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Ancient DNA of Egypt and the Middle East

Scientists have captured sweeping genomic information from Egyptian mummies, revealing that mummies were closely related to ancient Middle Easterners, hinting that northern Africans might have different genetic roots from people south of the Sahara desert.

Thousands of years ago in what is now northern Israel, waves of migrating blue-eyed people from the north and east — present-day Iran and Turkey — arrived in the region. And this influx of newcomers had a profound effect, transforming the emerging culture.

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Ancient

Viking Ship Found Buried In a Norwegian farm

The remains of the Viking ship have been discovered on a farm near a medieval church in Edøy, on the island Smøla, Norway.

Viking Ship Found Buried In a Norwegian farm

“The boat, which is approximately 17 meters long, appears to be part of a burial mound, suggesting that it was used to bury someone important,” said the authors of the finding Manuel Gabler and Dag-Øyvind Engtrø Solem, both belonging to the Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research (NIKU).

For now, it is not known if there are one or more skeletons inside the ship.

Viking Ship Found Buried In a Norwegian farm
The Viking funeral ship was found near a medieval church.

The discovery was made fortuitously when archaeologists used a high-resolution geo radar mounted on a car. “We had already finished scanning the agreed area and we had plenty of time, so we decided to do a quick survey of a nearby field … In the end, it turned out to be a good decision!” Gabler explained.

According to Knut Paasche, head of the Department of Digital Archeology at NIKU and an expert on the subject, the buried Viking ship would be more than 1,000 years old

Viking Ship Found Buried In a Norwegian farm
The ship inside the circular burial mound can be seen well in these images of geo radar.

Radar images have sufficient resolution to visualize what remains of the bow and stern, which on previous occasions have been destroyed by the plow on the farms. The helmet seems to be in excellent condition, according to a report by Ars Technica. Also, the radar revealed the remains of two houses, probably part of a Viking settlement, although archaeologists are not sure of the age of these structures.

Local authorities hope to do a major investigation of the area around the funeral ship. “If the land on the ship is going to be excavated, it will surely not be in the near future,” said a NIKU spokesman.

Viking Ship Found Buried In a Norwegian farm
Aerial view.
In gray the area where the geo radar passed.

The survey in Edøy was done as a collaboration between Møre and Romsdal counties, the municipality of Smøla and NIKU. The Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Archaeological Prospects and Virtual Archeology helped develop the georradar technology used.

Source: Live Science

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The Hopi legend of the ‘flying shields’

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‘Hopituh Shi-nu-mu’ is the name that one of the Native American tribes is called and means “peaceful people.” The history of the ancient Hopi goes back thousands of years and makes them one of the oldest cultures in the world.

Unlike other mythologies of different cultures which speak of gods that descended from the heavens, in the ancient legends of the Hopi, a different story is told, speaking of mighty gods who reside in the center of the Earth.
But who were they? In a similar way, nearly all pre-Columbian cultures just like the Hopi believe that one day, not too far away, the gods who have shaped human culture will come back to Earth.

They have always lived according to the teachings that were given to them by Masauwu, the Master of the Fourth World, where ethical concepts are deeply rooted in their culture.

Einstein with Hopi, early 20th Century.

Einstein with Hopi, early 20th Century

However, contrary to many other mythologies that are widespread around thew globe, the Hopi believe that their gods do not live in the infinite spaces of the cosmos, but live in the heart of the Earth, conveying the idea of a hollow earth existing right below our feet.

The Hopi speak of “Flying Shields” that flew over the sky. They were run by deities and attacked cities in ancient times.

This legend of the Hopi of the “Flying Shields” has been narrated since the ancient times of America. In the remote past they observed a strange futuristic technology, with a type of circular aircraft that moved through the sky and were driven by beings called Kachina.

Hopi masks

Left: Hopi ceramic. Right: Hopi illustration about a female deity. Credit: Anagoria / Wikimedia commons / Internet Archive Book / Flickr..

The Hopi are a Native American tribe descendants of the so-called Old Town that lived in the southwestern United States. Its history is very old, more than 3,000 years old.

The Hopi, the Flying Shields and their deities

Left: Hopi ceramic. Right: Hopi illustration about a female deity. Credit: Anagoria / Wikimedia commons / Internet Archive Book / Flickr..

According to the mythology of the Hopi, at the beginning of time, Taoiwa, the Creator, created Sotuknang, his nephew, giving him the task of creating nine universes or worlds: one for Taiowa, one for him and the other seven for the overabundance of life. In a cyclical conception of time, in a similar way to Aztec mythology, these worlds would continue cyclically.

