative led by the Arch Mission Foundation, founded by Nova Spivack.

Aiming to maintain a backup of planet Earth around the Solar System, Beresheet carried the foundation’s lunar library – a tiny 30-million page archive of human history and civilization, human DNA samples and a few thousand dehydrated tardigrades.

Based on the foundation’s analysis of the spacecraft’s trajectory and the composition of their lunar library, Spivack told Wired that he was quite confident that their payload mostly or entirely survived the impact.

Engineers lost contact with the spacecraft only minutes before it was due to complete the historic lunar landing on April 11, making a high-velocity crash-landing inevitable. Reaching the moon was a feat previously completed only by the United States, Russia (then the USSR) and China, backed by giant sums far exceeding Beresheet’s modest NIS 350 million ($99m.) budget.

“For the first 24 hours, we were just in shock,” Spivack said. “We sort of expected that it would be successful. We knew there were risks but we didn’t think the risks were that significant.”

Known for their resilience, a 2007 European Space Agency experiment showed that tardigrades are able to survive space exposure. Some 3,000 organisms joined a 12-day journey into space on-board the agency’s Foton-M3 mission, and survived conditions that would kill humans in minutes.

If the dehydrated tardigrades survived the landing, Spivack added, they could hypothetically be revived in years to come by future human astronauts upon their return to Earth. Research has previously shown that dehydrated micro-animals can be revived decades later.

While SpaceIL and its lead donor, Morris Kahn, quickly stated their ambition following the Beresheet crash to launch a second spacecraft to the Moon within two years, the organization announced in June that reattempting the same mission would not present a sufficiently great challenge.

If some lunar enthusiasts might have been disappointed by the announcement, SpaceIL co-founder Kfir Damari told The Jerusalem Post in July that the decision is about broadening their horizons even further.

“It’s possible that we will return to the Moon, but we won’t give a green light to the same project with the same design,” Damari said.

“We decided that we want to look for different options – maybe to go to the Moon and come back or to take something special with us. We’re also thinking about other places, including the ability to go beyond the Moon.”

It remains to be seen whether SpaceIL’s next mission will include taking even more tardigrades to the Moon, or perhaps even beyond.

Eytan Halon
Jerusalem Post

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Fact or fiction

Plesiosaurus Cub? In Thailand, a very strange creature was photographed in water

A few days ago a video appeared on the Internet with a very unusual creature (see below), filmed somewhere off the coast of Thailand and was looking very similar to Plesiosaurus.

People watched the creature literally for several seconds, while the boat sailed past him.

The animal stayed on the surface of the water, sticking out of the water a small brown head on a long neck.

The creature is small in appearance and at first, glance looks like a sea turtle. However, in slow motion, it becomes clear that not a single turtle has such a head with huge eyes and such a long neck.

Plesiosaurus
The mysterious creature that looks like Plesiosaurus

Also, the body shape of the creature, although it is as streamlined as the body of a sea turtle, is not at all like a shell.

There is still no detailed information about the video posted on the network, it is not known, when it was shot, or in any particular place.

The opinions of users were divided into those who consider the video a fake (and the creature in the water is a mechanical doll), those who think that it was some kind of unknown sea turtle (or mutant tortoise), and those who believe that the creature is The video is very similar to a small ancient marine dinosaur, most likely a plesiosaur. It is possible that this is his cub.

“It looks like a turtle with a seal head and long fins. Without a clue what it is,” comments one user.

“But it seemed to me like an elongated body of an octopus,” someone else wrote.

Plesiosaurus
Plesiosaurus

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The Moon is an artificial object. And that’s why

Over the years, it has been observed that the Earth’s moon satellite has some strange features and people always argue if the Moon is an artificial object.

The moon is the fifth-largest natural satellite of the solar system, and the official theory says that it was formed from the collision of a young Earth with a very large celestial body, the size of Mars.

Below are the most basic theses, according to which the Moon is an artificial object, probably created by aliens. In fact, there are a lot of such theses, but our goal is to fit into a capacious article, where all the main things will be put into shelves without extra water.

Moon is an artificial object

One of the very first anomalies seen by astronomers behind the moon is that it moves in the wrong orbit for its size and current estimated density.

Also, according to astronomers, inside the moon has a lower density than outside, which leads to the assumption that there are large voids inside the moon.

Some even claimed that when large meteorites fall on the moon, it makes a sound similar to a rumble of a bell, which also goes in favor of the theory of the presence of voids inside the moon.

On the moon, seismic surface vibrations, the so-called moonquakes, were repeatedly recorded. Their maximum power reached 5.5 points on the Richter scale. This is not much for the Earth, but for the Moon – considered a “dead” object without volcanic activity, this is an anomaly.

It is officially believed that moonquakes are mainly caused by the tidal action of the Earth and, to a lesser extent, by the stress of the lunar surface and falling meteorites.

The moon is possibly older than not only the earth but also the sun. The age of the Earth is estimated at a maximum of 4.5 billion years, the Sun – also at 4.5 billion, while some scientists estimate the age of the lunar rock at 5 billion years (officially its age is also 4.5 billion, like that of the Earth and the Sun). The chemical composition of the lunar dust is different from the lunar rocks themselves.

Another oddity of the moon is craters. First of all, there are an incredible amount and they can be very large. But not one of them penetrated deep into the bowels of the moon as if there was hidden under the stones extremely hard metal plating.

All these meteorites left behind only very shallow craters. Even a huge meteorite, which left behind a crater with a diameter of 300 km (Baia crater), penetrated the moon only 4 km.

