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Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth? 86 Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth? 87

Fact or fiction

Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth?

The hypothesis that life originated on Mars and only from there was brought to Earth can be called unusual, but not at all incredible.

A few weeks ago, the famous American popularizer of science, the head of the Planetary Society, Bill Nye, supported additional funding for NASA’s promising project to deliver samples from the Martian surface to Earth. 

“If life started on Mars first, it would be strange, but it’s not so crazy to know that you and I are descendants of Martians,” he said. “It doesn’t take much money to fundamentally change our history.” 

Indeed, the hypothesis that life originated on a neighboring planet, and only then made an epoch-making flight to Earth, sounds strange only at first glance. Let’s think logically.

Life on Earth could not have appeared before the planet itself appeared. This happened about 4.5 billion years ago, but soon the young Earth experienced a collision with a large celestial body, and the debris thrown out by the impact formed the Moon. Only about 4.4 billion years ago, the planet cooled more or less, it had a stable crust and even oceans. However, they did not last long – and they were far from being as great as today. Most of the water appeared on Earth between 4.1 and 3.8 billion years ago, when the planet went through a turbulent Late Heavy Bombardment.

The massive impact of ice and stone celestial bodies melted the surface again, so if life tried to appear before this period, then it is most likely completely destroyed. The end of the asteroid bombardment sets the farthest time limit for the appearance of life. And direct paleontological finds indicate the nearest one – traces of the first organisms preserved in the fossils. The most reliable such finds were made in western Australia and date back to about 3.5 billion years. Thus, we get the approximate time of the appearance of earthly life from inanimate matter – abiogenesis.

Most surprising of all, only a few hundred million years remain for the whole process. This turned out to be enough to transform a completely sterile Earth into a planet on which life has already formed quite complex communities of “biomats”: in the Australian fossils, scientists have distinguished more than a dozen different types of cells of bacteria and archaea. And this is only the first problem.

Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth? 88

Moderately high temperature, watery environment, a large amount of organic matter and lack of oxygen, trace elements and an influx of energy – in classical concepts, this forms the “primary soup” in which life gradually arises. However, if we try to reproduce this process on our own, then we will not get any proto-cells, no matter how much we cook such a mixture. We will find individual, more complex organic compounds “in vitro” that ultimately form a resinous mixture, more like asphalt than living biomass.

This problem was addressed by Steven Benner, a highly respected geochemist, a former Harvard professor, and now the head of his own Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology. In 2013, speaking at the Goldschmidt conference, he noted that “correct” abiogenic reactions require a sufficient amount of certain minerals – primarily boron and molybdenum compounds, which are necessary to stabilize the resulting RNA molecules.

Elisabeth Hausrath’s team at the University of Nevada has come up with similar results. In their study, presented in the journal Nature Geoscience, the scientists noted that phosphorus, a key chemical element required for the formation of RNA and DNA molecules, is found in the earth’s crust mainly in the form of poorly soluble minerals. They could hardly saturate the young ocean with enough phosphorus for the necessary reactions.

At the same time, phosphates identified on the surface of the Red Planet dissolve much more easily. In laboratory experiments, geochemists have shown that they disperse 45 times faster in water. This made it possible to calculate that the concentration of phosphorus in the aquatic environment of young Mars could be several times higher than on Earth. The same applies to molybdenum and boron: analysis of Martian meteorites shows that about 3 billion years ago, the oceans of the neighboring planet were much richer in them than on Earth. By the way, about the oceans.

Abundance of water

Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth? 89

Modern Mars is practically devoid of an atmosphere, and its surface is an icy rocky desert watered with cosmic radiation. The current period of the planet’s geological history is called the Amazonian, and it began about 3 billion years ago, with the catastrophic changes that ended the Hesperian (3.0 – 3.7 billion years ago) and Noah (3.7 – 4.1 billion years ago) periods during which Mars was distinguished by high geological activity, a dense atmosphere, abundant water and, possibly, a fairly comfortable temperature.

Ocean and heat, minerals and organic matter – all this was on the neighboring planet long before the Earth, giving life a couple of hundred million years to develop. According to some reports, even the Late meteorite bombardment of Mars survived much easier, and massive asteroids stopped “ironing” its surface earlier than on our planet. In 2019, having studied the composition of Martian meteorites, scientists found that the conditions here could become suitable for the development of life in the Pre-Noah period, about 4.48 billion years ago – that is, more than 500 million years earlier than Earth. By the way, about meteorites.