The mythology tells that story that the first three worlds, Tokpela, Tokpa, and Kuskurza have already been inhabited and subsequently destroyed due to corruption and wickedness of men. The Hopi speak that the end of each cycle is marked by the return of the gods, and announced by the appearance of the Blue Kachina Star the sign of the ‘Day of Purification,” in which the old world is destroyed, and a new one begins.

Each time one of the worlds is destroyed, the Hopi, the faithful are saved and taken by the gods to the underground cities to escape the destruction of the planet.

In each cyclic destruction, and always according to the mythology of the Hopi, the ‘ant-men’ are crucial for human survival.

Hopi Ant-Men

The so-called ‘First World’ (Tokpela) was apparently destroyed by the fire of global proportions, perhaps a kind of massive volcanism, or the impact of an asteroid or even a large coronal mass ejection from the Sun of catastrophic proportions.

The ‘Second World’ (Tokpa), however, was destroyed by the cold. Most likely due to a pole shift that caused a massive ice age that destroyed life on the planet.

Interestingly, in the course of these two global cataclysms, the members of the Hopi tribe were guided during the day by a cloud of strange shape and a moving star overnight, leading to the presence of the so-called ‘Ant-Man’ which the Hopi call Anu Sinom.

This creature escorted the Hopi to underground caves where they found shelter and sustenance.

Interestingly, in the ancient Sumerian language, Anum or Anu was the god of the gods. He is the creator of creation.

In the Hopi legend, the mysterious creature that resembled a humanoid-ant is described as a generous and hardworking creature, willing to provide food to the Hopi, and to teach them methods of food preservation so they could survive.

As you can see, like many cultures around the globe, the ancient Hopi believed in the existence of subterranean chambers, cities which are eerily similar to other theories of the Hollow Earth. The Ancient Hopi also mention the mysterious ant-men gods who helped the ancient Hopi progress through time. However, the ancient Hopi also speak of the patuwvotas or ancient ‘flying shields.’

The tribe claim that we now live in the Fourth World after the previous three were destroyed by fire and ice

According to Frank Waters, author of Mystic Mexico: The advent of the Sixth World of Consciousness (1975) it is in the ‘third world’ where the ancient Hopi introduce the concept of the Patuwvotas, or “flying shields’.

In Frank Waters’s writings on Hopi mythology, the Blue Star Kachina or Saquasohuh, is a kachina or spirit, that will signify the coming of the beginning of the new world by appearing in the form of a blue star.

In the third cycle, it is said that humanity built a very advanced civilization, and developed the concept of “flying shields,” a sort of vehicle that can quickly travel to different places in the world and devastate entire cities on Earth. The Third World was destroyed by Sotuknang, the nephew of the Creator, with a great flood.

Also, in this case, there is a clear parallel with the Sumerian tradition in which we talk about the great flood that destroyed all previous civilization on the planet. This story is told in the Epic of Gilgamesh, a text which was then taken to biblical tradition in the history of the Flood and Noah’s Ark.

Sotuknang appeared to them and showed them as the last of the Third World sank into the ocean

According to the traditions of the Hopi, the survivors of the flood are scattered in different parts of the world, under the guidance of Masauwu, the Spirit of Death and the Master of the Fourth World. A fascinating petroglyph of the Hopi is that where Masauwu is represented piloting a wingless boat that has the shape of a dome. The similarity between the “flying shields” and what we today consider as airplanes or flying saucers, is mind boggling.

It seems evident that the flying shields or ‘ships without wings’ are something ancient cultures around the globe witnessed in the distant past. The ancient Hopi used the term to refer to something that was capable of flying through the skies and transporting people.

The Hopi described their deities as intraterrestrials , which ascended from within the Earth. They called them Ant People, and their imagery reminds a lot of the gray aliens of today.

aliens petroglyph 2

Hopi alien look like petroglyphs

This American tribe exposes the existence of a series of time cycles in the world. In the third cycle it is when they report the presence of the “Flying Shields” ( patuwvotas ) . It is the Third World called Kuskurza , in Hopi language.

That Third World was very advanced , even with what appears to be futuristic technology and ancient astronauts. The Flying Shields were an armament that floated in the sky, capable of attacking cities from long distances and moving in an extremely fast way .

Hopi Petroglyph . Courtesy: Jedi Simon.

Those who handled the shields were spirits called Kachina , so-called mediators between gods and humans. The flying objects emitted an overwhelming sound : “a thunderous sound (and) a sibilant noise like that of the wind passing through a narrow place …” .

There is an amazing similarity between these artifacts and the flying saucers described by ufology or any other type of stealth military aircraft. That is why this American mythology is part of the folklore of ancient astronauts.

