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Aliens & UFO's

Are alien probes scouring the galaxy ?

Computer simulations by a pair of researchers at the University of Edinburgh predict that a fleet of interstellar probes could explore the entire Milky Way galaxy within a fraction of the present age of Earth. This may seem like a tall order considering that our farthest interstellar spacecraft, Voyager 1, is still less than a light-day from Earth after being launched 36 years ago.

In the new simulation, however, alien probes only need to travel at 10 percent the speed of light to survey the entire galaxy within 10 million years. And, they could get a turbo-boost and save fuel by doing a slingshot off the gravitational fields of stars.

The concept of self-aware and self-replicating probes traveling across the galaxy is nothing new, however; the idea goes as far back as 1960. It was promoted by SETI pioneer Ronald Bracewell as an alternative to listening for interstellar artificial radio signals. The idea of a machine capable of cloning itself goes back at least 100 years; mathematician John von Neumann detailed the operation of such a robot in 1949.

In a recent paper, Arwen Nicholson and Duncan Forgan take the idea a step further by exploring three different scenarios of probe behavior: using standard powered flight, using gravitational slingshot techniques around stars, and hop scotching star-by-star to get the maximum speed boost under slingshot trajectories.

Voyager 1 and 2 zipped across the solar system with a boost form bouncing like a pinball off the gravitational fields of the massive outer planets.

“From the scaling of the probes’ performance with star number, we conclude that a fleet of self-replicating probes can indeed explore the galaxy in a sufficiently short time to warrant the existence of the Fermi Paradox,” the team reports.

The Fermi Paradox — where nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi asked the rhetorical question “where are they?” (extraterrestrials) — ponders why we have no evidence of alien visitations. For the UFO buffs, let me flatly say this does not mean pointy-eared aliens should be here and now, but instead suggests occasional visits over geologic time by virtually immortal robots.

The team’s simulations mean that our solar system should have been visited — perhaps more than once — well-before the dawn of man. Their alien builders might have been motivated to have the machines go stealthy and cover their tracks once a planetary system survey is completed.

In Arthur C. Clarke’s 1972 novel, Rendezvous With Rama, star-hopping aliens are pretty blatant. A giant cylindrical space ark enters the solar system. An astronaut survey team explores its dark, ghostly, interior hibernating city. Humans finally realize that the mothership is not stopping for a visit, but simply using the sun’s gravity to get a boot to destinations unknown.

Rama aside, don’t look for ‘spent’ or destroyed probes because visiting robots might definitely go green by not leaving behind any trash from their sorties. They would also have ability to self-repair during long interstellar voyages, and self-replicate with the ultimate 3D printer.

In a sprint across the galaxy a civilization may send out a few probes that would be programmed to choose the next star they travel to according to some decision-making algorithm. Once they reach the new star system, they scan for signs of life, and create a copy of themselves. The parent and child probe each pick a new star to travel to, and the process repeats itself in a geometric progression.

This scenario is compounded by the fact there could very likely be more than one fleet of probes from different extraterrestrial civilizations plying the galaxy. What if they run into each other? A purely sci-fi inspired scenario is where mutated probes abandon their original mission and start to prey on normal probes!

Such an interstellar fox and rabbit chase would greatly increase the exploration time and reduce the number of visits to our solar system, say the researchers. In the new simulation the exploration probes are continuously traveling at maximum speed and constantly dispersing radially across the galaxy. Predators would have a hard time catching their prey.

Equally problematic is the dilemma of how a fleet of probes stays in contact with one another so that they don’t duplicate efforts. Light travel delay times would squelch communication, unless superluminal contact has been achieved by something as exotic as quantum entanglement. Then all probes would know exactly where every other probe has been and is heading. Each probe could leave behind an omnidirectional beacon that emits a signal showing the star has been visited. Or probes could deposit a “captain’s log” for other probes to readout.

Ultimately the data collected by the entire fleet could be placed into a giant galactic archive. It would be a resource for all interstellar civilizations that are smart enough to find it, enter the correct password, and download survey data on many billions of star systems.

What’s sobering is that such probes would be like a swarm of bees buzzing through a field of flowers. They diligently carry out their exploration duties and are oblivious to contacting any native biological intelligence they might encounter.

That is, unless the builders programmed the robots to set up a threshold test of the intelligence and maturity of a native species. If the species passes the test they are allowed to communicate with the interstellar probe.

