Connect with us

Science & Technology

China published first autopsy results for coronavirus patient

Chinese doctors released an autopsy report on an 85-year-old resident of Wuhan who was hospitalized with a heart attack on January 1, a week later he developed the first symptoms of Covid-19, and was diagnosed on day 14. The man died on January 28, according to the conclusion, the cause of death was “pneumonia caused by a new type of coronavirus, respiratory failure.” This was reported by the South China Morning Post with reference to the scientific journal Journal of Forensic Medicine (Volume 36, Issue One).

The autopsy was supervised by a professor of forensic medicine at Tongji University Liu Liang, a pathologist with 30 years of experience. He previously noted that SARS-CoV-2 affects the lungs rather than the trachea. However, why this is so, without an autopsy, doctors could not find out. The first published report states that the inflammatory lesions in an elderly resident of Wuhan focused on the lungs, there were alveolar injuries. As the doctors suggested, the pathological signs of SARS-CoV-2 are similar to SARS SARS and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), they all really belong to the same virus family.

At the same time, pulmonary fibrosis (the process of scar tissue formation, which leads to respiratory system disorders) turned out to be not as serious as that of SARS, but exudative inflammation (when fluid is released into the tissue or cavity of the body from small blood vessels during inflammation) in a deceased patient with Covid- 19 was more pronounced. Significant adhesion of the right lung to the pleura suggests that this particular case was complicated by infectious pleurisy. As for the damage to other organs — the spleen, kidneys, intestines, and brain — further studies are required for this, since the patient was elderly and had many diseases and suffered several cerebral infarctions. The results of the autopsy of other coronavirus deaths have not yet been reported.


An autopsy at Jintan Hospital (Wuhan) was led by Professor of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Tongji University Liu Liang / © Pearvideo

The fact that the doctors started an autopsy of the first two patients with Covid-19 was announced on February 16. After that, the results of the procedure were passed for examination. As experts noted, the study of the pathology of the new coronavirus is extremely important for studying the mechanisms of the disease, its pathogenesis and mortality, as well as for treating other patients.

“We do not know where the “enemy” is located, what “weapons” it uses to attack and by what methods we can effectively curb his power. <…> Pathological work is similar to “intelligence”. Due to pathological anatomy and subsequent studies, the spread of the virus in the human body can be observed under a microscope. It will be possible to understand which organs, tissues and cells have suffered the most, what is the weakness of the “enemy”. <…> CT scan showed the appearance of frosted glass symptoms in the lungs of patients. We need to find out what causes this symptom, is there pulmonary edema? Bleeding? Infection? Fibrosis? What about neutrophils, monocytes or lymphocytes? If this is not clear, the treatment will be blind. <…> Pathological studies also focus on transmission. For example, if it is a fecal-oral transmission, then where is the virus? In the gut? If oral, is it the esophagus, stomach, duodenum or colon? The treatment for each patient can be completely different,” Liu Liang explained.

When asked by journalists about why they decided to start autopsy almost a month after the epidemic began and more than a month after the death of the first patient (January 9), the physician replied that bureaucracy and red tape were to blame. According to the professor, he repeatedly called for an autopsy of the dead from SARS-CoV-2, and sent a statement about this to the authorities in Hubei Province.

“On January 24, we wrote an emergency report to the government of Hubei, emphasizing the importance and possibility of an autopsy. On the twenty-ninth day we received an answer meaning that we could proceed, but it was not transmitted as a document. Later we contacted various hospitals, and all their doctors said that everything was fine, but the hospital should ask for instructions, reports, documents and permits, ”said Liu Liang.

As of February 28, 2,867 people have already died from coronavirus disease in 2019. Almost 84 thousand patients are infected. The disease spread to 48 countries and almost all continents except Antarctica.


Science & Technology

Japan has developed an inflatable scooter that weighs practically nothing

The University of Tokyo engineers have developed the Poimo inflatable electric scooter, which is created individually for each owner. It is enough to send your photo to the manufacturers – and a personal optimized model will be assembled for you.

The scooter is designed with a special program for the body size of a particular user and his specific fit. Moreover, each owner is free to make any changes to this model. If he makes any changes to the drawing, the program will automatically redesign the electric bike to maintain its strength, stability and controllability. When the model is finished and approved, it is handed over to the manufacturer.

Scooter Poimo

The scooter consists of seven separate inflatable sections that are constructed from durable fabric and sewn with straight stitch. It remains to add electronic components – in particular, a brushless motor and a lithium-ion battery. 

The finished electric scooter weighs about 9 kg and can travel at speeds up to 6 km / h (that is, slightly faster than a pedestrian). It can work for an hour on one charge.

This is how the current version of Poimo looks like in action:

Continue Reading

Science & Technology

Excerpts from Elon Musk’s speech at the Martian Society convention

Elon Musk’s comments with questions relayed from the Mars Society Membership by Dr. Robert Zubrin, James L. Burk, and Carie Fay. Following Elon’s 30 min time, Dr. Zubrin took additional questions. This special event was part of the 2020 Mars Society Virtual Convention from October 14-18, 2020.

About Starship Test Schedule:

– entering orbit – with a probability of 80% -90% will take place in 2021

– the probability of the return of the ship and the 1st stage in this flight is 50%

– test of refueling in orbit – 2022

– Starship lunar version – 2022 or 2023

– Starship flight to Mars – around 2024

The goal of the Starship is to build a self-sufficient settlement on Mars as quickly as possible. Musk does not rule out the possibility that this will not be achieved during his lifetime. According to his rough estimates, to create a self-sufficient city, it will be necessary to deliver 1 million tons of cargo, which corresponds to 4-5 million tons in a low Earth orbit. Modern single-use launch vehicles are capable of removing less than 1% of this value.

