The AB0 system is a method of dividing blood into four groups based on antigens, it was introduced by the Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner in 1901. In 1939-1942, under his leadership, A. Wiener discovered a new system of Rh-Hr antigens. What are the secrets of blood related to the compatibility of carriers of different blood groups and their possible conflicts, who first populated the earth and are there at least five waves of “aliens” on earth from other civilizations?
This system is called AB0 because it is based on the identification of two antigens – A and B. To determine the blood group, red blood cells in a person’s blood are examined: both antigens (AB), only one (A or B) or none may be present on their surface (0).
In the first case, antibodies to antigens A and B are not produced, and in the latter case, they are produced to both A and B. Blood type is determined from birth and does not change throughout life. Determining the blood group using the ABO system allows you to predict a possible immune reaction to transfused blood: an attack by antibodies (which always circulate in the blood and can be activated) of unfamiliar antigens on the surface of red blood cells that enter the body with donor blood.
There are many scientific works that describe the relationship between a person’s blood type and his character. Scientists claim that the ancestral blood memory stores the knowledge and skills of the ancestors. The theory “You are your blood type” was born in the land of the rising sun. Its authors, Dr. Toshitak Nomi and Alexander Bescher, worked on this theory for 25 years and their book was published in 1971, which instantly became a world bestseller.
It describes the characteristic features and recommendations for people with different blood groups. And also how to act in various situations so that life turns out well. Paradoxically, well-known corporations began to use Nomi’s theory when hiring employees. There is even an organization that helps people with different blood types make important decisions, including choosing a life partner.
0 (I) “Hunter”
It is possessed by 40 to 50% of all people. The oldest and most widespread appeared 40,000 years ago. The ancestors led the lifestyle of hunters and gatherers. They took what nature gave them today and did not care about the future. Defending their interests, they were able to crush anyone, regardless of who he was – friend or enemy. The immune system is strong and resilient.
Character Qualities: These people have a strong character. They are determined and self-confident. Their motto is: “Fight and search, find and don’t give up.” Excessively mobile, unbalanced and excitable. They painfully endure any, even the most fair, criticism. They want others to understand them perfectly and immediately carry out their orders.
A (II) “Farmer”
30 – 40% have it. Generated by the first forced migrations of the population, it appeared when the need arose to switch to eating agricultural products and accordingly change the way of life. Appeared between 25,000 and 15,000 BC. Each individual was required to be able to get along and cooperate with others within a densely populated community.
Character qualities: Very sociable, easily adaptable in any environment, so events such as changing place of residence or work are not stressful for them. But sometimes they show stubbornness and an inability to relax. Very vulnerable, hard to bear insults and grief.
B (III) “Nomad”
10 – 20% have it. It appeared as a result of the merging of populations and adaptation to new climatic conditions more than 10,000 years ago. It represents nature’s desire to strike a balance between enhanced mental activity and the demands of the immune system.
Personality traits: They are open and optimistic. Comfort does not appeal to them, and everything familiar and ordinary brings boredom. They are drawn to adventure, and therefore they will never miss an opportunity to change something in their lives. Ascetics by nature. They prefer not to depend on anyone. They do not tolerate unfair treatment: if the boss yells, they will immediately leave work.
AB (IV) “Riddle”
Only 5% of people have it. It appeared unexpectedly about a thousand years ago, not as a result of adaptation to changing living conditions, like other blood groups, but as a result of the mixing of Indo-Europeans and Mongoloids.
Character qualities. People with the fourth blood group are quite rare. They are distinguished by a soft and meek disposition. Always ready to listen and understand others. They can be called spiritual natures and multifaceted personalities.
Rh factor system (RhD)
In addition to antigens A and B, red blood cells may contain another protein on their surface, which is called the Rh factor (Rh). In 1940, doctors Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener identified a serum that reacts with most types of human red blood cells and leads to their agglutination – sticking together. This serum was obtained from the red blood cells of rhesus monkeys. Therefore, the discovered protein was called the Rh factor.
The Rh blood group depends on the presence of D-antigen in the erythrocyte. Accordingly, a person’s blood can be Rh-positive (it contains the D antigen) or Rh-negative – this means that there is no D antigen. Approximately 85% of people are Rh positive. The remaining 15% have “negative” blood. For these 15% of people, exposure to Rh-positive blood may result in an unwanted immune reaction.
However, unlike antibodies to antigens A and B, antibodies to the D antigen are not initially present in the blood, but are gradually produced when interacting with it (immunization occurs). In combination with the four blood groups according to the ABO system, the Rh factor already forms eight types of blood
Incompatibility of Rh factors or blood groups is no longer a difficult pathology to correct. This is due to the fact that in the presence of such incompatibility, before conception and at 28 weeks of gestation, the woman is given an injection of immunoglobulins.
It is important to know which blood groups are incompatible, since timely identification of the problem contributes to the preservation of the fetus. In case of complex Rh conflict, intrauterine blood transfusion is practiced.
Rh conflict in the absence of immunoglobulin injections sometimes does not prevent the bearing of the first child; in the case of a second pregnancy, complications may arise. Rh conflict is fraught with miscarriage, oxygen starvation of the fetus and congenital diseases. Rh incompatibility occurs when the factor is negative in the mother and positive in the fetus.