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A Small Contribution to a Big Discussion: The Legend of Atlantis and Pre-Columbian Voyages to the Western Hemisphere

This is not one of my more “romantic” posts, so forewarned. I don’t find evidence for a supercivilization pre-dating our well-known ancient histories, even though I do believe that the Legend of Atlantis had some basis in fact. What I have to say here is largely repetitive for those who have made a study of this area, but maybe there are some minor additions to the discussion even there. In a oddly curved way, the idea for this post came from my re-noticing a smallish artifact from my collection. It is pictured above with a coin-stamp for sizing, and I’ll mention it’s small role later. [It’s a piece of thin beaten copper from PreColumbian Peru.]

Almost anything that we could honestly claim to know about the idea of “Atlantis” comes from the almost-as-legendary Athenian statesman and diplomat, Solon [from whom our current politicians could learn a lot]. Plato tells us that he, through a non-linear but reasonable way, got his information about Atlantis ultimately from Solon, and if we can’t believe that, we can’t get anywhere at all on this subject. But for me, it’s an easily believable statement. Plato’s Timaeus and Critiasare therefore the primary documents for the concept of Atlantis.

Despite being probably the best statesman Athens ever had, Solon was under some political stress at a later time in his life, and decided to retire, sort of. He then did what many influential Greeks might do: take a trip to the city which would become “Alexandria” in Egypt. This was the centerpiece of Egyptian commerce with other nations, and well-known to many persons such as Greeks, Phoenecians, Hittites, Israelites, et al. It was also a center of religion and of knowledge, even before the much later atrocity of the burning of the Alexandrian Library.
It was here that Solon says that he learned of the old story of Atlantis from Egyptian priest-scholars in that dynamic city. We can imagine that as a powerful visiting dignitary, and a potentially valuable close ally, Solon’s visit was not “pure pleasure” and rather more serious discussions about Athens and Egypt took place [particularly as there were states very aggressive and dangerous to both in the region].
Solon says that he was told that there was a time long ago when the Athenians and the Egyptians fought side-by-side against a mighty foe. They were “brothers-in-war” and rightly should be so “today”. That mighty foe was dimmed in the mist of time, but many facts were allegedly still on record in the Egyptian library. It was an island power “beyond the Pillars of Hercules”, whose ships threatened all seafarers. Its chief cities were described and some of its culture. It was destroyed by a great cataclysm, sinking beneath the sea.
And all that we know, and in honesty that’s about it period.

But Atlantis is a great concept, so persons of all stripes have tried to elaborate on it. There are two great clumps of theory types which have evolved: the ones based on Trance Mediumship and the ones based on Archaeology. If anyone wants to buy into any of the trance medium-based concepts, that is their right. I’d consider it, but I find exactly Zero supporting evidence for anything that any of these people have said. The fact that every one of these theories requires that entire high tech civilizations have disappeared from the planet leaving no tangible traces, nor any other method of substantiating credible information, leaves me decidedly unwilling to walk Out Proctor on this trail.
The Archaeological Band of theories though are different. They all have at least some connectivity to other investigatible facts, and take conscious concern with facts already established by serious research and scholarship. Of these theories, the one which has from its beginning intrigued me the most is the idea that the monstrous explosion of the Volcano of Thera was centrally involved with the legend. This is and has been a rich hypothesis to explore, and, in my opinion, has still much to offer in spite of the intense attacks it has received.

You know the basis for the idea. Crete was the powerful sea-going force in the Mediterranean for the period c.2500-1400BC and therefore must have been a formidable naval foe for Egypt and any other power. The Greeks were “nothings” in this era, especially as regards sea travel. Cnossus on Crete was the center of the culture, but the island to the north, Thera, was a wealthy second focus of strength. It unfortunately was also on the extrusion of a very large volcano. Sometime during the 1400-1300BC period or thereabouts [it’s a lot tougher than one thinks to nail these dates down any tighter], the big volcano shook and blew. It not only blew but it blew factors more violently than things like Krakatoa. Mt. St. Helens was a mere firecracker. Thera of course was wiped out. A huge tidal wave would have rushed outwards. As the caldera collapsed, the inrush was followed by a jerking back of the waters, and then the counteraction of a second rebound tidal wave. Estimations exist in the literature of 600 foot tidal waves bearing down on the northern coast of Crete.

