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A Common Origin: Who Invented the Pyramids?

A Common Origin: Who Invented the Pyramids? 86

Published by Martin J. Clemens

If you spend any amount of time on the internet, particularly Twitter, there’s a good chance you’ve seen this meme image. (Down)

common-origin

What you’ll quickly deduce from the image is that someone, namely whoever made the picture, believes there to have been a common origin to the design of the pyramids, in Egypt, Asia and South America, among others.  That is to say that those people who built the pyramids at Giza, or Teotihuacan, or Cambodia, all worked off of the same blueprint.  Or in the simplest terms available, they all got the idea from the same place.

This idea, that all pyramids are connected by way of a common history, is part of a concept or school of thought known as Pyramidology.  Overall, this is a collection of failed pseudoscientific concepts covering everything from:

  • The Meteorological hypothesis – which discusses the geometric/astronomical alignment of the Great Pyramid at Giza.
  • The Numerological hypothesis – which discusses the esoteric geometric dimensions of the Egyptian pyramids, invoking the sacred cubit, which, surprisingly enough, was first postulated by Sir Isaac Newton.
  • Pyramid Power – which is ridiculous; but for those unfamiliar posits that the shape of pyramids engenders certain supernatural powers, such as healing, psychic enhancement and the generation of unspecified energies.
  • Pseudoarchaeological hypotheses – which includes the common origin idea and ancient alien hypothesis.

The scientific success of Pyramidology, or the lack thereof, seems to do little to dissuade the more credulous among us, for the above ideas permeate the Fortean community.  Of particular interest is the issue of common origin.

Ignatius L. Donnelly
Ignatius L. Donnelly

You might guess that the father of ancient alien theory, Eric von Däniken, would have his hands in this, and you’d be right, but the idea didn’t originate with him.

19th Century author, amateur scientist and, of all things, US Congressman, Ignatius L. Donnelly is credited with the Atlantean hypothesis of common origin, not only for the pyramids, but for other key pieces of ancient culture.  He is also responsible for popularising the antediluvian civilization concept and he was a well-known proponent of the Shakespearean Authorship question.

In his 1882 book titled Atlantis, The Antediluvian World, Donnelly provided the basis for the hyperdiffusionist view of history, claiming that the common origin of the pyramids was the lost civilization of Atlantis. He says that the pyramids are the most visible example of Atlantean influence on other world cultures.  This idea is furthered by other proponents, such as Grafton Elliot Smith who claimed that small groups of people travelling by boat, spread the basic concepts of pyramid construction from Atlantis across the Fertile Crescent and into Asia.

Von Däniken and other ancient alien theorists have further advanced Donnelly’s ideas, connecting the ancient cultures of Asia, South America and Egypt, claiming that the similarities between each demand the logical assertion that they were seeded by a single historical entity, in his case that entity was aliens and not the lost civilization.

At first glance these ideas may seem to have some merit, notwithstanding the fact that they are all unanimously considered pseudoscientific in academic circles.  Pyramids from all three cultures do possess a striking similarity, in that all take the shape of a pyramid.  Though that’s really as far as it goes.  Outside of their superficial similarities, the pyramids of the Mayan or Cambodian or Egyptian regions have drastically different styles and even purposes.  From the stepped pyramids of the Yucatan to the Smooth sided, gold tipped Egyptian pyramids, which long predate all others; from the four sided to the eight sided (The Great Pyramid of Giza is actually eight sided), they really only seem similar to the untrained and uncritical eye.

A famous picture depicting the eight sides of the Great Pyramid at Giza
A famous picture depicting the eight sides of the Great Pyramid at Giza

One might be able to argue that the stylistic differences between cultures are the result of each culture assimilating the knowledge passed on in the ways suggested by Donnelly and von Däniken, but there’s a simple rebuttal that should be aesthetically pleasing to most Forteans, one that conforms to their favourite scientific/philosophical principle – Occam’s razor.  The simplest of all explanations for the similarity between pyramid structures around the world, is that, in construction, especially in megalithic construction, there are certain shapes that are more likely than others to be successful.  The square pyramid just happens to be the most structurally stable building shape known to man.  Not only is it stable, but it’s simple, easy to engineer and construct on a large scale.  It’s also likely to survive the ages, when constructed using stone (as they obviously were), in turn giving us many surviving examples to compare, as opposed to stick framed, wooden structures or even other less stable stone construction a la Greek and Roman ruins that are far younger and in much worse condition.  So it stands to reason that the use of pyramids in monuments, monuments that were intended to stand the test of time, would have been popular and that the genesis for this style of construction would have come out of independent common sense evolution of construction techniques.

