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Aliens & UFO's

Alien civilizations may have explored the galaxy and visited Earth already, a new study says. We just haven’t seen them recently.

The Milky Way could be teeming with interstellar alien civilizations — we just don’t know about it because they haven’t paid us a visit in 10 million years.

study published last month in The Astronomical Journal posits that intelligent extraterrestrial life could be taking its time to explore the galaxy, harnessing star systems’ movement to make star-hopping easier.

The work is a new response to a question known as the Fermi paradox, which asks why we haven’t detected signs of extraterrestrial intelligence.

The paradox was first posed by the physicist Enrico Fermi, who famously asked, “Where is everybody?”

Gaia mapping the stars of the Milky Way
The Gaia spacecraft maps the stars of the Milky Way. 

Fermi was questioning the feasibility of travel between stars, but since then his query has come to represent doubts about the very existence of extraterrestrials.

The astrophysicist Michael Hart explored the question formally when he argued in a 1975 paper that there had been plenty of time for intelligent life to colonize the Milky Way in the 13.6 billion years since the galaxy formed, yet we’d heard nothing from them. Hart concluded that there must be no other advanced civilizations in our galaxy.

The new study offers a different perspective on the question: Maybe aliens are just taking their time and being strategic, the authors suggest.

“If you don’t account for motion of stars when you try to solve this problem, you’re basically left with one of two solutions,” Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, a computational scientist and the study’s lead author, told Business Insider. “Either nobody leaves their planet, or we are in fact the only technological civilization in the galaxy.”

Stars (and the planets around them) orbit the center of the galaxy on different paths at different speeds, and as they do, they occasionally pass one another, Carroll-Nellenback pointed out. So aliens could be waiting for their next destination to come closer to them, his study says.

In that case, civilizations would take longer to spread across the stars than Hart estimated. So they may not have reached us yet ⁠— or maybe they did, long before humans evolved.

A new idea about interstellar travel

allen telescope array ata seti institute
Several antennas that are part of the Allen Telescope Array, radio telescopes that search for signals from alien life. 

Researchers have sought to answer the Fermi paradox in several ways. Studies have investigated the possibility that all alien life forms in oceans below a planet’s surface and have posited that civilizations might be undone by their unsustainability before accomplishing any interstellar travel. There’s also the “zoo hypothesis,” which imagines that Milky Way societies have decided not to contact us for the same reasons we have nature preserves or maintain protections for some uncontacted indigenous peoples.

2018 Oxford University study, meanwhile, suggested that there’s a roughly two-in-five chance that we’re alone in our galaxy and a one-in-three chance that we’re alone in the entire cosmos.

But the authors of the newest study said that previous research hasn’t accounted for a crucial fact of our galaxy: It moves. Just as planets orbit stars, star systems orbit the galactic center. Our solar system, for example, orbits the galaxy every 230 million years.

If civilizations arise in star systems far from the others (like our own, which is in the backwaters of the galaxy), they could make the trip shorter by waiting until their orbital path brings them closer to a habitable star system, the study said. Once they’re settled in that new system, the aliens could wait again for an optimal travel distance to make another hop, and so on.

proxima centauri nasa esa
Proxima Centauri, the closest star to our sun, is 4.25 light-years from Earth. 

In this scenario, aliens aren’t jet-setting across the galaxy — they’re just waiting long enough for their star to get close to another star with a habitable planet.

“If long enough is a billion years, well then that’s one solution to the Fermi paradox,” Carroll-Nellenback said. “Habitable worlds are so rare that you have to wait longer than any civilization is expected to last before another one comes in range.”

The Milky Way could be full of settled star systems

To explore the scenarios in which aliens could exist, the researchers used numerical models to simulate a civilization’s spread across the galaxy. They factored in a variety of possibilities for a hypothetical civilization’s proximity to new star systems, the range and speed of its interstellar probes, and the launch rate of those probes.

voyager spacecraft illustration nasa
An illustration of NASA’s Voyager spacecraft drifting through space. Voyager 2 launched in 1977 and reached interstellar space in 2018. 

The research team did not attempt to guess at aliens’ motivations or politics — a tendency that some astronomers view as a pitfall in other Fermi paradox solutions.

“We tried to come up with a model that would involve the fewest assumptions about sociology that we could,” Carroll-Nellenback said.

Still, part of the problem with modeling the galactic spread of alien civilizations is that we’re working with only one data point: ourselves. So all our predictions are based on our own behavior.

But even with this limitation, the researchers found that the Milky Way could be filled with settled star systems that we don’t know about. That still held true when they used conservative estimates of the speed and frequency of aliens’ interstellar travel.