All manner of objections to this theory immediately let fly. “The date is wrong”— to me pretty small change. Exaggerating “legends” by factors of ten or other magical numbers is common in giving something a more legendary status. “Thera didn’t blow in 1500BC” — who cares? The Minoan civilization existed as a power then, and Thera blew sometime in the “same distant past” thereafter. “Thera didn’t end the power of the Sea Kings” [in other words the Minoan civilization didn’t drop like a shot just due to this catastrophe]. I’m always amused by this argument. Certainly no one would deny that the volcano took out the number two Minoan city rather completely. And how does one argue that this sort of blow doesn’t weaken you? No one seriously thinks that 600′ tidal waves bearing down on your northern coast [where many of your ports exist], is going to be a benign economic experience. AND, and this is always conveniently left out of the argument, the ashfall from Thera should have been horrendous on Crete, and agriculture should have taken a longterm blow of big proportions. “Sudden Death”? No. Seriously weakened condition? You bet.
Lots of other stuff has been floated to oppose the Theran Solution to the origins of the Atlantis legend. To me none of them really stand unless one pretends to literal obsessiveness about a tale told Solon about something that happened nine centuries earlier than the telling.

I choose to believe the following: a]. The Egyptians had a foe who lived on an island in the Sea, they knew not where. That foe mysteriously weakened and ultimately disappeared in the wake of several colossal events. It was reported that this catastrophe completed destroyed an island leaving nothing but a sea of thick mud. This legend was maintained in memory by the Egyptian priests [along with countless other pieces of knowledge which became the Library of Alexandria] for the intermediate centuries between those times and the visit of Solon. b]. The Greeks too had a cultural legend of a mighty sea power “beyond the Pillars of Hercules” which disappeared in a huge catastrophe which destroyed much of the coast facing the east and southeast. Their more primitive Mycenaean sailors may have discovered the sea of mud just beyond the Pillars. c]. The two legends were ripe to rejoin for a political reason.
But what of this “Pillars of Hercules” business? Everyone knows that the Pillars of Hercules are the lands on each side of the Strait of Gibraltar. Well, no. The Pillars of Hercules were the Greek way of symbolizing the Edge of the Known World. In Solon/Plato’s time they WERE at the Straits of Gibraltar. But c.1000BC they were at the Straits of Messina, between Italy and Sicily, according to our best reading of old myths. And back in Minoan times, the much less seaworthy Mycenaeans would have viewed the Pillars as islands just to the southeast of the mainland. And what would be the first land just beyond those Pillars? Thera.

So what else makes this make any sense? This guy — Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II. He was pharaoh just at the time of Solon. And he SHOULD be pictured on his knees as he was a weak one. Faced with major threats to Egypt from the near-eastern powers, Necho decided to take a page out of the books of past Pharaohs and put on some sort of spectacular display to make a show of power and revitalize the Egyptian psyche. He tried a couple of gimmicks which didn’t work. Desperate for a success, he decided to order his navy to circumnavigate Africa. With a lot of help from Phoenecian sailors, they did.

Stick-in-the-mud historians have doubted that the Egyptians pulled this off. To that I laugh. I believe that in every instance that I’ve come across where there has been doubt about humans’ abilities to pull something off, the doubters have been proven wrong. We have many flaws, but we are awfully brave, tenacious, and clever. Necho’s naval commander and his Phoenecians circumnavigated Africa, you can count on it. Why so confident? Necho was desperate for a “winner”. He and his admiral already knew it could be done. Heck, his “phoenecians”[probable heirs to the knowledge of the old Sea kings anyway] had probably done it already themselves and had maps.

So the Egyptians went ’round Africa, so what? I believe that this is just the most public of the “trips” that Egyptian explorers made around and through Africa over years and centuries. They would have known about peoples, about legends, about mines and various items of produce and trade. They might well have seeded some colonies here and there. This is easily within their abilities and time available.