Mass exchange

The exchange of matter between the planets of the inner solar system has been going on throughout their history – and until now. Debris, knocked out by meteorite impacts or thrown out by powerful volcanic ejections, after many thousands, and sometimes millions of years, fall on the surface of neighboring massive bodies. So, out of 63.7 thousand meteorites found and studied by geologists at the moment, at least 266 are of Martian origin. On such “arks”, covered with layers of ice and stone, early life could well have moved from dying Mars to a neighboring planet and continue its development here.

This is indirectly indicated by some studies of the meteorites themselves. The most famous example of this is provided by ALH 84001, which flew from Mars about 4 billion years ago, and in 1984 was found in Antarctica. In 1996, NASA researcher David McKay published an article in Science demonstrating that under an electron microscope in ALH 84001, structures can be distinguished that closely resemble fossilized microbial cells.

Even the then US President Bill Clinton was going to speak about the grandiose find, but most experts were skeptical about it, so the speech was canceled. It is worth saying that discussions around such evidence do not stop, and McKay and his supporters do not intend to give up yet. Moreover, some biological experiments also speak in their favor.

A bit of biology

Aliens among us: could Mars be the cradle of life on earth? 90

The conditions that existed on ancient Mars can be found in some secluded corners of modern Earth. Nathalie Cabrol of the SETI Institute and her colleagues investigated such ecological niches in the High Lakes Project, which was supported by NASA. Scientists have conducted several expeditions to high-mountain volcanic lakes in the Andes: the atmosphere here is far from being so dense and passes a fair amount of ultraviolet radiation. There is practically no oxygen at depth, but there is a mass of dissolved salts, which makes such lakes a very extreme place for life.

It is not surprising that these bodies of water are not distinguished by blooming and diverse ecosystems. Nevertheless, in all of them, scientists have found exothermophile microorganisms that have managed to adapt to such conditions and have even learned to thrive. Some of these microbes withstand record high doses of ultraviolet radiation, lethal to all other cells, and carry radiation with a UV index of up to 43 (for comparison, a UV index of 6-7 is considered high for humans, and over 11 is extremely high). All this increases the chances of the existence of life on ancient Mars.

Some organisms demonstrate no less stability in space flight, and even at extreme temperatures and pressures that arise at the time of the asteroid’s fall. Analysis of Martian meteorites shows that their minerals could briefly experience pressure up to 50 GPa, heating up to 1000 K and acceleration up to 3000 km / s2. However, biologists have repeatedly demonstrated that microbes included in some minerals are quite capable of surviving a sharp heating, and a blow, and then an interplanetary flight through space. The situation is more complicated with the last stage of the journey – entering the dense earth’s atmosphere.

Landing difficulties

Experiments with the passage of meteorites “stuffed” with microbes through the atmosphere are perhaps the simplest in this series. To do this, the samples are lifted into the stratosphere and dropped, after which it is checked whether the cells survived in the pores of the rock. Such experiments show that the front side of the sample, which is hottest of all, becomes completely sterile, but the bacterial spores caught on the sides of this projectile remain. So the journey of microbes from planet to planet can be considered extremely difficult – but by no means incredible.

This idea is a kind of panspermia hypothesis – about the possibility of natural transfer of living organisms through outer space. Lithopanspermia suggests that this transfer can also occur between the lithospheres of not too distant planets, including Earth and Mars.

In this regard, astrophysicist from the University of Kent Dina Gavrilyuk-Pasini, speaking at the EPSC 2013 conference, concluded:

“All this raises a number of new questions. So, if we find life on another planet, will it be completely different, or will it be related to ours? And if it is related, then – did it precede us, or did we precede it? So far, we cannot answer them. But we are not as far from the answers as it might seem.”

Fact or fiction

Was an Angel filmed over a house extinguished by firefighters?

Was an Angel filmed over a house extinguished by firefighters? 103

Having appeared on the network, this photo caused a lot of comments – from the fact that it really was a Guardian Angel who guarded the firefighters during work, to those who assured that all this was just an illusion, no more complicated than a cloud in the shape of a lamb.

At the end of December 2020, while extinguishing a fire in the Polish village of Maldyty, an Angel hovered over the firemen, or at least something like an Angel. This photo appeared on the Facebook page of the Maldyta fire station and generated many comments.

“This is something that was formed during the last extinguishing of the fire from the ignition of soot in the chimney in Maldyty. Write in the comments your thoughts about it,” was written under the picture on their FB page.

Poles are known to be very religious and there are plenty of people willing to comment on the picture.

Many indeed believed that the Angel oversaw the work of the firemen and, perhaps, even helped them to extinguish the fire. But there were also enough of those who believed that it was all just a random silhouette between clouds in the sky and pareidolia (illusion). The photo was taken by an unspecified person sitting in the cab of a car parked next to the burning house.