 

A Mayan pyramid at Chichen-itza
A Mayan pyramid at Chichen-itza

The same is true for any number of other advancements in ancient culture.  Take the advent and rise of boats for example.  While there may have been a certain amount of regional knowledge trade among neighbouring tribespeople and villages, this relatively local spread of techniques for building boats could not account for the worldwide use of boats over time.  It is a certainty that many, if not most early boat builders came up with the idea independently.  And the similar shape of most boats of the time can be attributed to elements of necessity in their purpose and the environment in which they were used (on water).

While it may not be possible to prove beyond a doubt that these building practises arose in disparate cultures independently, the evidence for that being the case is quite strong, certainly much stronger than the alternative.  Notwithstanding the fact that there is zero archaeological evidence to support the existence of any mechanism for transmitting such knowledge across the globe, it simply isn’t necessary to invoke a grand conspiratorial knowledge base used by cultures that were geographically separated by thousands of miles and by geological barriers such as mountains, deserts and oceans.

As mentioned, Pyramidology, in its entirety, is widely panned as pseudoscientific nonsense, it holds to a romantic notion of connectivity, to each other and to the greater universe, but it’s not necessary.  Science provides us with the same connectivity, through anthropology, genetics, cosmology and physics, and these principles come with verifiable and repeatable explanations and evidence.  It may seem like men like Donnelly or Smith or von Däniken are pioneers in abstract thinking.  That they have unique and genuine insights into the mysteries of our past, but in most cases these people do nothing but muddy our understanding of history with unsupported claims and often, lies.

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Ancient

The remains of a previous civilization must be sought at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean

The remains of a previous civilization must be sought at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean 97

The legends and myths of many European peoples and ancient Russian pre-Christian tales and epics tell about the northern ancestral home of people of the white race. Now more and more ruins of ancient megalithic structures of immigrants from the Arctic continent are being discovered not only on the Kola Peninsula and in Karelia, but also in the Urals and Siberia. The artifacts of the most highly developed arctic civilization are now absorbed by the waters of the Arctic Ocean.

The remains of a previous civilization must be sought at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean 98

Esoteric sources and ancient myths speak about this. More and more modern independent researchers who have discovered in our “official history” a large number of “inconsistencies” and outright falsifications come to a similar conclusion. 

That is why the mass of myths and legends concerning Hyperborea persistently tells us that the ancient inhabitants of this continent freely moved not only over the planet’s air ocean, but were the true masters of space. The ancient Greeks, describing the life of the Hyperboreans, largely told the truth about them. Indeed, the inhabitants of the legendary northern land, possessing gigantic cosmic knowledge, were, from the point of view of the ancient Hellenes, almost immortal.

G. Sidorov

Knowledge of the laws of the Universe and the experience of higher magic allowed them, even after a global cataclysm that brought the earth’s axis to the center of Oriana, to preserve in high latitudes under the Pole Star an oasis of life, which collapsed only after another thermonuclear strike. The ancient Greeks rightly called the inhabitants of Oriana Hyperboreans, or Hyperboreans, that is, those living behind the domains of the northern wind of Boreas.

In fact, warm Hyperborea, surrounded on all sides by regions where winter temperatures (70 – 10 thousand years BC) were often set to -80C and even -100C, as indicated by the many-meter permafrost of northern Asia and America , as well as entirely frozen mammoth animals found in the fossil ice of Siberia, confuses most climatologists in Europe and around the world with its climatic phenomenon. Indeed, according to science, the climate of the Arctic, despite the fact that fierce winters were raging in Europe, Asia and North America, and the soil was frozen tens of meters, was soft and warm. If you believe the data of paleobotanical analysis, then another 15 – 10 thousand years BC. cypresses, chestnuts and plane trees grew in the Arctic islands and the north of Scotland, grapes grew in full swing. According to science, only in the 8th – 6th millennium BC. the water area of ​​the Arctic Ocean has turned into an icy lifeless desert. “

Another Russian scientist N. Pavlischeva, based on Wegener’s lithospheric theory of earthly catastrophes, writes in her book the following:

“One of the major shortcomings of modern historical thinking is a complete conviction in the progressive development of mankind. What are we taught in school? At first they were completely wild, then they learned to make rough stone products and bones, then small, learned to speak, work the land, raise livestock, fight … and off we go … to the very “Shuttles” and “Worlds”.

