Connect with us

Ancient

Ashur – First Capital And Powerful Religious Center Of The Assyrian Empire

Ashur – First Capital And Powerful Religious Center Of The Assyrian Empire 86

A. Sutherland  – AncientPages.com – The beginnings of the city of Ashur, (also known as Assur) date back to the third millennium. The city was located about sixty miles to the south of the city of Mosul, Iraq, where today, there is a small village named Shergat (or Qalat Shergat), built of stones and bricks taken from the ruins of the city of Ashur (Asshur).

Ruins of the Assyrian city of AshurRuins of the Assyrian city, Ashur. Image source

From the 14th to the 9th century BC, Ashur was a thriving city. It developed fast and became an important trade center with trade routes leading to Anatolia (modern Turkey). The city exported tin from western Iran, textiles in return for copper, and provided transport of timber from Syria. Many merchants frequently visited the city, and the inhabitants of Ashur themselves began to deal with trade, who even founded their own trade colonies.

Around 1800 BC, the Amorite ruler Shamshi-Adad I included Ashur into his domain, where it became a ceremonial center and the first imperial capital of the Assyrian Empire, unquestionably, one of the greatest of the ancient world.

In Genesis 10:11 we read: “Out of that land came forth Asshur and built Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Kalah…”  Asshur was the second son of Shem and a grandson of Noah, however, in this case, the name Asshur is often used to refer to the place where his descendants dwelled (Ezekiel 27:23, Numbers 24:22, 24).

Ashur (its name was at the same time, the name of a god) was not particularly large city; it had probably no more than 15,000 inhabitants and was situated south of Nineveh and on the western bank of the river Tigris, in northern Mesopotamia, corresponding to modern country of Iraq, northeastern Syria northwestern Iran and southeastern Turkey.

Assyrian’s Vulnerable Location

Assyria had a vulnerable location in the vicinity of the major trading and raiding routes connecting north and east and stretching from Anatolia in the north to Babylon in the south. All cities near Ashur, located on the eastern side of the Tigris valley, in the foothills of Zagros, were easily accessible to foreign intrusions or armed invasions of mountain tribes, so the Assyrians still had to be ready for combat.

Ashur, the chief god of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south-east Asia Minor (old Assyria Ashur, the chief god of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south-east Asia Minor (old Assyria).

It was crucial to build a perfectly functioned self-defense in order to survive both in cities and within the borders of the empire. And yet, the city of Ashur was better situated strategically and easier to defend.

Fortifications were massive and the strongest of them were built on the southern part of the city as it was definitely its most vulnerable point. From one side, the city was well-protected by the cliffs and later in front by an immense high wall with eight huge gates and a 15-meter-wide moat.

On the other three sites, the first capital of Assyria was almost invincible.

Ashur – Important Religious Center

The city was Assyria’s oldest capital, which was already known during Akkadian and Sumerian times. It was also an important religious center for worship of the supreme god Ashur, who became the national god of Assyria and protected the Assyrian kings. He was venerated along with Enlil and Ninurta, god of agriculture, scribes, hunting, and war. Several Assyrian kings had the god Ashur’s protection in their names.

Ziggurat at AshurRuins of ziggurat at Ashur. source

In the city, there was an early cult of the gods Adad, Assur and the goddess Ishtar. Ashur contained a large number of important religious buildings, and a handful of palaces (more exactly three of them and thirty four temples, based on ancient sources dated to 7th century BC).

Many ruined structures (many of them had never been excavated) include several major buildings such as the double-temple of Anu and Adad (the god of storms), another was that of Bel, the lord and of the Sumerian goddess of love and war, Ishtar, known to the Hebrews as Ashtaroth and the Starte of the Greeks. There are also ruins of the Old Palace with its royal tombs and several living quarters scattered across the city.

However, the most striking construction among the ruins of Ashur is the ziggurat, built of backed bricks on the top of a rectangular platform composed of several layers, dedicated to the god Ashur, as well as the ground temple nearby devoted to the same god and called “Temple of the Universe”. There are also temples devoted to the gods of the sun and the moon, and one with two towers sacred to Anu, god of the sky, and Adad, god of storms. Assyrian rulers were buried in vaulted tombs beneath palaces, ancient records say, but these places were already robbed in antiquity.

Mesopotamia in 2nd millennium BC

Mesopotamia in 2nd millennium BC. source

Many clay tablets and bricks, covered with cuneiform inscriptions about historical events, conquests, eulogies of rulers, were discovered in the excavated ruins of Ashur.