“Christians have always believed in the existence of guardian spirits. Some call them Guardian Angels. The Bible confirms their existence,” Pastor Leszek Kozheniecki told reporters, commenting on this photo.

By the way, Kozhenetskiy is a well-known Polish pastor who believes in the existence of supernatural beings.

Three years ago, he told the press that he had driven out the evil spirit that settled in his house in Turza Wielka. One of the firefighters who worked on the extinguishing of the house that night said:

“If we have this kind of protection watching over us, I am pretty calm about safety during work.”

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Fact or fiction

The skeleton of a mysterious “prehistoric beast” found in Antarctica?

The skeleton of a mysterious "prehistoric beast" found in Antarctica? 104
Photo: © Earth

Blogger MrMBB333 shared an image of a “mysterious creature.” It was discovered 80 kilometers off the coast of Antarctica in a remote region of Antarctica, according to the Sun.

According to the blogger, the pictures are screenshots from the Google Earth service, which were sent to him by his subscriber and conspiracy theorist under the nickname BONKERS.

They estimate the length of the remains at 3.6-6 meters.I don’t know if it was frozen for thousands of years or appeared recently,- the blogger said.

MrMBB333 believes the skeleton belonged to a dinosaur. He came to this conclusion by examining the front and hind limbs of the creature. His subscribers are sure that these are the remains of a seal.

The skeleton of a mysterious "prehistoric beast" found in Antarctica? 105
© Earth

A google search for seal skeleton images shows a pretty good match,- one of them wrote.

Other subscribers call the skeleton “suspicious”. They explain that “seals have no hind legs.” Another wrote that the remains belonged to an alligator or some other reptile.

In the comments, conspiracy theorists also expressed their opinion that “Antarctica is full of unexplained phenomena that may be related to ancient aliens.”

It is also believed that most of the “discoveries” made by users of Google Earth can be explained by the unusual shape of ice or other natural phenomena.

MrMBB333 uploaded his investigation video to YouTube on January 5. Since then, the video has been watched more than 200,000 times.

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Fact or fiction

150 thousand years old Metal pipes in Tibet, contradict the official history

150 thousand years old Metal pipes in Tibet, contradict the official history 106

It is said that there is a mountain in Tibet that contains a network of special formations that extend to the nearest lake. Many researchers believe that this is an artificial pipeline system. But, strangely enough, its origin dates back to the era of the Neanderthals.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

This mountain rises about 40 km from the city of Dalingha in the Tibetan Autonomous Region. It is called Baigongshan (White Mountain). In the world, it is better known for the wonderful formations that are in its heart and wide surroundings – they are called the Baigong pipes.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

This miracle has been the subject of controversial discussions for many years. Some believe they are a natural formation, but there are many who are sure that someone built them in the distant past to drain the lake. They base their arguments on research results, but there is a catch; the mysterious aqueduct should have appeared 150 thousand years ago. Traces of settlements around the mountain are not even older than 30 thousand years. So who could build metal pipes inside an uninhabited mountain?

There are three caves at the foot of Mount Baigongshan, two of them have already collapsed and are inaccessible, but the largest of them has since been the target of many tourists who come to the area.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

The cave looks like it was artificially created by someone. Visibility is enhanced by a massive pipe about forty centimeters in diameter that sticks out of the stone.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

Another apparently hollow pipe of the same diameter ran into the cave from the top of the mountain. Another one came from the bottom of the cave somewhere below.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

At the entrance to the cave, you can see several other pipes with a diameter of 10 to 40 cm. All this gives the impression of the remains of some ancient system or mechanism. About 80 meters from the cave, Lake Toson sparkles with a large number of scattered pipes on the beach.

Photo from open source
Photo: open sources

They stretch from east to west and have a diameter of 2 to 4.5 cm, these archaeological finds are described by the Chinese scientist Liu-Shaolin:

The unmistakable rust color indicates that they are made of metal. And their craftsmanship showcases advanced attachment techniques. Who could have built such a complex pipe system? Only one who knew well what he was doing and why.

The version that such an engineering miracle was created by the Chinese disappears immediately. The inhabitants of the Middle Kingdom could not build something like that 150 thousand years ago. As the authors of many amazing inventions, bureaucracy became one of them. Therefore, it is simply impossible to imagine that such a large-scale and, without exaggeration, a great construction project was reflected in any ancient Chinese source. Any emperor, during whose reign this happened, would make sure that his great deed was not forgotten by descendants.

Baigong tubes are another unsolved mystery in human history. This find once again refutes the facts of the official history. Where is the true and where is the misconception? Maybe there will be people among the readers who will logically explain the origin of the ancient aqueduct.

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