However, if we recall the natural disasters in only one European part of Russia, then we can understand that the people who lived on it had to periodically slide almost to their starting positions due to changes in living conditions … Why did nature treat its children so cruelly, exposing their such tests? And in general, what happened in unthinkable ancient times, however, which affected the development and even survival of all people on planet Earth? …

All the ancient religions of the world and the legends of most people mention this catastrophe. They have been passed down from generation to generation as precious information that should not be lost. Unfortunately, the descendants of the “enlightened” centuries did not treat it too attentively, but it would be worth listening. All sources say one thing: earthquakes, fire (volcanoes), black clouds, terrible waves, flood, lack of light for a long time and … the sun went mad, which began to rise and set differently than it did until then.

The past and terrible catastrophe has been told more than once in many legends and tales. The fact that the east has become north and the earth turned upside down is reported by the Egyptian papyri “The Magic Papyrus of Harris”, “The Ipuvera Papyrus” and “The Hermitage Papyrus”. There are legends in which everything is conveyed poetically, there are very figurative stories – the Greek myth of Phaethon and the myths of many people, edifying – in the “Avesta” the coming to Earth of the devil Ahriman. There are also completely business-like descriptions of the cataclysm.

And in all of them there is something that is of particular interest to us now: the strange, if not crazy, behavior of the Sun! According to numerous testimonies of the ancients, it either disappeared for a while, or simply “rushed” across the firmament, as if not daring to move anywhere, and then changed the direction of its movement. Now it rose in the east and set in the west. The polar constellations have also changed …

If once the main directions of the Indians were northwest – southeast, and now it is north and south, then the continents turned counterclockwise? Yes, and thoroughly moved out of their positions? Then it turns out for sure that the region of the Arctic Ocean simply crawled to the place of the pole, and the huge ice fields of the North Pole covered the north and west of Eurasia …

Let me remind you: if during such a lithospheric shift, Eurasia “entered” under the ice of the Arctic Ocean, then under them there were also huge territories, previously inhabited by people. That is, North Atlantis was simply buried under the ice. Its civilization is accordingly buried.

Of course, it is difficult to judge what it was, but it is quite possible that it was very, very developed. That is, if you follow this theory, then the Arctic territories now (they, by the way, were not islands at all, there the land stretched far, far beyond the current edge of the Arctic Ocean, all geologists agree with this statement) from their wonderful almost tropical climate suddenly appeared in the ice, and not even in the ice, but under them.

Hyperborea



And what, people just now guessed about it? No, once again we can state that humanity has already gone through everything in its history and is now only repeating. If only it still remembered the past and learned more attentively to the words of previous generations! But, having made all possible mistakes, it made the most important thing – it never learned anything from these mistakes.

If all these estimates are correct, then the remains of the previous civilization (whatever you call it) should really be looked for at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean.”

So, space and air travel, the use of alternative cheap energy, climate control were just a few of the technologies available and used by the inhabitants of the legendary Arctic civilization. Perhaps, not by chance, despite the denial of official structures, in recent years there has been a real hunt for artifacts and technologies of this highly developed civilization.

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Ancient

How Nefertiti’s husband fought with the gods, the traditional role of the pharaoh and the canon in art: 20 years of Akhenaten’s rebellion

How Nefertiti's husband fought with the gods, the traditional role of the pharaoh and the canon in art: 20 years of Akhenaten's rebellion 99

A reformer pharaoh, a seer, a guest from the past, or … an alien? The identity of the mysterious ruler of Egypt, the husband of the beautiful Nefertiti, is surrounded by many fantastic rumors. If you cut off the most incredible, there will be a story of a man who went against millennial traditions – in politics, religion and art. He rejected all canons, rejected all gods except one, and ruled Egypt along with a mysterious woman!

Portraits of Akhenaten in his youth and heyday.
Portraits of Akhenaten in his youth and heyday.

Akhenaten is best known for his religious reform – a monotheist pharaoh who challenged numerous priests. However, there are many more revolutions on his account than it seems.

Akhenaten initially turned out to be not the pharaoh whom the priests would like to see – it was all about his mother. Akhenaten (at birth he received the name Amenhotep) was the second son of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and Queen Tiya, which in itself reduced his chances of succession to the throne. 

However, Amenhotep’s eldest son died too early. In addition, Tia was the beloved wife of Amenhotep – and this caused the displeasure of the priests. Tia was not of royal origin, some researchers suggest that she has Semitic roots. She was distinguished by a sharp mind, irrepressible energy – and sufficiently ignored the traditional role of women in the life of the court. 