When Assyria’s strategical value increased in the region, the capital of the empire was transferred from Ashur to Kalah and later to Nineveh about 880 BC, but Ashur still remained a highly prestigious city for a long time.

Civil wars tormented and significantly weakened the region, including  the city of Ashur, especially under the reign of Shamshi Adad (824-811 BC). Later, under the next kings who followed including Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BC) and Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC), the city was rebuilt and its walls strengthened.

Ashur was finally captured and destroyed by the Babylonians in 614 BC and did not fully recover until the Parthian Empire controlled the city from the 1st century AD until the Romans sacked it in 257. Then, the city was populated again until the 14th century before Timur (1336-1405), the founder of the Timurid Empire (1370-1507) sacked the city and murdered its inhabitants.

The city today serves as an important example of the past Assyrian Empire.

Written by – A. Sutherland  – AncientPages.com Senior Staff Writer

Copyright © AncientPages.com All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of AncientPages.com

Expand for references

References:

Kriwaczek, P. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization

Claude Hermann Walter Johns, Ancient Assyria

Source link

Comments

Ancient

Ancient papyrus “Book of the Dead” and hundreds of other artifacts found in Egypt

Ancient papyrus "Book of the Dead" and hundreds of other artifacts found in Egypt 87

Ancient sarcophagi, statues, toys, funerary masks and other artifacts, including papyrus from the Book of the Dead, were discovered during the excavation of the necropolis in Saqqara, 30 kilometers south of Cairo. According to experts, the finds are about four thousand years old.

The Egyptian Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities announced that the sarcophagi were found in 22 burial mounds at a depth of 10 to 12 meters.

Among the finds was a four-meter scroll of papyrus from the Book of the Dead. The ancient Egyptians believed that hymns and texts from the Book of the Dead helped the recently deceased walk through the underworld.

According to the famous Egyptologist Zaha Hawass, the finds date back to the Sixth Dynasty, which ruled Egypt from 2323 BC to 2150 BC. e. More than 50 wooden coffins dating from the later “New Kingdom”, between 1570 and 1069. BC e., were also opened on Sunday.

He also believes the artifacts will help bring back tourists to Egypt who have almost stopped arriving due to the pandemic. The country has previously stimulated the tourism sector with the help of new archaeological finds. Later this year, authorities are planning to open the Great Egyptian Museum, also known as the Giza Museum.

Earlier excavations at Saqqara focused on the step pyramid of Djoser, one of the first in ancient Egypt. Egyptian Antiquities Minister Khaled al-Anani notes that “the finds of Saqqara are not yet exhausted.”

In 2020, more than a hundred sarcophagi, about 2500 years old, were found in Saqqara. Saqqara 3000 years ago was actively used for burials and was the main necropolis of Memphis – the capital of Ancient Egypt. Now it belongs to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Continue Reading

Ancient

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons 88

From the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian poem of unusual volume, we learn that someone named Asura Maya possessed a vimaana of about 6 m in circumference, equipped with four strong wings.

 This poem is a treasure trove of information pertaining to conflicts between gods who resolved their differences using weapons that are obviously as deadly as those we can use. In addition to “bright missiles”, the poem describes the use of other deadly weapons. “Indra’s dart” is operated with a round “reflector”. When turned on, it gives off a beam of light, which, being focused on any target, immediately “devours it with its power.” In one particular case, when the hero, Krishna, pursues his enemy, Salva, in the sky, Saubha made Shalva’s vimana invisible. Unafraid

Astra – means weapons of mass destruction and many other types of terrible weapons are described quite authentically in the Mahabharata, but the most terrible of them was used against Vrish. The narration says:

“Gurkha, flying on his fast and powerful vimaana, threw a single projectile charged with all the power of the Universe at the three cities of Vrishi and Andhak. A red-hot column of smoke and fire, bright as 10,000 suns, rose in all its splendor. An unknown weapon, the Iron Thunderbolt, a gigantic messenger of death who turned to ashes the entire race of the Vrishis and the Andhaks.”

It is important to note that these types of records are not isolated. They correlate with similar information from other ancient civilizations. The effects of this iron lightning contain an ominously recognizable ring. Obviously, those who were killed by her were burned so that their bodies were not recognizable.

Astra: weapon of mass destruction of the gods

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Astra appears before us as a supernatural weapon used by a particular deity. The mastery or use of a weapon required the knowledge of a mantra or invocation,

Each Astra had special terms of use, and violation of the terms could be fatal. Due to the gigantic destructive power of this weapon, his knowledge was passed from teacher to student exclusively orally.

