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Archaeologists find traces of the mysterious civilization prior to Pharaonic Egypt

Recently, archaeologists have excavated six burials from civilization prior to Pharaonic Egypt. The discoveries made have allowed us to better understand the enigmatic Neolithic culture of the people who lived in the Nile plain before the ancient Egyptians and who laid the foundations for their civilization.

civilization prior to Pharaonic Egypt

An expedition has been studying burial sites of the Final Neolithic (4,600-4,000 BC) along the ancient shores of an extinct seasonal lake near a place called Gebel Ramlah, providing new data to solve how and who these settlers were.

The dynastic period of Egypt begins around 3100 BC Before that, between 9300 and 4000 BC, the Nile plain was inhabited by Neolithic peoples. These villages have not been well studied, at least in relation to their successors, mainly because archeological sites are often poorly accessible. The remains of their settlements are located mainly under the old Nile flood plain or in peripheral deserts.

Members of the Combined Prehistoric Expedition, with permission from the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt (SCA), have been studying the Neolithic sites of the western desert of Egypt. Although not lush, the Neolithic was wetter than today, which allowed the former shepherds to populate what is now the middle of nowhere.

During the last part of the Neolithic period, the ancient settlers began to bury the dead in cemeteries and the skeletons provide critical information about their lifestyle.

civilization prior to Pharaonic Egypt
objects found in caves
Objects found in graves.

Between 2001 and 2003, the members of the expedition excavated three cemeteries of this era with 68 skeletons. The tombs were full of objects with ornamental ceramics, sea shells, stone jewelry, and ostrich eggshell. They also discovered ornamental jewelry and stone weapons for men.

These people were tall, enjoyed a long life and showed low rates of infant mortality. The men measured about 170 cm, while the women, about 160 cm. The majority of men and women lived for more than 40 years, some up to 50 years, an advanced age for those days.

Social stratification

More recent expeditions, which took place between 2009 and 2016, found two cemeteries very different from the rest. They analyzed another 130 skeletons discovering that they were accompanied by few artifacts and that they suffered from increased infant mortality, as well as a shorter life and stature.

Why were there so many differences between the two burials? They could have been separated populations, but it is unlikely based on general physical similarities. Therefore, they might differ by status, with one cemetery for the elite and one for the workers. This is the first proof of such a phenomenon in Egypt.

civilization prior to Pharaonic Egypt
Comparison between the remains in the cemetery of the supposed elite (left) and those found in a more recent excavation.
Comparison between the remains in the cemetery of the supposed elite (left) and those found in a more recent excavation.

The sites also shed light on the family structures of the time. The total proportion of genders in all cemeteries is three women for each man, which may point to polygamy. The children were buried in adult cemeteries from three years old. There is also clear evidence of respect for the dead.

These behavioral indicators, together with the technological and ceremonial architecture, such as calendar circles and sanctuaries, imply a level of sophistication that goes well beyond that shown by the groups of pastors.

Source: The Conversation

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Ancient

Alien Technology And Out Of Place Artifacts

Sometimes archaeological artifacts appear to be chronologically out of place. An example of an out of place artifact (OOPART) might be a bullet hole in a Tyrannosaurus Rex skull.

Out of place artifacts (OOPARTs) sometimes appear unexpectedly among ancient ruins when there is no evidence of their development in older layers. It’s led some researchers to suggest that aliens once visited ancient civilizations and left evidence of advanced technologies in periods where human technology had not yet evolved to the point of inventing the devices itself.

Ancient Alien Theory

In his book, Chariots of the Gods, Erich von Daniken laid the foundation for his controversial theory about ancient aliens. He suggested that alien lifeforms came to earth from other planets in the ancient past of humanity.

The aliens gave mankind the means to develop more technologically advanced civilizations, and the earliest humans believed that the aliens were gods from the sky.

Ancient aliens

Almost every civilization on this planet has similar tales about encounters with the alien gods. According to von Daniken, the fact that these stories and myths are similar globally may support the ancient alien theory.

Adolf Hitler was especially interested in exploring ancient Nordic mythology in his effort to create a German ideology about alien visitors coming to earth in UFOs and grooming the white Aryan race to become the true ancestors of the Germanic peoples.

Pseudoarchaeology and Nazi Germany

After WWI, Hitler’s Nazi party used archaeology to brainwash the public for the Nazi political and nationalist agenda. The Germans, as a whole, were largely ignorant of their cultural roots, and Hitler used this to his advantage.

He assigned various Nazi leaders, such as Heinrich Himmler and a select group of German scholars and archaeologists, to research the German roots in antiquity. He wanted to find proof that the Germans were descended from a white Aryan race which had fled to northern Europe when Atlantis was destroyed. If he couldn’t find the evidence, he made it up.

Hitler aliens

Thus the Nazi regime developed its own brand of pseudoarchaeology or false archaeology for political propaganda use. In their search into prehistoric Nordic mythology, Nazi researchers spread out and combed the world in search of supporting data that ancient aliens were the core of the German heritage in establishing the Aryan blonde, blue-eyed master race that ultimately became the root of all advanced human culture.