Did they? There are wisps of smoke indicating this all over the place. Even in Egyptian painting itself there are all sorts of indications of depth knowledge of Sub-Saharan [“Black”] Africa. It wasn’t all just “Nubians”. There are signs in some still-existing legends of ideas of stories harking back to ancient Egypt in 20th century West African legends. Lots of smoke — a raging fire in my opinion.

Far down the East African coast in what is modern Zimbabwe, there are areas of very old rock paintings. One which has particularly intrigued archaeologists is “The White Lady” [lower of the two pictures]. Analysts of this painting see it as of strong Egyptian influence, and maybe of a Mediterranean type person.
I ran into something which supports at least some of this. I was writing a cryptozoological paper trying to identify the animal represented in the god Set, when Richard Greenwell challenged me that Set was only a Giraffe. That was preposterous, and to this day I believe that Richard was only teasing me to get me to write more about the archaeo-and-biological side of my publication. It was good that he did, because I found, down near the White Lady, other paintings which appear to show “Set Masks” with Egyptian-style wigs associated with the representation. For our purposes, it is a near certainty that loads of strong Egyptian influence existed so far down the east side of the continent, that it is a mere whimsy for a sailor to decide to round the Cape of Good Hope.

And then? They’d keep going and circumnavigate Africa. Or would it be that straightforward?
As you can see from the upper map, Atlantis has been located about anywhere you’d care to throw a dart. What I think is very likely is that some of these early Africa continental sailors DID think that they found Atlantis [or what was left of it], and THAT IT WAS THE SARGASSO SEA.

I noticed something a while ago on maps of the sea. When coming up the west coast of Africa, there are currents which try to shear you off course towards South America. You might find yourself landed on the northeast coast of Brazil, or sailing along the northern edge of South America, or trying to get back east and home, and running into the Atlantic Gyre which is the Sargasso Sea. And what would one find there? A creepy dead zone of floating debris miles and miles wide. How could it possibly be? What catastrophe could have resulted in this? Hmmmm… Where is this place? Hmmmm…. Beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
Necho’s expedition had just returned to the same Egyptian port which Solon was visiting only months or so earlier. The information from the circumnavigation was no doubt the talk of the town. It doesn’t make any difference whether Necho’s expedition went off-course or not; the point would be that as Solon arrived, all the past information about “what was out there” would be currently active in the consciousness of the priests and the Egyptian statesmen. Necho needed allies. Here was Solon. Let’s tell him how we fought together against the power beyond the Pillars. Solon probably liked the idea whether he believed it or not. It served a purpose.

I find it intriguing, to say the least, that ancient-looking Amphoras have been found off the eastern coast of Brazil. “They surely shouldn’t be there”. Shouldn’t they? [The picture above was from one of Ivan’s dump piles that he never got around to filing, but seemed on the road to doing so. Ivan would be interested in such things since he believed that the “Copan Elephant” was real, and his theory was that it had been a shipborn import from Eastern Africa by way of West Africa].

Again, the smoke surrounding Pre-Columbian visits from ancient civilizations is thick. The distinctively non-Amerindian bearded guy on the cup is just one pottery representative. The cloth weaver fellow’s views remind me that the Smithsonian was so impressed with an analogous analysis of pottery designs that it set up a large exhibit touting proof that Chinese sailors had visited the Pacific side of Latin America in ancient times. If one dumps the “Atlantis” add-on from the weaver’s analysis above, and goes directly with Egypt, you have a perfect twin of an idea.