Moon is an artificial object

Some craters are recognized to have arisen due to volcanic activity, but there is no evidence that the moon was even once so hot as to create volcanic eruptions. None of the currently observed moonquakes can leave such craters.

The moon is the only natural satellite in the solar system with an almost perfectly circular orbit.

Well, the most obvious thesis. How can it naturally coincide in such a way that the Moon during the eclipses of the tuft in the tuft covers the Sun?

This also requires a certain precisely calibrated orbit with a certain inclination of rotation and with a precisely calibrated diameter of the body itself.

Moon is an artificial object

In addition, the Moon regularly changed color throughout the entire history of observations. And this is difficult to explain with fogs, changes in the Earth’s atmosphere or something else, since different colors were visible not only visually, but also through telescopes.

Even in photographs from moon rovers, you can see not only the familiar gray surface but also richly brown. Although such images are much smaller than gray.

The Soviet scientists Vasin and Shcherbakov were the first to express the theory of the alien moon ship back in the 1960s. In their opinion, a certain civilization created the moon from a planetoid, hollowing it out from the inside and strengthening it with metal frames.

In addition to all of the above, the strange glow regularly observed on the Moon, fixed UFO flights and other anomalies that are always discarded by scientists as fakes speak in favor of this version.

Moon is an artificial object

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Space Alien Message, WOW!: Genuine or a Fluke?

The 1977 Wow! signal, an inexplicable radio transmission received in Ohio State University’s observatory, might have come from extraterrestrials.

There’s a color copy scan of the original computer printout of the Wow! signal, taken several years after its arrival, by, the Ohio State University Radio Observatory and the North American AstroPhysical Observatory, NAAPO.

It has numbers and letters and “Wow!,” written by volunteer astronomer Jerry Ehman, in cursive handwriting. The National Geographic Channel and the Puerto Rican Arecibo Observatory are working together to try to contact the message’s writers.

WOW! Message Discovered

Jerry Ehman was a volunteer researcher for Ohio State University’s Big Ear radio observatory which was closed and dismantled in 1997. He inspected data from the telescope’s scan of the sky for August 15th.

Then, information was run through an IBM 1130 mainframe computer, printed on perforated paper and examined by hand. Ehman noticed something amazing – 140 characters and a vertical column with the alphanumerical sequence “6EQUJ5” that happened at 10:16 PM, EST. He circled it and wrote “Wow!” in the margin, using a red pen.

His exhilaration over the piece of esoteric information was from Big Ear’s mission, searching space for radio signals that might be originated by aliens, if they were trying to contact intelligent life somewhere in the universe.

Ehman saw that this signal came from the direction of the constellation Sagittarius and looked like it could be an alien message. Observatory director John Krauss and his assistant Bob Dixon, who examined the data, were also astonished by it.

What was WOW!?

More than thirty years later, the Wow Signal, as SETI institute researchers dubbed it, is the first and best potential evidence of communication from aliens and one of science’s most baffling mysteries. The institute’s mission is to “explore, understand and explain the origin, nature and prevalence of life in the universe.”

Ehman and his colleagues worked to rule out other explanations, including satellites, aircraft or Earth’s ground-based transmitters; however researchers haven’t been able to prove that it’s a message from space. Ehman told the Columbus Dispatch in 2010, “It’s an open question.”

Theories about Alien Communication

Cornell physicists Philip Morrison and Guiseppe Cocconi tried to figure out how a distant alien civilization, if one existed, could try to contact others in the universe, in the early 1960s. They theorized that aliens would use a radio signal because the transmissions require moderately little energy to generate and can travel vast distances across space.

They presumed that aliens would be intelligent enough to choose a message that other intelligent beings might understand, even if they had a different language. Chemicals emit distinctive electromagnetic frequencies which is how astronomers determine the structure of distant planets and stars from their light.

Hydrogen, the most common element in the universe, emits a signal with a frequency of 1420 megahertz, so they thought that aliens could send out a signal that mimicked it.

WOW! Difficult to Explain

The signal Ehman saw was the first one that appeared to almost precisely fit the description. Every digit on the printout represented the strength of a radio signal, from zero to 35, with intensities over nine represented by letters.

Most of the signals were ones and twos. One, as signified by the letter “U” in the middle of the message, was extremely powerful, about thirty times greater than the usual noise of deep space. It was the loudest, longest signal that Big Ear would pick up. The signal was narrowly focused and very close to 1420 megahertz, the frequency of hydrogen.

The message was complex to explain. Scientists were bewildered when they traced the signal to a location northwest of the globular cluster M55, a place where there apparently was neither star nor planet. In 1997, SETI researcher Paul Shuch told New Scientist magazine that, if the signal came from aliens, it would have required some remarkably advanced equipment.

Supposing that the extraterrestrial beacon was the size of the largest radio telescopes on Earth, the aliens would have needed a 2.2 gigawatt transmitter, infinitely more powerful than any existing terrestrial radio station.

The most perplexing thing about the Wow signal was that it lasted about 72 seconds and never was detected again, although, in the twenty ensuing years, scientists conducted over one hundred studies of the same area of sky.

They wondered if aliens were trying to contact humans, wouldn’t they keep repeating their message. In the early 2000s, researchers tried to detect a message, using a 26-meter radio telescope in Hobart, Tasmania that was smaller than Big Ear, but more technologically advanced.

In 2003, the Astrobiology Magazine reported that, despite their ability to detect signals only five percent as strong as the Wow Signal, they found nothing that resembled it.

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