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Aliens at Jupiter: under the icy shell of Europe it is possible to meet higher forms of life

Aliens at Jupiter: under the icy shell of Europe it is possible to meet higher forms of life 86

1995 brought incredible news to Earth science – one of the 61 satellites of Jupiter, the largest planet in our system, Europe, was covered with a thick layer of ice, ordinary water ice! And where there is water, there is life…

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At the same time, the outwardly surface of Europe is noticeably reminiscent of the Antarctic – blocks of ice, split, and then frozen again. The thickness of the ice cover of Europe is estimated at tens of kilometers – from 10 to 150, and under it … a warm ocean, because otherwise it is impossible to explain the appearance of such an ice structure: cracks, hummocks, incredibly huge ice fields.

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And, of course, if there is a chance that the ocean flows under the ice, then life is possible in it. NASA recently announced that they are preparing a new mission for Jupiter, with Europe focusing on it. The start of the mission was scheduled for approximately 2025.

But now scientists are trying to predict exactly what life forms will meet in this huge warm ocean – there is twice as much water in Europe than on our planet, and the depth of the ocean is estimated at hundreds of kilometers.

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The first assumption is that alien life can be represented by bacteria and microorganisms. But how did they get here?

If one adheres to one of the theories of the spread of life, the theory of panspermia, then life in the Universe “travels” on comets or asteroids. But what is the likelihood that such a “habitable” asteroid will bring life? In order not to bore the calculation, let us immediately say that it is very, very small – 0.00007%. That is, most likely, the life that will develop in Europe will be born here. Or it’s already born.

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Now back to the question of what this life form can be? For Mars, the existence of bacteria that will hide under the surface is likely. But Europe or its neighbor, Enceladus, will be able to boast (we always assume, you remember?) microorganisms or even more complex structures, not only based on carbon, but also based on, for example, silicon. And while completely different – as they will develop in completely different conditions and completely different times.

If we accept that life on our planet arose about 4 billion years ago and the first billion were microscopic forms, then, by analogy, life on Europe could also appear billions of years ago, for example, three. Those. microscopic forms have long been passed, and now they can exist on a par with multicellular and even giant organisms (gravity in Europe is about 1% of the earth’s, so the likelihood of developing large life forms is quite high).

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There are researchers who go much further in their assumptions – life could already have passed the evolutionary path to intelligent aquatic organisms, somewhat similar to octopuses. So far, this assumption is more on the conscience of science fiction writers. However, discounting it is still not worth it.

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Now, speaking of extraterrestrial civilizations, by the way, scientists often still talk about life on the nearest planets of our system than even highly developed civilizations on earth-like exoplanets. And the point here is not only that so far there is no evidence of the existence of life on such planets. It’s just that we still cannot reach them. But to our neighbors in the solar system – we can, or we can in the near future. And, of course, first of all, we, earthlings, will be interested in planets and satellites of planets where the development of intelligent life forms is possible.

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So how does humanity meet these life forms? NASA is currently developing a project with the code name Europa Multiple-Flyby Mission. It will be an interplanetary automatic station consisting of a descent probe and a base orbital ship. Such a ship should ensure the operability of the probe for at least 100 days. The total duration of the mission to Europe is 3.5 years. During this time, the zones of Jupiter’s satellite should fly at least 45 times, at different altitudes – from 2700 to 25 km.

The mission will have to check the presence of that very warm ocean under the ice surfaces, determine the composition of the ocean and … identify the possible landing sites for the descent vehicles of the following missions.

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The main thing is that during these studies from the oceans of Europe, its inhabitants do not appear, which Earth spaceships may like, as was the case in the film “Europe” …

Based on materials:  https://phys.org

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Space

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns 107
Photo: (Caltech / R. Hurt (IPAC))

To us, the Sun alone seems perfectly normal, but our solar system is actually a strange exception.

Most stars in the Milky Way galaxy have at least one companion star. In a system 1,800 light-years away, astronomers have finally confirmed the existence of a gas giant planet orbiting stars in a triple star system.

Called KOI-5, the system is located in the constellation Cygnus, and the exoplanet was confirmed ten years after it was first detected by the Kepler space telescope.

In fact, the planet – now known as KOI-5Ab – was discovered by Kepler when it began operations back in 2009.

“KOI-5Ab was dropped because it was difficult and we had thousands of other candidates,” astronomer David Siardi of NASA’s Exoplanet Science Institute said.

“There were lighter dives than the KOI-5Ab, and every day we learned something new from Kepler, so the KOI-5 was almost forgotten.”

Exoplanet hunters tend to avoid the complexities of multi-star systems; of the more than 4,300 exoplanets confirmed to date, less than 10 percent are multi-star systems, although such systems dominate the galaxy. As a result, little is known about the properties of exoplanets in multi-star systems compared to those orbiting a lone star.