So, now trivially, back to my own little artifact way up there at the start of this post. What’s its story? Maybe not much, but…. far back in time, cultures were trying to figure out the concept of money. Pure barter is nice for community interaction, but a perfectly horrible way to try to run a diverse economy. One badly needs a “commonly accepted unit of exchange”. Ultimately: “money”. The thing above was an early try from the eastern Mediterranean. It is a copper ingot [pretty thick and heavy] meant to symbolize the hide of an ox — and on faith be acceptable/tradable as if an ox-worth of value. Hides of all kinds tended to have this similar shape, the extensions a reminder of the animal’s legs.
This sort of representation in copper was also allegedly an early attempt at money in Egypt. Way up top is my artifact. It IS copper and it could be viewed as pounded into something like a hide shape. The people who allegedly know these things say that it IS supposed to represent some form of the “copper hide” style of money [though it would have to either be “small change” or a culture at a more advanced stage of the money concept, where things are miniaturized to make commerce less a weightlifting event]. So, the point? If my artifact IS a hide-type pre-currency, the fact that it comes from Peru makes things interesting. From whom did these guys get the idea, not just of a trading unit but of this specific idea of a trading unit? Maybe nothing. Maybe something.

Just for fun: a last Romance.
This is another artifact in my collection. It’s a particularly crumby one — note the terribly malformed lip of the cup and the ragged base — an unfinished dud.
This cup comes from Crete at roughly the time of Thera’s big blow.
Here is our honorable hard-working potter beginning a new cup. Suddenly horrendous thunderings and shakings occur, throwing him and his work to the floor. When he comes to his senses, he runs from his shop. Sometime later he sweeps the debris aside into a spoils pile. Centuries later, an archaeologist thinks that he’s found treasure….
well, maybe he did.

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Ancient

The Hopi legend of the ‘flying shields’

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‘Hopituh Shi-nu-mu’ is the name that one of the Native American tribes is called and means “peaceful people.” The history of the ancient Hopi goes back thousands of years and makes them one of the oldest cultures in the world.

Unlike other mythologies of different cultures which speak of gods that descended from the heavens, in the ancient legends of the Hopi, a different story is told, speaking of mighty gods who reside in the center of the Earth.
But who were they? In a similar way, nearly all pre-Columbian cultures just like the Hopi believe that one day, not too far away, the gods who have shaped human culture will come back to Earth.

They have always lived according to the teachings that were given to them by Masauwu, the Master of the Fourth World, where ethical concepts are deeply rooted in their culture.

Einstein with Hopi, early 20th Century.

Einstein with Hopi, early 20th Century

However, contrary to many other mythologies that are widespread around thew globe, the Hopi believe that their gods do not live in the infinite spaces of the cosmos, but live in the heart of the Earth, conveying the idea of a hollow earth existing right below our feet.

The Hopi speak of “Flying Shields” that flew over the sky. They were run by deities and attacked cities in ancient times.

This legend of the Hopi of the “Flying Shields” has been narrated since the ancient times of America. In the remote past they observed a strange futuristic technology, with a type of circular aircraft that moved through the sky and were driven by beings called Kachina.

Hopi masks

Left: Hopi ceramic. Right: Hopi illustration about a female deity. Credit: Anagoria / Wikimedia commons / Internet Archive Book / Flickr..

The Hopi are a Native American tribe descendants of the so-called Old Town that lived in the southwestern United States. Its history is very old, more than 3,000 years old.

The Hopi, the Flying Shields and their deities

Left: Hopi ceramic. Right: Hopi illustration about a female deity. Credit: Anagoria / Wikimedia commons / Internet Archive Book / Flickr..

According to the mythology of the Hopi, at the beginning of time, Taoiwa, the Creator, created Sotuknang, his nephew, giving him the task of creating nine universes or worlds: one for Taiowa, one for him and the other seven for the overabundance of life. In a cyclical conception of time, in a similar way to Aztec mythology, these worlds would continue cyclically.

The mythology tells that story that the first three worlds, Tokpela, Tokpa, and Kuskurza have already been inhabited and subsequently destroyed due to corruption and wickedness of men. The Hopi speak that the end of each cycle is marked by the return of the gods, and announced by the appearance of the Blue Kachina Star the sign of the ‘Day of Purification,” in which the old world is destroyed, and a new one begins.

Each time one of the worlds is destroyed, the Hopi, the faithful are saved and taken by the gods to the underground cities to escape the destruction of the planet.

In each cyclic destruction, and always according to the mythology of the Hopi, the ‘ant-men’ are crucial for human survival.