Astra will play a very important role in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, where they are used in great battles by archers such as Rama, Karna or Bhishma. In fact, there is a suspicion that, as in the case of the Vimanas, some Asters work on the basis of mercury, or very similar liquids, which can circulate, rotating almost at the speed of light.

There are several dozen different Astra, according to their “operating model” and characteristics. Each main god had his own Astra, endowed with a certain power. For example, Devastra was the mythical equivalent of the modern traditional rocket; The asurastra that destroyed the asuras was the mythical equivalent of modern biological missiles.

Many say that 30,000 years ago the gods destroyed the asuras with nuclear weapons – but this is most likely a matter of opinion and interpretation of ancient texts in the modern sense. Also mentioned is the fearsome and destructive Brahmastra, the gift of Brahma (the Creator), the mythical equivalent of modern nuclear weapons. As mentioned in the epic sagas of India, the power of Brahmaster is capable of destroying the entire world.

This is how the Mahabharata (Vanaparvan, chapters 168-173) describes the battle in which the warrior Arjuna – the great hero – fought against the horde of Asuras:

Indra, the lord of heaven, demanded that Arjuna destroy the entire army of Asuras. These thirty million demons lived in fortresses located in the depths of the seas . Indra, the lord of the heavens, gave his own vimana to Arjuna, piloted by his clever assistant Matali.

In the fierce battle that unfolded, the Asuras caused crushing rains, but Arjuna marched against them with a divine weapon that managed to drain all the water … Arjuna fired a deadly projectile that destroyed the entire city of the proud.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

Information about a number of ancient artifacts was obtained in 1929 during the interrogation of the Trotskyist Y. Blumkin, who had previously participated in the NKVD expeditions to Tibet, in connection with the sale of secret information about the weapons of the “civilization of the gods” to German and Japanese intelligence services. Y.Blyumkin’s betrayal in fact allowed the leadership of the Third Reich to use the high technologies of the “civilization of the gods”, which were later used by the Nazis to create a secret base in Antarctica, as well as to create various types of “weapons of retaliation.”

“As I already told my investigator, on a business trip to Tibet in 1925, with the order of the head of the Tibetan state, the Dalai Lama 13, I was taken to underground halls and shown some so-called artifacts – weapons of the gods, preserved on Earth from 15-20 thousand years before our These weapons are kept in separate rooms. I wrote about this in detail in my reports …

The characteristics of the weapon are approximately as follows:

1. Giant forceps – “Wajaru”. With their help, precious metals are smelted. If you melt gold at the temperature of the sun’s surface (6 thousand degrees C), then the gold flares up and turns into powder for 70 seconds. This powder was used in the construction of huge mobile stone platforms. If this powder is poured onto the platform, then its weight is lost to a minimum. The powder was also used in medicine in the treatment of incurable diseases and for the elite – mainly the leaders used it for food to prolong their lives.

2. Bell – the so-called “Shu-tzu”, with the help of which you can blind for a while a large army or an entire army. Its mode of action consists in transforming electromagnetic waves at a certain frequency, which the human ear does not perceive, but acts directly on the brain. This is a very strange weapon. With his help, the Indian prophet Arjuna won big battles, causing his enemies to panic.

Tibetan Secrets Vaults and Aircraft Weapons

I have not seen how this weapon works. I saw the units themselves in the underground halls, and a member of the Council of Tibet gave me explanations about the technical characteristics that I passed on to the Germans, or rather to the representative of German military intelligence, Mr. von Stilhe. I met Shtilhe in Europe on a business trip abroad.

In addition to the technical characteristics of these two units, I also gave Shtilhe information about another weapon of the gods. This weapon remained from about 8-10 thousand years BC, it was discovered in underground cities under the ice of Antarctica in the area of ​​Queen Maud Land. As far as I know, in order to get there, you need a key and a rite of passage, since this place is guarded by guards.

These devices can move both under water and in the air, and they do it at great speed. They move on special round-shaped aircraft, which are not like airplanes and airplanes known to us. I also told their technical characteristics to Shtilhe …

I also informed Shtilhe about objects that are located in all parts of the world in the mountains. With the help of these objects, in one moment it is possible to destroy all cities and industrial centers of all countries on earth, regardless of the state and social system. As far as I understood from the explanations at the Headquarters and as I pointed out about this in my articles, in all parts of the world there are spheres dug into the mountains made of extra strong metal that cannot be sawed or blown up.