She supervised the construction of temples and actively intervened in the political decisions of the pharaoh. Amenhotep consulted with her on every issue and kept a thorough correspondence in separation. Later, when Akhenaten ascended the throne,

Scribes.  An example of Amarna art - the role of the common man is growing.
Scribes. An example of Amarna art – the role of the common man is growing.

He began to rule in Thebes, the capital of Egypt, and at first nothing anticipated radical changes – except that the sun god was now paid more attention, but each pharaoh has his own quirks! The fact that the great sun deity Amon-Ra was replaced by some unknown god Aton, at first did not cause the alarm of the priests. 

Meanwhile, the divine service itself was no longer held in the temple – Amenhotep IV preferred to perform ceremonies in the open air, in public. In the fifth year of independent reign, the young pharaoh changed his name. The former meant “Amon is pleased”, and the new, Akhenaten, meant “Useful for Aton.” 

Pharaoh wanted to serve his god and was not going to stop for a second. He did not trust the priests and relied in his actions on the support of unborn “service people”.

On the right is a portrait of Nefertiti.
On the right is a portrait of Nefertiti.

At the same time, he began the accelerated construction of the city of Akhetatona. This was facilitated by the changed construction technology, instead of Cyclopean buildings from heavy blocks, temples are being erected from lighter slabs, which significantly speeds up construction and allows the main buildings of the new capital to be completed in record time. Pharaoh moves there with all his court, wife Nefertiti and children.

Now this territory is called Tel el-Amarna, and the period associated with the rule of Akhenaten in culture is Amarna.

Naturalistic images of plants and birds are evidence of the destruction of the canon.
Naturalistic images of plants and birds are evidence of the destruction of the canon.

The poorly preserved Amarna art demonstrates the incredible destruction of the ancient Egyptian canon. The images become softer, the plots – chamber, intimate. At the same time, realism increases.

 The sculptural portraits of Nefertiti look soulful, alive. Her joint pastime with Akhenaten was devoted to many works of Amarna art, and her figure was portrayed – again a violation of the canon! – the same size as the figure of a regal consort. This meant that the role of women at the court of the reformer pharaoh increased significantly.

Portrait of the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
Portrait of the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

Now they would say that Akhenaten was fighting “toxic masculinity.” He himself appears before the viewer not in the form of a conqueror, a demigod, a warrior, as befits a great ruler. 

Akhenaten in sculptures and paintings is a gentle father, a loving husband, not at all the governor of the gods on earth, but a mere mortal enjoying everyday pleasures. He rests with his family, plays with children, sometimes there are images of family prayers.

Prayer scenes.  Akhenaten and Nefertiti.
Prayer scenes. Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

What Akhenaten looks like also sparked heated discussions. His image seems strange, pathological, although not repulsive. No proud turn of the shoulders and a stern look. The sculptures show a man with a sickly, rickety physique, with a disproportionately elongated face and roundness atypical for men. 

However, the allegedly identified remains of Akhenaten in 2010 do not indicate any significant abnormalities in bone structure. Possibly, Akhenaten wanted the sculptures to depict him as somewhat androgynous, combining male and female features – the god Aton was just as bisexual. Probably, an attempt to get closer to the image of God was the mysterious co-government of Akhenaten with a woman named Neferneferuaten – this is either one of his wives (Nefertiti was not the only one!), or a daughter.

A family scene and a funny animal.  The character of the sculpture is becoming more and more secular.
A family scene and a funny animal. The character of the sculpture is becoming more and more secular.

At first, the cults of the old gods continued to exist along with the development of the cult of Aten, but in the ninth year of his reign, Akhenaten decided to ban them, which actually destroyed the priestly power. Moreover, Akhenaten changed the very concept of God in Ancient Egypt!

 Previously, the gods were presented as individuals with their own life stories, virtues and vices. But Aton was in everything and everywhere, everything that exists came from him. The god Aton did not even have a canonical image – his power was symbolized by a solar disk with widely diverging rays, which are often called “Old Testament”. 

In the religious environment there is an opinion – though not particularly popular – that the idea of ​​a single god of the Abrahamic religions arose under the influence of the cult of Aton.

Tutankhamun with his wife.
Tutankhamun with his wife.

After the death of Akhenaten, the cult of Aten was canceled, the young Tutankhamun returned to the faith of his grandfather and announced that he would inherit the power of Amenhotep III. 