Hopi Ant-Men

The so-called ‘First World’ (Tokpela) was apparently destroyed by the fire of global proportions, perhaps a kind of massive volcanism, or the impact of an asteroid or even a large coronal mass ejection from the Sun of catastrophic proportions.

The ‘Second World’ (Tokpa), however, was destroyed by the cold. Most likely due to a pole shift that caused a massive ice age that destroyed life on the planet.

Interestingly, in the course of these two global cataclysms, the members of the Hopi tribe were guided during the day by a cloud of strange shape and a moving star overnight, leading to the presence of the so-called ‘Ant-Man’ which the Hopi call Anu Sinom.

This creature escorted the Hopi to underground caves where they found shelter and sustenance.

Interestingly, in the ancient Sumerian language, Anum or Anu was the god of the gods. He is the creator of creation.

In the Hopi legend, the mysterious creature that resembled a humanoid-ant is described as a generous and hardworking creature, willing to provide food to the Hopi, and to teach them methods of food preservation so they could survive.

As you can see, like many cultures around the globe, the ancient Hopi believed in the existence of subterranean chambers, cities which are eerily similar to other theories of the Hollow Earth. The Ancient Hopi also mention the mysterious ant-men gods who helped the ancient Hopi progress through time. However, the ancient Hopi also speak of the patuwvotas or ancient ‘flying shields.’

The tribe claim that we now live in the Fourth World after the previous three were destroyed by fire and ice

According to Frank Waters, author of Mystic Mexico: The advent of the Sixth World of Consciousness (1975) it is in the ‘third world’ where the ancient Hopi introduce the concept of the Patuwvotas, or “flying shields’.

In Frank Waters’s writings on Hopi mythology, the Blue Star Kachina or Saquasohuh, is a kachina or spirit, that will signify the coming of the beginning of the new world by appearing in the form of a blue star.

In the third cycle, it is said that humanity built a very advanced civilization, and developed the concept of “flying shields,” a sort of vehicle that can quickly travel to different places in the world and devastate entire cities on Earth. The Third World was destroyed by Sotuknang, the nephew of the Creator, with a great flood.

Also, in this case, there is a clear parallel with the Sumerian tradition in which we talk about the great flood that destroyed all previous civilization on the planet. This story is told in the Epic of Gilgamesh, a text which was then taken to biblical tradition in the history of the Flood and Noah’s Ark.

Sotuknang appeared to them and showed them as the last of the Third World sank into the ocean

According to the traditions of the Hopi, the survivors of the flood are scattered in different parts of the world, under the guidance of Masauwu, the Spirit of Death and the Master of the Fourth World. A fascinating petroglyph of the Hopi is that where Masauwu is represented piloting a wingless boat that has the shape of a dome. The similarity between the “flying shields” and what we today consider as airplanes or flying saucers, is mind boggling.

It seems evident that the flying shields or ‘ships without wings’ are something ancient cultures around the globe witnessed in the distant past. The ancient Hopi used the term to refer to something that was capable of flying through the skies and transporting people.

The Hopi described their deities as intraterrestrials , which ascended from within the Earth. They called them Ant People, and their imagery reminds a lot of the gray aliens of today.

aliens petroglyph 2

Hopi alien look like petroglyphs

This American tribe exposes the existence of a series of time cycles in the world. In the third cycle it is when they report the presence of the “Flying Shields” ( patuwvotas ) . It is the Third World called Kuskurza , in Hopi language.

That Third World was very advanced , even with what appears to be futuristic technology and ancient astronauts. The Flying Shields were an armament that floated in the sky, capable of attacking cities from long distances and moving in an extremely fast way .

Hopi Petroglyph . Courtesy: Jedi Simon.

Those who handled the shields were spirits called Kachina , so-called mediators between gods and humans. The flying objects emitted an overwhelming sound : “a thunderous sound (and) a sibilant noise like that of the wind passing through a narrow place …” .

There is an amazing similarity between these artifacts and the flying saucers described by ufology or any other type of stealth military aircraft. That is why this American mythology is part of the folklore of ancient astronauts.