A flood and the destruction of the Third World

The Third World was a period of prosperity and advanced ancient technology , but it came to an end from a deluge generated by the gods.

Credit: tombud / Pixabay.

According to the series Native American Wisdom , “Hopi, following the path of peace” , the god Sotuknang told the beginning of the Fourth World :

Look, I have razed even the traces of its Emergence; The steps I left for you. At the bottom of the seas are all the proud cities, the flying patuwvotas (shields) and the worldly treasures corrupted by evil, and those who found no time to sing the praises of the Creator from the top of their hills. But the day will come, if you keep the memory and the meaning of your Emergence, when these steps will emerge again to prove the truth that you expose ».

During the flood, the red city of Palatkwapi was destroyed . Tiwahongva and his sister Tawiayisnima had been abandoned, and, while camping, they heard a roar. It was Sotuknang, who descended from the sky boarding his paatuwvota (Flying Shield).

Kachina traditional statue. Courtesy: History Disclosure.

God wore a suit that shone like ice and had a twinkling face. The brothers ascended the shield with the god , flying high above the heights. Finally, Sotuknang left them in the village where their parents had settled after the flood.

This legend of the Hopi amazes by the appearance of deities or even ancient astronauts who used a futuristic ancient technology. This tribe thinks that, even today, the Kachina still travel the Earth in Flying Shields! .

References: Ancient-Origins / HistoryDisclosure

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Is Djoser’s pyramid the first pyramid in Egypt?

The pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser is located in Sahara and today is the oldest pyramid on the entire planet. Its value is difficult to exaggerate; it is a vivid example of how people studied architectural craft. The pyramid, as his tomb, was ordered to be built by the pharaoh Djoser, and the high priest of the temple of worship of the sun god Ra – Imhotep took up this difficult task. It was he who developed the drawings, which represented a tomb in a new form, like none of the pharaohs had before.

It is also interesting that Imhotep himself later became more popular among the Egyptians than his ruler, and the people of Egypt elevated the saints to him: Imhotep was called the god of construction and medicine. Be that as it may, the fact that this pyramid has survived to this day is already a great miracle. Initially, there was a small town around it, in which there was also a temple for the worship of the Pharaoh, two large apartment buildings, a special hall that led to the tomb with columns and ordinary farmhouses for cattle and camels. Only the pyramid has survived to this day. Its size is 62 meters in height and an area of ​​125 by 115 meters. It was the Djoser pyramid that was taken as the basis for the construction of all the other Egyptian pyramids and even the construction of the great Sphinx.

This design was completely innovative for its time. Inside the pyramid itself there were 11 full premises, which, apparently, were intended for all members of the pharaoh’s family. On the walls of the rooms were drawings that reflected the external arrangement of the city, from which it became known about the rest of the premises. The pharaoh himself was buried at a depth of 27 meters under the pyramid, in a special capsule. After everyone recognized Djoser’s pyramid, where it is located and by whom it was created, bad rumors circulated around Egypt.

The thing is that during his life, Pharaoh Djoser, in addition to his main tomb, gave the task to Imhotep to build a second burial ground, only more modest and inconspicuous. Perhaps the first was to avert eyes, since the ruler knew how often such places were robbed and the rest of the dead was disturbed. Whatever it was, when it was precisely Djoser who our contemporaries tried to find in his grave after the discovery of this treasury, they did not find anything there. Among the numerous internal corridors, only one mummified arm was found. Who it belongs to is still unknown. Until now, no one has found the body of the pharaoh, nor the remains or the burial place of his priest and the first architect in the history of mankind.

The main builder, or as he was called in Egypt “the one who looks at the Supreme God”, was later elevated to the rank of the same deities. And all due to the fact that during his life, Imhotep was a bit of a shadow and the right hand of his pharaoh. It is worth being frank, Djoser during his rule did not distinguish himself by anything special and went down in history only thanks to his tomb, as well as to the man to whom he once gave the order to build it. An interesting fact is that when excavating this miracle, it was revealed that various mystical rituals were often performed in the temple, which, in general, was logical enough for that time. The ibis birds, which were the symbol of Sahara, were found here in the form of mummies. Imhotep thought for a long time how to please his master and decided that his soul after burial should have a way to heaven, in the form of convenient steps. That is why the second name of this tomb is “stepped”.