“Disposable launch vehicles are completely stupid. They are a waste of time. I think people need to stop wasting time on this. If you try to sell a disposable plane, you will be thrown out of the office. If you try to sell a disposable car, you will also be thrown out of the office. “

A series of questions and answers followed:

What is the best landing site on Mars?

– I’m not sure about that. But I can name the criteria. The first of these is latitude: most likely it will be in the northern hemisphere, far enough to the north to have water ice, but to still have enough sunlight.It also needs to be low to get the most benefit from atmospheric braking.

How do you prioritize mission priorities: research, infrastructure construction, and science?

– The first will be the construction of a fuel plant.

A question from a teenager who wants to become an engineer and robot maker with a dream to work at SpaceX: what is the most important education in order to become an engineer?

– There are many varieties of this profession: you can be an aerospace engineer, in the field of electronics, software, or a chemical engineer involved in creating safe production of fuels. I think physics is a good foundation for critical thinking.

Boring Company was originally conceived as a tunnel manufacturing firm on Mars?

– No. It was originally something of a joke. I thought tunnels were a good solution to reduce the traffic problem in cities and improve the quality of life by turning parking lots into green parks. To do this, you need to go to 3d [get away from the “flat” infrastructure – approx. per.]. I think tunnels are good for Mars too. But there you need a lot lighter equipment: you don’t care about mass on Earth, but you will have to take care of it a lot when going to Mars.

At Boring Company, have you learned a lot of technology that might come in handy on Mars?

– I think, yes.

Do you have any tips for young people who love Mars but don’t know how to participate in its settlement?

– I think any strong advocate of the need to conquer Mars matters. People often don’t even think about it. I often talk to people who don’t even know about it. Therefore, I consider it important for humanity and consciousness in general to bring a discussion about this to society. Talking about it with friends and acquaintances – I think this is what we should do. In my estimate, we will spend less than 1% of our efforts on Mars exploration, exactly less than healthcare, perhaps even less than cosmetics – this will be enough to make life multi-planetary. But this requires people to start talking about it 100 times more often. I think this is what really matters. [the entire cosmonautics of the world is $ 424 billion a year, while cosmetics is $ 532 billion, and tobacco production is $ 849 billion – approx. per.]

What’s the coolest part about Starship development?

– I think the coolest detail is the ability to work with a great group of engineers and come up with interesting solutions. I think the best thing is the opportunity to work with smart and creative people who come up with solutions that were not available before. This is a great reward.

What do you focus on when hiring, especially with regard to engineers?

“We’re looking for signs of exceptional ability. Or at the very least, striving to do exceptional things at SpaceX.

Are you planning to make a Mars-Earth communication system like Starlink?

– Yes, I think we will use a laser, probably launched into orbit, to avoid atmospheric diffraction. Thus, it will be a laser beam going from the orbit of the Earth to the orbit of Mars. And also relay satellites in solar orbit, since the laser beam cannot be sent through the Sun [when it is between Mars and Earth – approx. per.].

Can Starship be used for other destinations like Venus and other planets?

– Starship will be able to travel to any target in the solar system that has a solid surface when fuel depots appear. It is not the kind of transport that will take us to other stars, but when we become a multi-planetary species, we will create a demand for innovation in space travel that will ultimately lead us to interstellar travel.

Continue Reading

Science & Technology

Cern Scientists Plan an Impressive Experiment – They Will Come Into A Parallel Universe

Cern scientists are once again preparing to impress the entire planet and become the focus of discussions with the new experiment they are planning.

An experiment that, if it brings the fascinating result that scientists have in mind,  will change the way we think about the world , will take place in the next few days at the Large Hadron Collider, the European nuclear center, Geneva CERN Research.

The astonishingly LHC complex, the largest, most energetic elemental accelerator in the world,  will be “fired” for the first time to its highest energy levels, in an effort to detect – or even create – tiny black holes. 

If it succeeds, then, a completely new universe will be revealed – rewriting not only the books of physics, but also the books of philosophy! 

It is possible, however,  that gravity from our universe will “leak” into this parallel universe, as LHC scientists say. 

From the Higgs boson to dark matter and the parallel universe

According to the British Express, the experiment is sure to “trigger” the critics, who are worried about the LHC, many of whom warn that the elementary particle accelerator will mark the end of our universe, creating a of the black hole.

Nevertheless,  Geneva has remained … intact since 2008, when the LHC began its spectacular “work”.

The first scientists at the Large Hadron Collider proved the existence of the Higgs boson – a key building block of the universe – and the LHC appears to be on track to locate “dark matter” – a previously undetectable force now considered that it constitutes the majority of matter in the universe, being, in fact, the reason why the latter is constantly expanding and moving away. 

So next week’s experiment is considered to change the game. 

The truth is out there

Mir Faizal, one of three heads of the three natural groups behind the experiment, said: 

“Like many parallel sheets, which are two-dimensional objects (width and length) can exist in a third dimension (height) , so parallel universes can also exist in higher dimensions. We anticipate that gravity can leak into extra dimensions, and if that happens, then tiny black holes can be produced in the LHC. 

Normally, when people think of the multiverse, they think of the interpretation of quantum mechanics by many worlds, where every possibility is realized. This cannot be tested and so it is a philosophy and not a science. We do not mean this with parallel universes. What we mean is real universes, in extra dimensions. The truth is out there.”

Continue Reading