A flood and the destruction of the Third World

The Third World was a period of prosperity and advanced ancient technology , but it came to an end from a deluge generated by the gods.

Credit: tombud / Pixabay.

According to the series Native American Wisdom , “Hopi, following the path of peace” , the god Sotuknang told the beginning of the Fourth World :

Look, I have razed even the traces of its Emergence; The steps I left for you. At the bottom of the seas are all the proud cities, the flying patuwvotas (shields) and the worldly treasures corrupted by evil, and those who found no time to sing the praises of the Creator from the top of their hills. But the day will come, if you keep the memory and the meaning of your Emergence, when these steps will emerge again to prove the truth that you expose ».

During the flood, the red city of Palatkwapi was destroyed . Tiwahongva and his sister Tawiayisnima had been abandoned, and, while camping, they heard a roar. It was Sotuknang, who descended from the sky boarding his paatuwvota (Flying Shield).

Kachina traditional statue. Courtesy: History Disclosure.

God wore a suit that shone like ice and had a twinkling face. The brothers ascended the shield with the god , flying high above the heights. Finally, Sotuknang left them in the village where their parents had settled after the flood.

This legend of the Hopi amazes by the appearance of deities or even ancient astronauts who used a futuristic ancient technology. This tribe thinks that, even today, the Kachina still travel the Earth in Flying Shields! .

References: Ancient-Origins / HistoryDisclosure

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Ancient

Is Djoser’s pyramid the first pyramid in Egypt?

The pyramid of Pharaoh Djoser is located in Sahara and today is the oldest pyramid on the entire planet. Its value is difficult to exaggerate; it is a vivid example of how people studied architectural craft. The pyramid, as his tomb, was ordered to be built by the pharaoh Djoser, and the high priest of the temple of worship of the sun god Ra – Imhotep took up this difficult task. It was he who developed the drawings, which represented a tomb in a new form, like none of the pharaohs had before.

It is also interesting that Imhotep himself later became more popular among the Egyptians than his ruler, and the people of Egypt elevated the saints to him: Imhotep was called the god of construction and medicine. Be that as it may, the fact that this pyramid has survived to this day is already a great miracle. Initially, there was a small town around it, in which there was also a temple for the worship of the Pharaoh, two large apartment buildings, a special hall that led to the tomb with columns and ordinary farmhouses for cattle and camels. Only the pyramid has survived to this day. Its size is 62 meters in height and an area of ​​125 by 115 meters. It was the Djoser pyramid that was taken as the basis for the construction of all the other Egyptian pyramids and even the construction of the great Sphinx.

This design was completely innovative for its time. Inside the pyramid itself there were 11 full premises, which, apparently, were intended for all members of the pharaoh’s family. On the walls of the rooms were drawings that reflected the external arrangement of the city, from which it became known about the rest of the premises. The pharaoh himself was buried at a depth of 27 meters under the pyramid, in a special capsule. After everyone recognized Djoser’s pyramid, where it is located and by whom it was created, bad rumors circulated around Egypt.

The thing is that during his life, Pharaoh Djoser, in addition to his main tomb, gave the task to Imhotep to build a second burial ground, only more modest and inconspicuous. Perhaps the first was to avert eyes, since the ruler knew how often such places were robbed and the rest of the dead was disturbed. Whatever it was, when it was precisely Djoser who our contemporaries tried to find in his grave after the discovery of this treasury, they did not find anything there. Among the numerous internal corridors, only one mummified arm was found. Who it belongs to is still unknown. Until now, no one has found the body of the pharaoh, nor the remains or the burial place of his priest and the first architect in the history of mankind.

The main builder, or as he was called in Egypt “the one who looks at the Supreme God”, was later elevated to the rank of the same deities. And all due to the fact that during his life, Imhotep was a bit of a shadow and the right hand of his pharaoh. It is worth being frank, Djoser during his rule did not distinguish himself by anything special and went down in history only thanks to his tomb, as well as to the man to whom he once gave the order to build it. An interesting fact is that when excavating this miracle, it was revealed that various mystical rituals were often performed in the temple, which, in general, was logical enough for that time. The ibis birds, which were the symbol of Sahara, were found here in the form of mummies. Imhotep thought for a long time how to please his master and decided that his soul after burial should have a way to heaven, in the form of convenient steps. That is why the second name of this tomb is “stepped”.

