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Ancient texts suggest the town the legendary King Arthur comes from

King Arthur really did exist and was born near Leeds, according to a British historian who claims to have found evidence that proves legends about the ruler were true.

Arthur was born around 475 AD in his kingdom’s capital, Barwick-in-Elmet, a once sprawling stronghold, he says.

The finding was made by studying a number of historical texts, narrowing down the range of potential figures who fit the descriptions presented.

His theory disputes the folklore tale that Arthur was conceived at Tintagel in Cornwall and challenges academics who believe the king was just a myth.

King Arthur really did exist and was born near Leeds, according to a British historian who claims to have found evidence that proves the legend was true

The claims are made by Adrian Grant after six-years of research critically examining 12 major battles he is believed to have fought in during the Arthurian campaign.

Mr Grant, the latest in a long line of amateur history writers fascinated by Arthurian mythology, set out to write his latest book, Arthur: Legend, Logic and Evidence, after working on a previous volume about Scottish clans.

After hearing of various clans claiming to have links to the legendary leader, the former high school geography teacher decided to look into Arthur’s true lineage.

He set out to prove or disprove Arthur’s existence by studying works by Gildas, Aneurin, Bede, Nennius, Marie de France, Chrétien de Troyes, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Thomas Mallory, works by two anonymous authors, the Welsh Annals and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

He believes Arthur was the son of Masgwid Gloff, a fifth-Century king who ruled over the kingdom of Elmet – a region located in what is now the West Riding of Yorkshire – and his wife Gwenllian V Bryche.

His true name was Arthwys ap Masgwid, or Arthur, son of Masgwid.

Mr Grant came to this conclusion by marrying what historical texts say about Arthur and his roles in the Arthurian campaign, a series of battles in which the legendary figure was the leader.

Speaking to MailOnline, Mr Grant, 70, said: ‘Many people have tried to identify Arthur and have squeezed the facts to fit an individual they have already decided upon.

‘I created the time window in which he had to exist, through researching these historical records, then trawled the family trees available online.

‘This Arthur fits all the criteria. He was born at the right time and he was a junior brother so almost a spare, which means he was free to fight and die well, but wasn’t expected to inherit the throne.’

There are numerous texts that detail Arthurian legend, like the Book of Aneurin, 1275 AD, with many conflicting details

Today, the village of Barwick-in-Elmet – seven miles east of Leeds city centre – has just under 5,000 residents.

Arthur’s family castle would have stood on or near to Hall Tower Hill, an existing mound and ditch once home to an Iron Age fort.

Mr Grant, added: ‘I think I have uncovered the truth. This study was conducted with a view of separating fact from fiction and history from legend.

‘Previous researchers have approached the matter in a completely different way. They have made assumptions that have turned out to be unwarranted.

‘The thing is you have a limited time scale. The first battle was in 495 AD and the legend says that Arthur was selected at the age of 15.

‘That leaves you with a date between 475 AD and 480 AD as to when he was born.

‘We have a very small window and you have an individual with the right name and that fits all the necessary questions, there is nobody else – so therefore that’s him.’

Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk

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Ancient

Archaeologists have found a network of hidden tunnels that run across Europe

A large-scale system of ancient tunnels, which archaeologists have been able to discover, covers almost the whole of Europe and stretches from Scotland to the Mediterranean

Archaeologists have discovered a developed network of ancient hidden tunnels, many of which extend throughout Europe. Individual passages that go deep into the bowels of the earth turned out to be so long that they stretch for kilometers.

It is reported that the age of some of the tunnels found by scientists reaches five thousand years. Initially, researchers believed that such passages were used for siege or as secret manholes from the enemy. But later tunnels were discovered, the length of which is comparable to a full-fledged pedestrian subway. They turned out to be so wide that a horse with a cart could fit in them freely.

It is noteworthy that only those of the tunnels that were found first turned out to be ancient. Moreover, many of them were created before the founding of the Roman Empire. Who and why created these passages is not clear. Most likely, it will be possible to solve this mystery only if material is found in the moves that will determine the DNA of the builders. Scientists hope that these remains are most likely awaiting discovery somewhere under a layer of stone.

Scientists add that the discovered tunnels are not mentioned in historical chronicles, which is very strange, since their scale is truly huge. The study of ancient underground passages continues.

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An ancient image of seven planetary deities found in Sudan

Photo: Dr Magdalena Laptas / PCMA

Polish archaeologists working in Sudan discovered the remains of a medieval church with frescoes preserved inside, which depict seven planetary deities.