Teams of archaeologists from the Ahnenerbe, Nazi Germany’s center of archaeology and research, investigated areas of Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, the Far East, Tibet, Iceland and even Antarctica.

A total of 18 Nazi research expeditions yielded no real evidence that prehistoric Germans once ruled the world, and their work degenerated into occult studies and mysticism. However they did discover some OOPARTs of interest to the rest of the world.

The Baghdad Battery

In 1936, near the village of Khuyut Rabboua in Iraq, archaeologists discovered about a dozen curious devices which were dated to the Parthian era (250 BCE to 225 CE).

Each was a five inch tall terracotta jar with a 1.5 inch wide mouth. It contained a copper cylinder enclosing but not touching an iron bar. At the top of the jar, asphalt plugs separate the iron rod from the copper.

In 1938, the German Director of the National Museum of Iraq, Wilhelm Koenig examined one of the artifacts and speculated that it might have been a galvanic cell or a battery. He proposed that it might have been used to electroplate gold onto silver objects.

Later, researchers tested the batteries with grape juice and lemon juice as electrolytes to activate the electrochemical reaction between the iron and the copper. They discovered that the “battery” did produce a weak voltage. When hooked up in series, the devices produced an increased voltage.

This discovery begs several questions:

– How did the ancients of Mesopotamia learn about this mechanism?
– Did ancient aliens show humans how to build the devices?
– How did they use the batteries?

The Antikythera Mechanism

Archaeologists found this OOPART in the Antikythera wreck off the Greek Island of Antikythera and dated it to 150-100 BCE. X-ray analysis revealed that there are a series of 32 gears inside the object, and archaeologists think it might have been an ancient mechanical calculator or computer.

Recently researchers have discovered that the mechanism might be a type of planetarium used for navigation. It displayed the Sun’s position in the zodiac throughout the year. It also displays the phases of the moon.

Again this discovery raises the same questions as the Baghdad battery.

A Native American OOPART

The “Goddard Coin” was discovered in a Native American site in Maine and has produced controversy about its origins. In 1957, an amateur archaeologist, Guy Mellgren, discovered a silver Norwegian coin dating back to the reign of King Olaf Kyrre (1067-1093 CE). This is the only Norse pre-Columbian artifact found in the US.

There is evidence that the Goddard site was a busy Native American trading center operating from 900-600 years ago. It served traders from as far away as the area of present-day Pennsylvania, the Great Lakes and Labrador.

But there is no evidence supporting a theory that a Norse settlement existed in the vicinity. Currently archaeologists theorize that the coin was brought here from another area through trading activities.

Other OOPARTs

Out of place artifacts have been discovered in other ancient, once commercially busy areas of the world. This is true especially around the Mediterranean Sea, in areas which were, at one time, active trade centers.

Artifacts from Imperial China have been found in ancient Roman trading vessels which sank in the area. This raises the question of whether Rome once traded with China during ancient times.

Misplaced artifacts don’t necessarily imply an ancient alien astronaut intervention in the history of humanity, but the theory does add another dimension of thought to the study of ancient peoples and their archaeology.

Source: Source: Secrets of the Lost Races: New Discoveries of Advanced Technology in Ancient Civilizations by Rene Noorbergen; Teach Services; 2001

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New Study Finds Ancient Mummies Had Modern Diseases

Based on the riches often found in their tombs, it would be easy to assume that ancient people whose relatives had them mummified before burial lived a pretty good life. Based on what a new study of some mummified bodies found, it looks like they did … and it probably shortened their lives. It turns out that these people suffered from modern diseases caused more by lifestyle than genetics … or perhaps we suffer from ancient diseases caused more by lifestyle than genetics.

“Computed tomography has been used previously in mummies to detect arterial calcification, which is a marker of later-stage atherosclerosis. Here, using the novel approach of near-infrared spectroscopy, we detected cholesterol-rich atherosclerotic plaques in arterial samples from ancient mummies. In this proof-of-concept study, we are the first to noninvasively detect these earlier-stage lesions in mummies from different geographical areas, suggesting that atherosclerosis has been present in humans since ancient times.”

Cholesterol! The number everyone fears to find out on their annual trip to the doctor. In a study led by Mohammad Madjid, an MD and MS and an assistant professor of cardiovascular medicine with McGovern Medical School at UTHealth (University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston), decided to study the arterial tissue of five mummies — three men and two women ranging in age from 18 to 60 who lived between 2000 BCE and 1000 AE. Four were from South America, one was from the Middle East, three died from pneumonia, one from renal failure and one from unknown causes. According the study co-authored by Madjid and published in the latest American Heart Journal, he used near-infrared spectroscopy which analyzes the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum and has become a useful tool in urology, sports medicine, neurology and other fields.

“A catheter is placed on the sample and it sends out signals. The signals bounce off the tissue and come back. You can tell the difference between various tissue components because each has a unique molecular signature like a fingerprint.”