What sort of maturity test would you perform on Homo sapiens?

http://news.discovery.com

Aliens & UFO's

Aliens blamed for spate of cow mutilations in Argentina after ‘strange lights’ seen in sky

© Express, UK

Sean Martin
Express, UK

Local farmers in Santa Fe, north-eastern Argentina, have seen seven cows killed and mutilated with some believing extraterrestrials are killing the bovine animals.

Witnesses claim the cows look as if they were attacked with lasers, while strange markings were also found on their tongues and genitals.

Farmers in the region are blaming aliens or the mythical chupacabra – a myth from South America which supposedly feeds on animals’ blood.

Norberto Bieri, owner of one of the seven cows, told local media: “They did not have tongues or flesh around the jaw, but they did not take any animals away or remove their bones.

“It seems as though the clean incisions were done with a laser as there is no trace of a knife being used. The cows did not have signs of blood and nothing had appeared to eat them.

“Some people say chupacabra or aliens did it. Others believe it was rodents.

“The truth is, the cows are dead and there are no answers as to why.”

Mr Bieri added that there had been other recent cases of mutilated animals.

Samples were sent to the lab to be analysed and results indicated the cattle had not been shot or poisoned, adding more mystery to the case.

However, experts offered their, more logical, opinion.

A rat-like animal called hocicudo is endemic to South America and some believe they are responsible.

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Aliens & UFO's

The day that the Aliens attacked Tuscany, in Italy

During the autumn of 1954 throughout western Europe several surprising events occurred of encounters with strange flying objects (UFOs) and encounters with extraterrestrial beings, according to the sources of the testimonies and victims that relate their experiences, most were peasants and villagers. Let’s talk about a case that happened in a small town in Tuscany, Italy.

Aliens attacked Tuscany

Rosa Lotti Dainelli was a forty-year-old peasant, mother of four children, owner of a farm called “La Collina” in the locality Cennina7 (a small town near Biicine, in the province of Arezzo, Italy).

Monday, November 1, 1954. That morning Rosa was going to go as usual to the church in her town where she used to go, that day she had got up very early at half past six in the morning as the feast of all was celebrated Saints and had several important things to do. Rosa that day decided to release a new dress that she had kept for the occasion and some new shoes.

He left his house with a large bouquet of flowers that he had taken the day before with the intention of going to church after going to the cemetery to visit his deceased relatives as usual on that day. He took a small path that would take her first to the place where he was going. Halfway through he realized that there was a lot of humidity at night because of the abundant morning dew, he stopped to take off his shoes so they would not get wet holding them with his left hand since in the other hand he was carrying the bouquet of flowers and he continued the path barefoot on the path.

Rosa went somewhat distracted looking at the flowers she was carrying and went through a small forest, when she suddenly stopped and was surprised to see a strange device parked on the ground by the side of the road.

Rosa for a few seconds remained motionless and not knowing how to act but minutes later decided to continue moving slowly down the path of the forest. The farmer, without being able to look away from the apparatus, was curiously observing this strange object as she continued to walk, an object which has the shape of two cones, was of a brilliant brown metallic color with golden reflections.

Afraid of this, she decided to approach very slowly to observe more details of that machine. Approached about 5 meters away from the device, Rosa from there could already appreciate the dimensions of that object, which had a height of more than 2.5 meters by almost 2 meters in diameter and a little further down there was a small door which was totally open.Aliens attacked Tuscany

Curiosity overcame him at that moment, making him approach the opening, where he could see two small armchairs facing what looked like a very illuminated board. A kind of broad band surrounded the junction of the cones and above this band were observed several small windows similar to blinking lights similar to “portholes”. Suddenly Rosa heard a noise among the branches and in the distance, a few meters away, she saw two little beings appear among the bushes, which caused the woman to be petrified by such an apparition.

They were beings that seemed very smiling, gesticulating, without giving any sign of being a threat to her. In fact it seemed as if they were trying to make themselves understood and wanted to start a conversation with her, they had small and very dark eyes (according to Rosa), they were short (they would not be more than one meter tall), they looked very Similar to humans, their faces were almost perfect, although their trail was rather aged by the wrinkled skin.