After Kepler’s discovery, Chardy and other astronomers used ground-based telescopes such as the Palomar Observatory, Keck Observatory, and the Gemini North Telescope to study the system. By 2014, they had identified two companion stars, KOI-5B and KOI-5C.

Scientists were able to establish that the planet KOI-5Ab, is a gas giant that is about half the mass of Saturn and 7 times the size of Earth, and is in a very close five-day orbit around KOI-5A. KOI-5A and KOI-5B, both of roughly the same mass as the Sun, form a relatively close binary system with an orbital period of about 30 years.

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A third star, KOI-5C, orbits the binary system at a much greater distance, with a period of about 400 years – slightly longer than Pluto’s 248-year orbit.

“By studying this system in more detail, perhaps we can understand how planets are created in the universe.”

The discovery was announced at the 237th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

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Why the universe does not fit into science

Why the universe does not fit into science 109
Photo: YouTube

Science can be compared to an artist painting what he has never seen, or to a writer describing other people’s travels: objects that he has never seen, places where he has never been. Sometimes such scientific “arts” turn out to be beautiful and interesting, but most of them will forever remain only theories, because they are beyond human capabilities.

In fact, science has the right only to speculate: how our universe appeared, how old it is, how many stars and other objects it contains.

Universe model

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How many stars are there in the sky?

With an unarmed eye, a person can see about nine thousand stars in the sky in one cloudless and moonless night. And armed with binoculars or a telescope, much more – up to several million. However, this is much less than their true number in the universe. Indeed, only in our one galaxy (the Milky Way) there are about 400 billion stars. The exact amount, of course, is not known to science. And the visible universe contains about 170 billion galaxies.

It is worth clarifying that scientists can see the universe 46 billion light years deep in all directions. And the visible (observable) universe includes the space accessible to our eyes from the moment of the Big Explosion. In other words, only this (accessible to human perception) space science refers to our universe. Science does not consider everything that follows.

It is believed that there are supposedly a ceptillion (10 to 24 degrees) stars in our universe. These are theoretical calculations based on the approximate size and age of the universe. The origin of the universe is explained by the Big Bang theory. This is why the universe is constantly expanding and the more time passes, the more complex the universe and its components become.

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It is not entirely correct to consider and perceive this scientific theory “head-on”. Scientists always claim that that explosion was not exactly an explosion, and the point that exploded was not the only one. After all, it was everywhere, because space did not exist then. And in general – everything happened quite differently from what is described in the Big Bang theory, but all other descriptions of the origin of the universe are even more incredible and inaccurate.

Separate but interconnected

That which is beyond the reach of human perception is usually discarded by science, or recognized as non-existent. Recognizing one thing, science does not want to recognize the existence of the other, although everything in our world is interconnected and is not able to exist separately – by itself.

Each object of the universe is a part of it much more than an independent, separate object.

Any person, like any material object of our world, consists of components: organs, cells, molecules, atoms. And each of its constituent parts can represent the whole world. Separate, and at the same time connected with all the others.

However, science, as a rule, perceives all the components of the universe – people, animals, plants, objects, the Earth, the Sun, other planets and stars – as separate subjects, thereby limiting itself.

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Even what is considered the visible universe, one of the atoms of which could be called our solar system, is not subject to the boundaries of human perception. But perhaps the atom is an exaggeration, and our solar system is not even an atom, but one of its elements!

How, being so far from the truth, can one reason about something with the degree of probability with which science tries to reason about the origin of the universe?

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Space

An unexplained wobble shifts the poles of Mars

An unexplained wobble shifts the poles of Mars 113

The red planet sways from side to side like a whirligig when it loses speed. The new study allowed scientists to notice that the poles of Mars deviate slightly from the axis of rotation of the planet. On average, they move 10 cm from the center with a period of 200 days.

Such changes are called the Chandler Oscillations  – after the American astronomer Seth Chandler, who discovered them in 1891. Previously, they were only seen on Earth. It is known that the displacement of the poles of rotation of our planet occurs with a period of 433 days, while the amplitude reaches 15 meters. There is no exact answer why this is happening. It is believed that the fluctuations are influenced by processes in the ocean and the Earth’s atmosphere.

Chandler’s wobbles on Mars are equally perplexing. The authors of the study discovered them by comparing data from 18 years of studying the planet. The information was obtained thanks to three spacecraft that orbit the Red Planet: Mars Odyssey, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor. 

Since Mars has no oceans, it is likely that the Red Planet’s wobbly rotation is due to changes in atmospheric pressure. This is the first explanation that researchers have shared. In the future, there should be new details about the fluctuations that have so interested the scientific community.

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