“Every system could be habitable and could be settled, but they wouldn’t visit us because they’re not close enough,” Carroll-Nellenback said, though he added that just because that’s possible doesn’t make it likely.

exoplanets extrasolar earth like planets illustration spitzer_ssc2008 05a_2000
Earth-like planets have varying sizes and compositions. 

So far, we’ve detected about 4,000 planets outside our solar system, and none has been found to host life. But we haven’t looked that hard: There are at least 100 billion stars in the Milky Way, and even more planets. One recent study estimated that up to 10 billion of those planets could be Earth-like.

So the study’s authors wrote that concluding that none of those planets hold life would be like looking at a pool of ocean water and finding no dolphins, then deciding that the entire ocean has no dolphins.

Aliens may have visited Earth in the past

Another key element in debates about alien life is what Hart called “Fact A”: There are no interstellar visitors on Earth now, and there is no evidence of past visits.

But that doesn’t mean they were never here, the authors of the new study said.

roswell ufo protest 1995
A group of protesters march in front of the General Accounting Office in Washington, DC, on March 29, 1995, to raise awareness about the agency’s examination of documents about a weather-balloon crash in Roswell, New Mexico in 1947. The protesters believed the balloon was a crashed UFO. 

If an alien civilization came to Earth millions of years ago (the Earth is 4.5 billion years old), there might be no remaining signs of their visit, the authors wrote. They pointed to previous research suggesting that we may not be able to detect evidence of past alien visits.

It’s even possible that aliens have passed near Earth since we’ve been here, but decided not to visit. The paper called this the “Aurora effect,” named for Kim Stanley Robinson’s novel “Aurora.”

What’s more, aliens might not want to visit a planet that already has life, the authors said. To assume that they would, they added, would be a “naive projection” of a human tendency to equate expansion with conquest.

The study accounted for all these considerations — the calculations assumed that alien civilizations would settle only a fraction of the habitable worlds they encountered.

Still, the researchers said, if there are enough habitable worlds, aliens could easily have spread across the galaxy by now.

There’s still much more to learn

For now, the researchers don’t think we should get discouraged by any perceived silence from the universe.

“It doesn’t mean that we’re alone,” Carroll-Nellenback said. “It just means that habitable planets are probably rare and hard to get to.”

In the next few years, our ability to detect and observe other potentially habitable planets is expected to improve dramatically as new telescopes get built and launched into space.

James Webb telescope
The primary mirror of NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope consists of 18 hexagonal mirrors. 

The Kepler telescope made leaps and bounds in the search for planets that might host life in our galaxy. In Earth’s orbit today, the Hubble Space Telescope and Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite are continuing the search. NASA is also building the James Webb Space Telescope, which may be able to see as far through space and time as the Big Bang; it’s set to launch in 2021.

Of course, what would really improve scientists’ ability to estimate the probability that we’re alone in the universe would be more data on the speed or ranges of interstellar probes. A better sense of how long hypothetical alien civilizations last would be useful too.

“We’re in desperate need of some data points,” Carroll-Nellenback said.

Source www.businessinsider.com

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Aliens & UFO's

Ancient Astronomical Code Found on Alien Mountain in Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, a team of astrobiologists and exogeologists led by Dr. Aravinda Ravibhanu Sumanaratna, while examining the famous “mountain of aliens”, discovered forgotten and previously unknown ancient petroglyphs, which, according to researchers, are closely related to astronomy.

 Photo: CCF-Polonnaruwa / EASL
Photo: CCF-Polonnaruwa / EASL

Scientists have already published their report in a specialized journal entitled “Encoding on Mount Danigala in Sri Lanka”, and Ancient Origins briefly tells about the discovery.

In a letter to this publication, Dr. Sumanaratna of the South Asian Research Department of Astrobiology and Earth Sciences writes that his team was the first to discover petroglyphs associated with Neolithic humans in Sri Lanka.

The discovery was made in the caves of Mount Danigala, which is revered as a sacred site. In the world, it is better known as the “Alien Mountain”, since it was allegedly observed over it many times by UFOs. For scientists, this mountain is of great interest, since petroglyphs have been found in its depths before.

In the new study, the team describes both previously unknown petroglyphs and engravings found in the 19th century by British officer Fossett. However, scientists have forgotten about them for more than a century. The petroglyphs are located in Edakkal Cave on the western slope of the mountain. Overall, they are comparable to other similar archaeological sites in Sri Lanka.

Ancient authors engraved both geometric patterns and primitive images of people with weapons in their hands, animals and plants. The drawings are tentatively dated 5500-4500 BC. Scientists point out that this is the first time that “special types of symbols” were linked to each other.

They write that in the cave almost all the available space was covered with petroglyphs. The largest of them are 7.5 meters long and five meters high. Researchers believe that some randomly carved sets of geometric symbols are in fact an ancient “glue code” representing the “lost astronomical counting system.”