Akhetaton was destroyed and forgotten, but today the progressiveness and courage of the reformer pharaoh excites researchers, and the masterpieces of Amarna art fascinate museum visitors.


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Ancient

Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon

Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 100
Illustration source / photo: Depositphotos

Another city hiding behind biblical history is Megiddo, also known as Armageddon.

Not everyone knows that behind the word Armageddon, which everyone has heard, hides the name of one of the most ancient cities in the world.

This ancient city, which was inhabited already in 7000 BC. e., is known for the numerous battles that were fought here. The Book of Revelation, which calls this place Armageddon, predicts that the last battle between the forces of good and evil, expected at the end of all time, will also take place here.

Armageddon is mentioned in the Bible dozens of times. This name comes from the Greek “Ἁρμαγεδών”.

Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 101

Visiting the ruins of this city today, the first thing you will see is a large embankment – tell, which was formed from many cultural layers that appeared here over several millennia of the existence of this city. Archaeologists know that inside this tell there are actually about 20 ancient cities, built one above the other: several civilizations gave way here to one another, the city was captured and rebuilt many times. We can say that Armageddon has already happened here many times – each time the end of the world for one culture and its beginning for another.

Many historical battles have taken place here. For example, the Egyptian pharaoh Thutmose III, nephew and heir to the Egyptian queen Hatshepsut, who became her successor and ruled in 1479-1425 BC. BC, defeated a coalition of cities at Megiddo and with this victory captured most of the eastern Mediterranean.

Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 102
Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 103
Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 104

The second important event occurred when the Jewish king Josiah was defeated near Megiddo during a battle with the Egyptian pharaoh Necho (reigned 610 – 595 BC). Josiah was greatly weakened and after a decade his kingdom was finally destroyed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II.

Even in our times, significant battles took place near Megiddo. So, in 1918, during the First World War, the allied army, led by General Edmund Allebi, defeated the Ottoman army at Megiddo. The losses were so crushing that the Ottoman Empire was forced to resort to a truce.

It really made sense to fight for Megiddo, since the city was strategically located in the Jezreel Valley, which was the crossroads of several trade routes. It turned out that the one who controlled Megiddo controlled the trade route between Egypt, Europe and Mesopotamia. These trade routes and pompous battles have had the greatest impact on the city’s history and built it up as a biblical battlefield. Perhaps that is why Megiddo was identified as the place of the end of the world, as it was the epicenter of armed conflict throughout Israel’s history.
Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 105
Many archaeological finds have been made at Meggido, the most important by the University of Chicago expedition in the 1930s. The loudest discovery then was the discovery of a series of stables, which were believed to have been built by King Solomon. Today most archaeologists no longer think so. However, this is direct evidence that a large cavalry army was stationed in the city.

Another unusual find made by the Chicago Expedition is a variety of ivory items, about 382 items in total, that were found among the burials of people and animals. Some of these items bear Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions. So, on the case for the stylus it is said that it belongs to an Egyptian official named Nakht-Amon, who was the “emissary of the king” during the reign of Pharaoh Ramses III (1184-1153 BC). In addition, game boards, combs were found. and ivory boxes. such a large number of objects from this material in the burial place caused great confusion among scientists. The carvings on ivory are made using a mixture of Hittite, Mycenaean, Egyptian, Ugaritic, Canaanite and Assyrian motifs.

Not so long ago, in 2014, another very important find was made in Megiddo – this is the “Great Temple”, which dates back to 3000 BC. e. It is a large rectangular room with two small corridors behind it, and traces of rituals were also found here. This temple is the most monumental structure of that time in the eastern Mediterranean.

Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 106
Tel Megiddo: welcome to the biblical city of Armageddon 107

It is not surprising that Megiddo, as the site of numerous battles, had a massive fortification. The Chicago Expedition discovered a complex gate system that the researchers believe dated back to the time of King Solomon. These included two large towers in front, which housed archers, and a system of chambers inside which could house soldiers with spears and swords in case the enemy broke through the gate. The dating of the gate is currently controversial.

As in Bathsheba, a complex ancient tunnel water supply system was found here, which brought water to the city from a nearby source through underground tunnels located at a depth of 30 meters. Archaeologists consider this water delivery system to be Megiddo’s most impressive technological achievement. Thanks to its inhabitants, they had constant access to water, even when the city was under siege.

Archaeological work continues today and is led by archaeologists from Tel Aviv University in Israel. The ancient city attracts thousands of tourists every year, many of whom come here inspired by the prophecy of a battle at the end of time. Guides often greet their guests by saying, “Welcome to Armageddon.”

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