According to Nauka w Polsce, the remains of the temple were discovered in a place called Banganarti. The frescoes depict apparently archangels. However, the images are made in accordance with ancient pre-Christian traditions, namely in accordance with the symbolism leading its history from Mesopotamia.

“This church has an unusual layout,” says archaeologist Magdalena Laptas. “In the eastern part, it is decorated with frescoes with seven planetary deities. It is unique not only for the Nile Valley, but also for Christian architecture in general.”

The ancient author probably wanted to depict the seven archangels. The biblical plot associated with the archangel Raphael is traced in the image. For example, the Book of Tobit describes how Raphael took the form of an ordinary youth and helped along the righteous Tobiah. Only at the end of the journey did he admit: “I am Raphael, one of the seven angels who offer the prayers of the saints and ascend before the majesty of the Lord.”

However, the ancient master portrayed the Christian archangels in the form of seven planetary deities, who were revered by the Sumerians from ancient Akkad and Babylon. As gods, they worshiped seven planets visible to the naked eye – Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, the Sun and the Moon. The last two celestial bodies, as we understand now, the Sumerians mistakenly attributed to the number of planets.

The seven planetary deities in Mesopotamia were the main gods of the pantheon. Temples were dedicated to them, ceremonies were held in their honor. It was then that the belief arose that the position of the planets in the sky at the time of the birth of the child determines his future fate. Then the common expression appeared: “he was born under a happy star.”

The exact age of the frescoes in the found church has not yet been established. Some evidence suggests that images appeared in the 14th century. According to scientists, the temple could operate throughout the existence of the city of Banganarti. It was an important Christian center on the territory of Nubia from the VI to XIV centuries. The powerful kingdom of Makuria was located there, which for a long time rebuffed the invasion of the Arabs.

The tradition associated with the seven deities has existed for many millennia; it has been transmitted from civilization to civilization. For example, knowledge of seven planets entered Egypt after the conquests of Alexander the Great. Greek astronomers in Alexandria gave the seven planets the names of their gods, and after the conquest of Egypt by Rome, the planets were named after the seven Roman gods.

“Archangels were also considered to be the guardians of people from birth to death, after which they became their guides in the afterlife,” says Dr. Laptas. “Thanks to their wings, they could soar freely in the sky. The similarity of archangels to planetary deities is evident even in their ability to control elements, as described in the “Apocalypse” of St. John. The sound of the trumpet of each of the seven archangels caused cataclysms. “

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Hel Scandinavian goddess of death

It is clear that Scandinavian mythology from Marvel is significantly different from reality. Despite the fact that Hel is the goddess of the underworld, she was never considered evil in its purest form. This is a more complex character.

Who is Hel?

Hel is the goddess of death. In fact, she was a giantess, the daughter of Loki and Angrboda (giantess).

This made Hel the sister of the monsters Fenrir, a powerful Norwegian wolf, and Jormungandra, the Serpent of Midgard.

The Azir gods were afraid of these three children because of their monstrous origin and prophecies about the chaos that they would arrange at the time of the onset of Ragnarok.

To solve this problem, Odin sent each of the children to the place where they could do the least harm. In the case of Hel, he sent her to Niflheim, one of the Norwegian lands of the dead.

As the goddess of the grave world, she was responsible for taking souls who were there.

The goddess of death is described in the sources as half black and half flesh-colored. Some scholars interpret the description as a half-living being and half-dead. It is said that Hel had a dejected and frightening look.

Her name means “hidden” in Old Norse, probably referring to the fact that the underworld was hidden from the kingdom of the living.

Helheim: The Underworld

Hel ruled the kingdom of Niflheim, also often called Helheim in connection with the goddess of the underworld.

This was the place where the Norwegian dead appeared, who did not die on the battlefield. Warriors who died in battle were brought either to Valhalla, to Odin’s hall, or to Volkwangr, to Frigg’s hall.

All the rest of the dead will be in Helheim. Thus, unlike the Christian concept of hell, this was not a place of torment for the wicked and cruel.

Hel and Ragnarok

According to the prophecy, Loki will break his own chains (he was imprisoned for his role in the death of Balder) and set off on a ship made of toenails and nails of the dead to Asgard. On board will be accompanied by his daughter Hel and the army of dishonorable dead. Her final fate in the battle is not recorded.

Does Hel’s participation in the last battle against the gods represent a bloodthirsty character who decided to bring death to the Scandinavian world in order to take control of everyone?

Or is she a woman participating in the battle to avenge the way the gods treated her and her family, driving them into the corners of the universe out of fear and prejudice?

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