However, this is just a hypothesis, and it is possible that it was put forward to attract tourists to this region. Nevertheless, the work deserves attention if only because the petroglyphs of Mount Danigala are still poorly understood. Given the practice of other ancient peoples around the world, some of these images may indeed have astronomical connotations.

Note that there is still debate in the scientific community regarding the period of settlement of Sri Lanka. Recent discoveries indicate that humans may have arrived here about 300,000 years ago. Some believe that this could have happened 500 thousand years ago. However, the age of the oldest human site found near the Danigala Mountain is about 125 thousand years.

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Aliens & UFO's

David Fravor, a Former US military pilot spoke about the encounter with a UFO

Former US Navy fighter pilot David Fravor said he saw a UFO in 2004. He told Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researcher Lex Friedman what a flying object looks like.

Fravor stated that he and his colleagues saw an object resembling a tick-tock shape on a clear day. Then they carried out a monitoring mission in the region, where they had previously recorded anomalies.

“I saw lights in the sky and they went out,” the pilot said. The words of the ex-military were broadcast by Fox News.

When the military tried to catch up with the alleged UFO, it disappeared. According to the former pilot, the object was behaving aggressively. It disappeared, changed altitude and blocked the radar.

“This is technically an act of aggression,” added Fravor.

Earlier, the US Department of Defense created a working group to investigate unidentified flying objects. The Pentagon has repeatedly reported that it has spotted UFOs. For example, in April 2020, the agency published several videos showing small drones moving at a fairly high speed.

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Aliens & UFO's

Prince of Liechtenstein: How one of the richest rulers in the world launches millions to search for UFOs

Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein. Keystone / Gian Ehrenzeller

The Prince of Liechtenstein is considered one of the richest rulers in the world. His family’s fortune exceeds $ 7.6 billion, and his personal fortune is $ 4 billion. And this despite the fact that during the Second World War, his relatives lost almost 90 percent of their possessions around the world. 

The monarch tries to live modestly and help his subjects: he repairs roads at his own expense and annually opens the doors of his castle, inviting people to breakfast. He also spends hundreds of thousands of dollars on UFO research. 

Prince-winemaker

“The prince of Liechtenstein, Hans-Adam II, lives in a castle located on a rock in the Alpine principality. This castle bears his name. 38 thousand subjects call the monarch “Your Grace”, he owns a collection of masterpieces of the Renaissance, he owns two palaces in Vienna. According to the Bloomberg Billionaire Index , he is included in the list of the 500 richest people in the world,” Bloomberg describes the European ruler.

The princely family of one of the smallest states in Europe is truly fabulously rich. The ruling dynasty owns the private bank LGT Group, founded in 1920, and other types of business: agricultural and forestry in Lower Austria and Styria, energy and wine. Hans-Adam is personally involved in winemaking, however, his vineyard is quite small – only four hectares, where on average about 10 thousand liters of wine are produced per year.

Ballroom of 165 square meters at the Royal City Palace in Vienna
Ballroom of 165 square meters at the Royal City Palace in Vienna
Photo: LIECHTENSTEIN. 
The Princely Collections, Vaduz – Vienna

In addition, the ruling dynasty has a lot of real estate. The exact number of castles and residences is carefully hidden from the public, but only according to official data, the prince and his family have at least ten castles and palaces. Some of them are home to members of the princely family, others are used as museums.

The most beloved are Vaduz Castle in Liechtenstein, two palaces in Vienna – Garden Palace and City Palace, a family museum in Lower Austria, six more castles scattered throughout Austria, as well as 76 acres of land in Texas. And this is taking into account the fact that after the Second World War the prince’s family lost almost 90 percent of the possessions – 54 castles outside the principality, in the Czech Republic and Austria.

The princely family has learned to extract money from everything that it touches: the monarch and his relatives rent out their Viennese palaces. For several hundred thousand euros, everyone can rent a luxurious room for a reception, wedding or concert

Most of the time, the prince and his wife spend at the Vaduz Castle, where they occupy the eastern wing. On the outside, this medieval building may seem rather gloomy, but inside it is very comfortable. Here, antiquity peacefully coexists with modernity: beautiful elevators – with spiral staircases, large rooms with air conditioning and Wi-Fi are decorated with tapestries and paintings of the 17th-18th centuries. The cellars are meticulously stocked with cupboards and dishes with Chinese painting, a collection of ancient weapons and armor. The prince said more than once that most of all he loves the picturesque view from the window – of the Alps and the Rhine.

Modesty Above All

The Prince of Liechtenstein was born in Zurich, Switzerland, and attended primary school in the Liechtenstein capital Vaduz. After graduating from the Higher Economic Gymnasium, he worked as a clerk in one of the London banks, the name of which is still carefully hidden. After the internship, the prince went to Switzerland, where he entered the commercial university at the faculty of business and economics.