The beings wore a bluish-gray one-piece suit with a cape on their backs and over their heads they wore a kind of helmet. They approached her slowly with a funny and friendly face speaking loud and sharp in a strange language. Rosa at that moment remained motionless, so the beings took the opportunity to jump on him and snatch the bouquet and his shoes. At that moment, Rosa proved that despite the size, these beings had great strength.

She tried to recover her belongings, but the one who was closest to her insisted on taking everything she had in her hands. Then Rosa already panicked for fear of being harmed and ran to the trees, hiding as she could in the forest.

When he left, he saw how these creatures stayed in custody and with great curiosity inspected the bouquet of flowers, took some objects that had been left on the ground and then approached the ship, deposited everything inside and then returned to the place and began to search the surroundings are supposed to be looking for Rosa who already died of fear, continued crawling among the grass and thus managed to get away more than 50 m. Once refugee, from that place he observed how those beings, climbed the small ship minutes later and closed the door of the ship. Soon after, with a great sonic vibration and releasing a lot of smoke and flames, that device began to rise and in an instant disappeared into the sky ..

Aliens attacked Tuscany

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Aliens & UFO's

Life on Enceladus? complex organic molecules on Saturn’s satellite?

From stories about the inhabitants of the Moon to the costly research programs set up by space agencies, identifying the presence of life on another heavenly body seems to be an endless concern for mankind. As the margins of the known Universe are still moving away from the Earth, the possibility of discovering living beings on another planet is increasing even though we have no certainty, but only hope and probability.

For the moment, we are grateful for these probabilities, awaiting the day that it will undoubtedly confirm that we and our planet do not represent the only life-assembling complex of this huge universe.

But to host life, a heavenly body must give it certain conditions. (Here, it seems that we still need to expand our ideas a little, because we tend to believe that any living thing on another planet must be made up just like the living things on Earth, not necessarily like them, but be the same at the molecular level.

If one of the great scientific discoveries of recent years – bacteria capable of using arsenic instead of phosphorus – is confirmed – that means that our perspective on what is living must change. And then, it is possible that some planets with attributes that today seem inappropriate to become more interesting in the future in the light of our changed concepts.)

But, by the way, all people, at all times, think about the ideas of their time, so let us also thank ourselves to the contemporary ideas regarding what life means and the conditions that a planet must fulfill for that the miracle of life should appear there and perpetuate.

Extraterrestrial life could develop into Enceladus’s hidden oceans

The first observations of Saturn’s satellite were made in 2005 when hydrothermal jets were detected for the first time. Now, there may be the answer that raises the chances of alien life.

“From where Enceladus has the energy to support the phenomenon has always been a mystery to us,”said astrobiologist Gael Choblet of Nantes University in France.

“I have now considered with greater detail how the structure and composition of the solid core can play a key role in generating the necessary energy,”he added.

Enceladus
This diagram illustrates the possible interior of Saturn’s moon Enceladus based on a gravity investigation by NASA’s Cassini spacecraft and NASA’s Deep Space Network, reported in April 2014.

It is estimated that the ice thickness is 25 kilometers, but only one kilometer around the southern polar region, where these hydrothermal phenomena occur.

The small pieces of minerals detected in jets suggest that salts and silica dust are formed by the interaction of water that can reach up to 90 degrees Celsius with the rocks of the Enceladus satellite. For this interaction to take place, there must be space in the core for water to coexist, so the core must be porous.

“Whatever the mineralogical composition of the core, it must contain water,” Choblet explained, “maybe 20-30% water.”

In the new simulations, the team found that the tides generated by the orbit around Saturn can heat the water inside Enceladus due to the frictional force produced as the liquid circulates through rock fragments.

When the water rises in temperature (reaching up to 90 degrees in the orange sections in the image below), it rises through the porous core through the ocean to the surface in the form of jets.

Enceladus
Saturn’s moon Enceladus has ‘all of the basic requirements for life as we know it’, claims NASA

Previous studies state that this heat would have been from radioactive material, but if that was the case, the process would have provided the heat needed to emerge the jets for several million years, so somehow the radioactive material would have appeared recently on Enceladus.

The new theory offers a more plausible explanation, with a phenomenon that takes place over a longer period.

What’s most interesting is that the warm water, the long time and the chemical composition found on Enceladus are key elements in the emergence of life.

Thus, this study can be the basis for the search for extraterrestrial life.