Today, archaeologists can only guess about the approximate age of this building. Quite common figures tell us that all the above action took place around 2600 BC. Why was such a huge and expensive complex of buildings chosen, given that all the rulers before Djoser were not compared to this? And all simply because in this way the ordinary people were frightened, who continually loved to rebel and argue about a way of life. Therefore, Vladyka wanted to show all his strength, power, and most importantly, his belonging to the world of Gods and higher beings. Also important is the fact that the pyramid was conceived as a place for diverting eyes before the true burials of both the pharaohs and all their wealth. Yes, the wives, children and close relatives of the head of state were buried here, but without pomp and so many honors as the main ruler. That is why many of the robbers who encroached on Joser’s retirement found nothing but mummified corpses. Many were simply afraid to go in there, not to mention stealing something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose his peace life and get stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Be that as it may, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved. in order to steal something because of the legend that Imhotep was a priest and a witcher, and built such a non-standard structure with the calculation of magic and witchcraft: everyone who violates the peace of his pharaoh will lose peace during his life and will be stuck in these stone walls forever. Whatever it was, but all these tricks worked wonderfully, as evidenced by the well-preserved stone step beauty, which is still well preserved.

The stepped pyramid of Djoser is the burial place of one of the Egyptian pharaohs and his entire family. This is the very first construction of the tomb in the form of a pyramid and the ancestor of this method is Djoser himself and his priest Imhotep. By the way, the latter, with time, also became (or even more) popular than its ruler. At the entrance to the pyramid itself there is a stone at the foot, which testifies to all the dignities and ranks of the world’s first architect. During the reign of Djoser, Imhotep became the keeper of the upper seal, the divider of land and harvest, the main priest of the god Ra, the adviser and the right hand of the ruler. After his death in Egypt, they created a temple to worship his spirit and a school for teaching all his wisdom. On the walls of the pyramid inside, amazing frescoes are preserved that tell the story of the reign of the pharaoh, all the members of his dynasty and his deeds. For example, it was from such wall inscriptions that it became known that Joser connected Upper and Lower Egypt and came up with a way for his soul to move to heaven after death. That is how the architect and builder Imhotep embodied his request. Subsequently, the followers built all the other tombs in the manner and likeness of the first.

Pharaoh Djoser’s pyramid – a brilliant idea or an accident?

The first idea, according to scientists, was to build a rectangular cube, which would have inside the halls and labyrinths, through which the soul would rise to heaven. But it was the first architect who had the idea to incline all the walls to a single center, in order to simplify the task of the pharaoh’s spirit. The first dimensions of the building were grandiose – more than 60 meters in height and an area of ​​125 × 115 meters. Over time and the impact of a huge number of natural factors – the area of ​​the pyramid has significantly decreased, but the base still survived to this day. The height is less than 1 meter, the area is 121×109. Yes, and it is not so important. We could not find what was left if the high priest was not so adventurous: he was the first in the history of mankind who came up with the use of not typical raw materials and bricks from it, but heavy stone blocks. One can only guess? how did the Egyptians pile these boulders one upon another? Whatever it was, but this building can safely be reckoned one of the very first, architectural, man-made wonders of the world. It is also worth noting that the place for construction was chosen excellent: the view from the pyramid complex opens to Memphis and the entire site is heated under the sun of the colorful plateau.

Djoser’s step pyramid in Sahara, its myths and riddles

The Djoser Pyramid, the photo of which can easily be found on the net, like other attractions in Egypt, has a lot of mysteries. The most important incomprehensible fact is the mystery of the disappearance of the body of the pharaoh himself. According to the structure of the pyramid, the capsule with the mummy was supposed to be under the center of the structure at a depth of about 30 meters. But the place for the capsule was empty during the opening of the treasury. In addition, numerous strange objects for sacrificial rites were found on the territory of the complex and on the ruins of other structures near a tomb. And everything was mystical: the location of the temple for worship of Pharaoh, as God, and the intricate corridors that the conservative Imhotep simply could not plan. The history of Sahara as a region also tells that at the location of the tomb once stood the temple of worship of the god Pta – the main god of Memphis. Given the reverent attitude of the Egyptians to their religion, and even more so to their shrines, it is strange where and why the temple disappeared, and whether Djoser himself was involved in this.