The knowledge gained was very useful to him later. The prince’s family fortune exceeds $ 7.6 billion, and his personal fortune is $ 4 billion, which makes him one of the richest heads of state in the world. In addition, Hans-Adam owns a huge collection of works of art on display at the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna. The collection began to collect the ancestors of Hans-Adam back in the 17th century, now it contains more than a thousand works of great artists such as Rubens and Van Dyck, Rembrandt and Bruegel.

Prince of Liechtenstein Hans-Adam II and his wife Maria at the celebration of the 300th anniversary of Liechtenstein at Vaduz Castle
Prince of Liechtenstein Hans-Adam II and his wife Maria at the celebration of the 300th anniversary of Liechtenstein at Vaduz Castle

This collection is one of the largest in the world, second only to the collection of the British Windsors. The prince speaks about this rather evasively: “Somewhere we have an advantage, somewhere they have. It is very difficult to judge whose collection is more expensive. For me, these are just assets that should generate income. I myself prefer contemporary art. “

Despite the huge fortune, representatives of the princely family do not boast of wealth, trying to live modestly. Thus, the wife of Hans-Adam II, Princess Maria Kinski, herself looks after the garden in the main castle.

There is no Bentley, Bugatti, Maserati, Ferrari or even Rolls-Royce in the princely garage. All family members drive regular Audi without chauffeurs

In addition, Hans-Adam II and his wife raised their children on their own, without teachers and governesses. True, they always had a housekeeper and a nanny who took care of the children when their parents were away. Three sons and a daughter of the princely couple went to an ordinary school in Liechtenstein.

Hans-Adam II married his cousin, Countess Maria Kinski von Whinitz und Tettau, while still a student. Subsequently, the prince claimed that he fell in love with his future wife at first sight, as soon as she entered the room, and from the first minute he knew that they would get married. Marie did not pay attention to the crown prince, because he was five years younger than her. Moreover, then she was in love with another.

Wedding of Hans-Adam II and Maria Kinski von Wchinitz und Tettau
Wedding of Hans-Adam II and Maria Kinski von Wchinitz und Tettau
Photo: Werner Pfändler / RDB / ullstein bild via Getty Image

But the future prince did not give up, and his persistence was rewarded: Marie’s relatives gave permission for their marriage. The wedding ceremony in July 1967 attracted the attention of all of Europe.

Marie ordered a dress from a Parisian couturier – in the Empire style, made of white silk, with embroidery from pearls and beads. Her head was adorned with the Fringe tiara belonging to the Habsburg family. Among the guests are emperors, queens, princes and princesses, representatives of ancient German-speaking nobles. For the subjects of Liechtenstein, the tables were set right on the street – and they were bursting with various dishes. The tradition of treating residents, and there are about 32 thousand of them in the country, has survived to this day. Once a year, Vaduz Castle opens its doors for everyone to have breakfast with the prince. This is how Liechtenstein’s National Day is celebrated.

To rest

As a member of the aristocracy, Hans-Adam constantly emphasizes that he is very close to his people. Among his entourage, they say that the monarch loves to run barefoot in the forest, goes downhill skiing, diving, is interested in archeology and loves science fiction.

The Franco-American ufologist Jacques Vallee published three volumes of diaries called Forbidden Science. In them, he told about a meeting with Hans-Adam II and his family at Vaduz Castle in November 1989. “We dined in a small living room with his wife, sister and two children. Until late at night we discussed UFOs and other paranormal phenomena, ”the scientist recalled.

According to Vallee, the monarch was convinced for many decades that aliens were visiting Earth, so he sponsored international UFO research for many years, spending millions of dollars on it.

The prince told the ufologist that he saw a UFO in childhood, and also that his aunt saw the UFO in Munich in the 1950s. Most of the money was received by American researchers. So, the ruler laid out 200 thousand dollars for a study called “How many Americans were abducted by aliens.”

Facade of Garden Palace
Facade of Garden Palace
Photo: LIECHTENSTEIN. 
The Princely Collections, Vaduz – Vienna

According to the constitution, the prince is the head of state, he represents Liechtenstein abroad and has the right to pardon, his signature is necessary for the entry into force of laws adopted by parliament. In addition, financially, he is independent from the state – he lives on his own funds, and all roads of the principality are repaired on them. Hans-Adam II tried to expand his princely powers, receiving the full support of the population – however, the parliament still retains basic rights.

Officially, Hans-Adam II is still considered the ruling monarch, but he actually retired from business, transferring the day-to-day administration of the state to his son, Crown Prince Alois. He explained his decision as follows: he and his wife usually did not make large state visits, limiting themselves to only modest trips to Switzerland and Austria, but now is the time to see the world.

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