Scientists have found evidence of complex organic molecules on Saturn’s satellite

Using mass spectrometry data collected by NASA’s Cassini probe, scientists have found that large organic carbon molecules are ejected through the cracks on the frozen surface of Enceladus, one of the many natural satellites of the giant gas giant, Saturn.

Researchers at the Southwest Research Institute, who discovered the presence of these molecules, believe that the chemical reactions between the solid core of the satellite and the warm water in the ocean under ice are responsible for these complex compounds, Phys.

“ONCE AGAIN, WE ARE AMAZED BY ENCELADUS. PREVIOUSLY, WE IDENTIFIED ONLY THE SIMPLEST ORGANIC MOLECULES CONTAINING A FEW CARBON ATOMS, BUT EVEN THOSE WERE VERY INTERESTING, “SAID CHRISTOPHER GLEIN, A SCHOLAR AND CO-AUTHOR OF THE WORK RECENTLY PUBLISHED IN NATURE.

“NOW WE HAVE FOUND ORGANIC MOLECULES WITH MASSES OF OVER 200 ATOMIC MASS UNITS. THESE ARE TEN TIMES HEAVIER THAN METHANE. WITH COMPLEX MOLECULES EMANATING FROM THE LIQUID WATER OF THE OCEAN, THIS SATELLITE IS THE ONLY BODY BESIDES THE EARTH THAT SIMULTANEOUSLY MEETS ALL THE NECESSITIES OF LIFE AS WE KNOW IT. ”

“EVEN AFTER ITS END, CASSINI CONTINUES TO TEACH US ABOUT ENCELADUS’S POTENTIAL IN ASTROBIOLOGY,” GLEIN ADDED.

Enceladus
View of Enceladus’s orbit from the side, showing Enceladus in relation to Saturn’s E ring

During the flight, near Enceladus, on October 28, 2015, with the help of the INMS (Neutral Mass Spectrometer) instrument, molecular hydrogen could be detected when the ship passed through a jet.

Previous studies have already shown that the satellite has an ocean under the ice layer and above the solid core. The molecular hydrogen jet is probably formed by the geochemical reactions between water and rocks in hydrothermal environments.

“HYDROGEN PROVIDES A SOURCE OF CHEMICAL ENERGY THAT SUPPORTS MICROBES LIVING IN THE EARTH’S OCEANS NEAR HYDROTHERMAL SPRINGS,” SAID HUNTER WAITE, THE SCIENTIST WHO HEADS THE TEAM AT INMS AND CO-AUTHOR OF THE NEW STUDY. “ONCE YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FOOD FOR MICROBES, THE NEXT QUESTION IS ABOUT THE NATURE OF COMPLEX ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN THE OCEAN. THIS WORK IS THE FIRST STEP IN THAT UNDERSTANDING OF THE COMPLEXITY OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY BEYOND OUR EXPECTATIONS. ”

“ALSO, THE FINDINGS IN THIS STUDY HAVE IMPORTANT SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATIONS OF THE NEXT GENERATION,” GLEIN ADDED. “A FUTURE SHIP CAN FLY THROUGH THE JET TO ANALYZE THESE COMPLEX ORGANIC MOLECULES USING A HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETER TO HELP US DETERMINE EXACTLY HOW TO FORM THEM.”

Year after year, benefiting from advances in exploration technology, astronomers discover more planets that seem to be “good for life.” Let us understand: we do not necessarily speak of “good for us”, that is, good to live on, but some that offer similar conditions – identical – to those on Earth, conditions that could allow them to live there beings, adapted to those conditions.

And on Earth there are many places where people do not live, but they live enough life forms, some with a very original metabolism. And some creatures on the Earth can withstand almost unimaginable harsh conditions.

If experts will persuade those who decide the money destination to provide funds for the preparation of such a mission, Enceladus could become the next star on alien life searches.

He deserves it, say “his admirers”, because he has a lot to offer – he has qualities that can feed hope much more than the planet Mars, the one that “consumes” currently the funds for the research of the profile.

Well, what can I say? Let’s be healthy to take the time when the world explodes the news that the space mission to Enceladus has found signs of biological activity there, undeniable evidence that there is what we have been looking for decades – life-forms living on another heavenly body from our solar system.

References:
  1. https://news.nationalgeographic.com
  2. https://www.wired.com
  3. http://www.descopera.ro

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