Another important fact is the beginning of a seven-year drought in Egypt, which was accompanied by the start of the tomb structure. Many also consider this a very strange and illogical coincidence.

Around this tomb goes an incredible number of legends and mysterious stories. And all of them arise because it is difficult for a person today to explain how, without special equipment and professional knowledge, did ancient people manage to create such a perfect architectural structure? Some myths say that as a priest of the sun god Ra – Imhotep entered into a conspiracy with dark forces and sold the soul of his ruler for the sake of unique knowledge in construction. Other legends testify that Djoser, realizing that he would die anyway, gave all his treasures to the gods to help build such a unique resting place. It is interesting that some scholars do not reject this version at all, because in no museum in the world, or in any private collection, wealth from this pharaoh was discovered, which simply had to be in the tomb. And inside 11 halls only one mummified hand was found, and whose it is, is still not clear. So think after that what is true and what is fiction. And the pyramid will still rise above the burnt Egyptian Sahara for many centuries, still also exciting the minds and curiosity of our descendants.

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Ancient

A perfectly preserved 18,000 year old puppy was found in the Siberian permafrost

These amazingly preserved remains of a young wolf or dog, not yet quite clear, have been discovered in the permafrost in Siberia. 

The remains were found by Swedish researchers during a joint Russian-Swedish expedition in the summer of 2018.

It has been called “Dogor” which means “friend” in the Yakut language spoken in the area. The place of the discovery is located near the Indigirka River in Siberia, northeast of Yakutsk.

A wolf or a dog?

Although it has been determined that the puppy is male and is approximately 18,000 years old, the preliminary genome sequence could not determine whether it is a wolf, a dog or perhaps a common ancestor of the two, protoperros.

The animal has been studied at the Swedish Center for Palaeogenetics (CPG).

Love Dalén, professor of evolutionary genetics at the GPC, told The Siberian Times:

The GPC has the largest DNA bank in Europe of all canines worldwide, but in this case they could not identify it from the first attempt

Sergey Fedorov, of the Institute of Applied Ecology of the North at North-Eastern Federal University, said in a statement:

This is intriguing, what if it is a dog? We are eager to get more test results.

The official scientific version suggests that the first dogs appeared no earlier than 10-15 thousand years ago.

The photos below are taken by Sergey Fedorov (siberiantimes.com).

At the same time, DNA analysis by the Swedish Center for Palaeogenetics did not help scientists confirm that it was a dog. Scientists have carefully sequenced the genome of the animal but have not yet achieved accurate results. Now, the Swedes are preparing to conduct a more in-depth genome study.

Possible ancient domestication

Humans began to settle in this northern part of Russia about 32,500 years ago. In addition, previous research has suggested that humans domesticated wolf dogs about 10,000 to 40,000 years ago.

The researchers suggest that Dogor could, in theory, fit anywhere within this range as a loyal domestic dog, a voracious wild wolf or anything in between.

Thanks to permafrost, the preservation conditions of this specimen were practically perfect. Temperatures below zero preserved organic matter and prevented the bacterial and fungal growth that would break down the body, but not cold enough to damage tissues.

Even scientists believe it is possible to obtain viable DNA fragments that can be used to sequence the genome of the organism in question.

But this case is not the only one, some months ago the head of a 40,000-year-old Ice Age wolf was found, still covered in fur and fur, found north of Yakutia.

Previously, researchers have found dozens of woolly mammoths in the permafrost of Siberia.

Although there is still a long way to go, scientists have even thought about harnessing the DNA of mammoths preserved with permafrost and using it to resurrect the species from extinction. What surprises will we encounter in the coming years?

Source: Siberian Times / IFL Science

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