Unfortunately for the mummies, what Madjid’s near-infrared spectroscope found was the molecular signature of cholesterol-rich arterial plaques … a sure sign that they suffered from atherosclerosis – the narrowing of the arteries that eventually causes coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and kidney problems. In modern humans, it generally begins in middle age and is thought to be caused high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, genetics and an unhealthy diet. Madjid’s team was surprised to find that even the youngest mummy suffered from atherosclerosis. Were they teen smokers? Too much corn pizza? Not enough exercise chasing alpacas or camels?

According to the press release by UTHealth, Madjid blamed the mummies’ high cholesterol on smoke from fire pits, viral infections, bacterial infections and bad genes. Four thousand years later, modern humans still suffer from the same atherosclerosis.

If we’ve learned anything from watching mummy movies, it’s that we never learn anything from mummies – we continue to break into their tombs, steal their burial items, desecrate their remains and destroy their rich history before it can be studied.

Maybe atherosclerosis is the real curse of the mummy.

Source: Mysterious Universe

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Napoleon slept in the Great Pyramid and what he saw changed history

The pyramid of Cheops, which is the only construction that endures of the seven wonders of the ancient world, continues to reveal new secrets in its imposing 146 meters high.

Napoleon and the pyramids

A scan of the construction of limestone blocks indicated a few days ago that there could be hidden passages still undiscovered, as evidenced by the fact that temperature anomalies of up to six degrees have been recorded.

A scientific analysis confirming what Napoleon Bonaparte intuited in his own skin after spending seven hours in the gloomy monument: the mystery permeates each of its corners.

With the aim of liberating Egypt from Turkish hands, the promising general Bonaparte, victorious in Italy, landed in the Nile during the summer of 1798 with more than thirty thousand French soldiers aiming to move towards Syria.

Not surprisingly, the young Napoleon pursued more than military objectives and took with him a group of researchers from different disciplines (mathematicians, physicists, chemists, biologists, engineers, archaeologists, geographers, historians …), more than a hundred, so that they will study in detail that country of the wonderful pyramids and the ancient gods.

Among them were the mathematicians Gaspard Monge, founder of the Polytechnic School; the physicist Étienne-Louis Malus; and chemist Claude Louis Berthollet, inventor of bleach.

That is to say, some of the most brilliant scientists of his generation attended the 28-year-old general’s call, without even knowing the destination of the trip until they sailed beyond Malta: «I cannot tell you where we are going, but it is a place to conquer glory and know ».

It was on that expedition, between the military and the scientific, that Europe rediscovered the wonders of ancient Egypt and found the key to understanding them.

While a soldier was digging a trench around the medieval fortress of Rachid (an Egyptian port enclave in the Mediterranean Sea), he found by chance the one known as the Rosetta stone, which finally served to decipher the unintelligible Egyptian hieroglyphs.

It was a sentence of King Ptolemy, dated 196 BC. C, written in three versions: hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek. From the Greek text, it was possible to find the equivalences in the hieroglyphs and establish a code to read the ancient texts.

Napoleon

However, the trip also served Napoleon as a spiritual search in a land that had disturbed the imagination of great characters in history.

Like many of his contemporaries, the Great Corsican was attracted to eastern exoticism and had read a very popular work by then, “The Journey to Egypt and Syria from Constantin Volney,” published in 1794 about the mysteries of the civilizations in the area.

In the middle of military operations, Napoleon went to the Holy Land with the purpose of confronting the Turkish army and, incidentally, resting for a night in Nazareth.

And so he did on April 14, 1799, without having transcended more details of this particular tourist stop. That same year, in August, Napoleon returned to Cairo during the night supposedly inside the Cheops Pyramid.

His usual entourage and a Muslim religious accompanied him to the King’s Chamber, the noble room, which at that time was difficult to access, with passageways that did not reach the meter and a half, and without any lighting beyond the insufficient torches.

Specifically, the King’s Chamber is a rectangular room about 10 meters long and 5 meters wide consisting of granite slabs, smooth walls, and ceiling, without decoration, and only contains an empty granite sarcophagus, without inscriptions, deposited there during the construction of the pyramid, since it is wider than the passageways.

The Corsican general spent seven hours surrounded only by bats, rats and scorpions in the pyramid. Just at dawn, it sprouted from the labyrinthine structure, pale and frightened.

To the questions of concern of his men of confidence about what had happened there, Napoleon replied with an enigmatic: “Even if I told you, you weren’t going to believe me.”

It is impossible to know what exactly Napoleon saw or felt in those seven hours, or even if the episode took place, although it seems likely that in any case, the Corsican believed to suffer some kind of mystical experience induced by loneliness, darkness, extreme temperatures and echo distorted noise.

What is clear is that – as various fiction works have realized, see the novel of “The Eight” (1988) by Katherine Neville or more recently Javier Sierra in “The Egyptian Secret of Napoleon” (2002) – the night of Napoleon Inside the Great Pyramid it seemed to change his character forever.

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