Within these spheres are certain mechanisms that, when activated, generate a cloud similar to the sun. This cloud erupts into the atmosphere, it is controllable, i.e. can move along a certain trajectory. It explodes in the right place.

The air defense system of ancient civilizations or civilizations is a separate huge mystery that we still have to solve.

Now it becomes quite understandable the “secret” stamp imposed on the official research of artifacts of ancient civilizations, as well as why, at the official level, all these research and the artifacts themselves are hushed up or denied. 

The targeted campaigns to falsify our real history are also becoming understandable. In addition, this information sheds light on the question of what kind of vehicles attacked the squadron of American Admiral Richard Byrd near Queen Maud Land in 1947.

Continue Reading

Ancient

Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases!

Ancient recipe books are like a panacea for modern diseases! 89

Six months ago, the world media reported that the mixture, created according to the Old English medical book of the 9th century, destroyed up to 90 percent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, one of the antibiotic-resistant strains of this bacterium that causes barley in the eyes. Only the antibiotic vancomycin, the main drug used in the treatment of MRSA, had the same effect.

And the drug, which was recently awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, would not have surprised the doctors of Ancient China.

Chinese pharmacologist Tu Yuyu discovered the drug artemisinin in the 70s, which cures malaria.

But the plant from which this substance is obtained, wormwood (Artemisia annua L), has been used to treat fevers, including those caused by malaria, as early as the 3rd or 4th centuries.

Tu Yuyu invented a cure for malaria after reading traditional Chinese medicine texts that described herbal recipes. The path to discovery and recognition was very difficult because hundreds of plant species had to be tested. In addition, the political atmosphere in China in the 70s was difficult. But her tenacity paid off. Artemisinin has now become an important antimalarial drug.

Her story is unusual in modern medicine. However, artemisinin is far from the only substance isolated from plants. Another malaria drug, quinine, is made from the bark of the officinalis L tree found in the rainforests of South America. The pain reliever morphine was isolated from the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L), and the poison strychnine from the tree Strychnos nux-vomica L.

These plants were used in medicine for centuries and even millennia before chemists were able to isolate their most active components.

Is it possible that physicians can discover new drugs simply by studying ancient medical treatises, as did Tu Yuyu or English specialists? The answer to this question is ambiguous. Ancient pharmacological texts in Chinese, Arabic, Greek, or any other ancient language are not easy to study for a number of reasons.

Ancient recipe books

Ancient pharmacological texts are usually a list of recipes without explanation, whether they were used, and in what cases. Submit your favorite cookbook. You hardly cook all the recipes from it. If you do not make notes in it, then no one will know what recipes you tried, and so much you liked them. Commentaries are rarely found in ancient pharmacological books.

It is often difficult to determine which plants are listed in an ancient recipe. Nowadays, the Linnaean system is used to classify plants, where the genus and species of the plant are indicated. But before the Linnaean system became generally accepted, the classification of plants was extremely erratic.

Different local names could be used to denote the same plant. This means that it is not always possible to accurately determine which plants are discussed in the book. If we cannot accurately translate the names in old recipes, how can we evaluate their effectiveness?

Disease definitions also have links to local culture. This means that each nation has a different definition of the disease. For example, the ancient Greeks and Romans considered fever to be a disease, but in modern medicine it is seen as a symptom of the disease.

The millennial collection of recipes “Kitab al-tabih”, written by Ibn Sayar al-Warak.

In the Greek and Roman texts, there are many descriptions of wave-like fever, that is, a fever that repeats every few days.

In modern medicine, wave-like fever is a symptom of malaria, but it is also a symptom of other diseases. Should scientists searching for new cures for malaria test all ancient Greek and Roman remedies for “wave-like fever”?

Holistic Medicine

The most important aspect, according to medical historians, is that each medical system must be considered holistically. This means that it is wrong to focus only on those aspects of ancient medicine that are successful by modern standards, and brush aside everything else.

Although there are effective medicines in ancient medicine, many of them are useless or even harmful. For example, in our time, hardly anyone will dare to be treated by taking huge doses of hellebore, as the ancient Greeks did.

But even with these shortcomings, there is great potential in ancient medical books for new drug discovery. This requires collaboration between pharmacologists, historians and ethno-pharmacologists who study traditional medicine from different cultures.

Such cooperation is not an easy process, because each of the specialists feels that they speak different languages. But the great examples mentioned above remind us that the result can be outstanding, especially when looking for cures for common diseases.

Continue Reading
Advertisement

DO NOT MISS

Trending