Today, archaeologists can only guess about the approximate age of this building. Quite common figures tell us that all the above action took place around 2600 BC. Why was such a huge and expensive complex of buildings chosen, given that all the rulers before Djoser were not compared to this? And all simply because in this way the ordinary people were frightened, who continually loved to rebel and argue about a way of life. Therefore, Vladyka wanted to show all his strength, power, and most importantly, his belonging to the world of Gods and higher beings. Also important is the fact that the pyramid was conceived as a place for diverting eyes before the true burials of both the pharaohs and all their wealth. Yes, the wives, children and close relatives of the head of state were buried here, but without pomp and so many honors as the main ruler. That is why many of the robbers who encroached on Joser’s retirement found nothing but mummified corpses. Many were simply afraid to go in there, not to mention stealing something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose his peace life and get stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. in order to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Whatever it was, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved.

The stepped pyramid of Djoser is the burial place of one of the Egyptian pharaohs and his entire family. This is the very first construction of the tomb in the form of a pyramid and the ancestor of this method is Djoser himself and his priest Imhotep. By the way, the latter, with time, also became (or even more) popular than its ruler. At the entrance to the pyramid itself there is a stone at the foot, which testifies to all the dignities and ranks of the world’s first architect. During the reign of Djoser, Imhotep became the keeper of the upper seal, the divider of land and harvest, the main priest of the god Ra, the adviser and the right hand of the ruler. After his death in Egypt, they created a temple to worship his spirit and a school for teaching all his wisdom. On the walls of the pyramid inside, amazing frescoes are preserved that tell the story of the reign of the pharaoh, all the members of his dynasty and his deeds. For example, it was from such wall inscriptions that it became known that Joser connected Upper and Lower Egypt and came up with a way for his soul to move to heaven after death. That is how the architect and builder Imhotep embodied his request. Subsequently, the followers built all the other tombs in the manner and likeness of the first.

Pharaoh Djoser’s pyramid – a brilliant idea or an accident?

The first idea, according to scientists, was to build a rectangular cube, which would have inside the halls and labyrinths, through which the soul would rise to heaven. But it was the first architect who had the idea to incline all the walls to a single center, in order to simplify the task of the pharaoh’s spirit. The first dimensions of the building were grandiose – more than 60 meters in height and an area of ​​125 × 115 meters. Over time and the impact of a huge number of natural factors – the area of ​​the pyramid has significantly decreased, but the base still survived to this day. The height is less than 1 meter, the area is 121×109. Yes, and it is not so important. We could not find what was left if the high priest was not so adventurous: he was the first in the history of mankind who came up with the use of not typical raw materials and bricks from it, but heavy stone blocks. One can only guess? how did the Egyptians pile these boulders one upon another? Whatever it was, but this building can safely be reckoned one of the very first, architectural, man-made wonders of the world. It is also worth noting that the place for construction was chosen excellent: the view from the pyramid complex opens to Memphis and the entire site is heated under the sun of the colorful plateau.

Djoser’s step pyramid in Sahara, its myths and riddles

The Djoser Pyramid, the photo of which can easily be found on the net, like other attractions in Egypt, has a lot of mysteries. The most important incomprehensible fact is the mystery of the disappearance of the body of the pharaoh himself. According to the structure of the pyramid, the capsule with the mummy was supposed to be under the center of the structure at a depth of about 30 meters. But the place for the capsule was empty during the opening of the treasury. In addition, numerous strange objects for sacrificial rites were found on the territory of the complex and on the ruins of other structures near a tomb. And everything was mystical: the location of the temple for worship of Pharaoh, as God, and the intricate corridors that the conservative Imhotep simply could not plan. The history of Sahara as a region also tells that at the location of the tomb once stood the temple of worship of the god Pta – the main god of Memphis. Given the reverent attitude of the Egyptians to their religion, and even more so to their shrines, it is strange where and why the temple disappeared, and whether Djoser himself was involved in this.

Another important fact is the beginning of a seven-year drought in Egypt, which was accompanied by the start of the tomb structure. Many also consider this a very strange and illogical coincidence.

Around this tomb goes an incredible number of legends and mysterious stories. And all of them arise because it is difficult for a person today to explain how, without special equipment and professional knowledge, did ancient people manage to create such a perfect architectural structure? Some myths say that as a priest of the sun god Ra – Imhotep entered into a conspiracy with dark forces and sold the soul of his ruler for the sake of unique knowledge in construction. Other legends testify that Djoser, realizing that he would die anyway, gave all his treasures to the gods to help build such a unique resting place. It is interesting that some scholars do not reject this version at all, because in no museum in the world, or in any private collection, wealth from this pharaoh was discovered, which simply had to be in the tomb. And inside 11 halls only one mummified hand was found, and whose it is, is still not clear. So think after that what is true and what is fiction. And the pyramid will still rise above the burnt Egyptian Sahara for many centuries, still also exciting the minds and curiosity of our descendants.

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