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A Small Contribution to a Big Discussion: The Legend of Atlantis and Pre-Columbian Voyages to the Western Hemisphere

This is not one of my more “romantic” posts, so forewarned. I don’t find evidence for a supercivilization pre-dating our well-known ancient histories, even though I do believe that the Legend of Atlantis had some basis in fact. What I have to say here is largely repetitive for those who have made a study of this area, but maybe there are some minor additions to the discussion even there. In a oddly curved way, the idea for this post came from my re-noticing a smallish artifact from my collection. It is pictured above with a coin-stamp for sizing, and I’ll mention it’s small role later. [It’s a piece of thin beaten copper from PreColumbian Peru.]

Almost anything that we could honestly claim to know about the idea of “Atlantis” comes from the almost-as-legendary Athenian statesman and diplomat, Solon [from whom our current politicians could learn a lot]. Plato tells us that he, through a non-linear but reasonable way, got his information about Atlantis ultimately from Solon, and if we can’t believe that, we can’t get anywhere at all on this subject. But for me, it’s an easily believable statement. Plato’s Timaeus and Critiasare therefore the primary documents for the concept of Atlantis.

Despite being probably the best statesman Athens ever had, Solon was under some political stress at a later time in his life, and decided to retire, sort of. He then did what many influential Greeks might do: take a trip to the city which would become “Alexandria” in Egypt. This was the centerpiece of Egyptian commerce with other nations, and well-known to many persons such as Greeks, Phoenecians, Hittites, Israelites, et al. It was also a center of religion and of knowledge, even before the much later atrocity of the burning of the Alexandrian Library.
It was here that Solon says that he learned of the old story of Atlantis from Egyptian priest-scholars in that dynamic city. We can imagine that as a powerful visiting dignitary, and a potentially valuable close ally, Solon’s visit was not “pure pleasure” and rather more serious discussions about Athens and Egypt took place [particularly as there were states very aggressive and dangerous to both in the region].
Solon says that he was told that there was a time long ago when the Athenians and the Egyptians fought side-by-side against a mighty foe. They were “brothers-in-war” and rightly should be so “today”. That mighty foe was dimmed in the mist of time, but many facts were allegedly still on record in the Egyptian library. It was an island power “beyond the Pillars of Hercules”, whose ships threatened all seafarers. Its chief cities were described and some of its culture. It was destroyed by a great cataclysm, sinking beneath the sea.
And all that we know, and in honesty that’s about it period.

But Atlantis is a great concept, so persons of all stripes have tried to elaborate on it. There are two great clumps of theory types which have evolved: the ones based on Trance Mediumship and the ones based on Archaeology. If anyone wants to buy into any of the trance medium-based concepts, that is their right. I’d consider it, but I find exactly Zero supporting evidence for anything that any of these people have said. The fact that every one of these theories requires that entire high tech civilizations have disappeared from the planet leaving no tangible traces, nor any other method of substantiating credible information, leaves me decidedly unwilling to walk Out Proctor on this trail.
The Archaeological Band of theories though are different. They all have at least some connectivity to other investigatible facts, and take conscious concern with facts already established by serious research and scholarship. Of these theories, the one which has from its beginning intrigued me the most is the idea that the monstrous explosion of the Volcano of Thera was centrally involved with the legend. This is and has been a rich hypothesis to explore, and, in my opinion, has still much to offer in spite of the intense attacks it has received.

You know the basis for the idea. Crete was the powerful sea-going force in the Mediterranean for the period c.2500-1400BC and therefore must have been a formidable naval foe for Egypt and any other power. The Greeks were “nothings” in this era, especially as regards sea travel. Cnossus on Crete was the center of the culture, but the island to the north, Thera, was a wealthy second focus of strength. It unfortunately was also on the extrusion of a very large volcano. Sometime during the 1400-1300BC period or thereabouts [it’s a lot tougher than one thinks to nail these dates down any tighter], the big volcano shook and blew. It not only blew but it blew factors more violently than things like Krakatoa. Mt. St. Helens was a mere firecracker. Thera of course was wiped out. A huge tidal wave would have rushed outwards. As the caldera collapsed, the inrush was followed by a jerking back of the waters, and then the counteraction of a second rebound tidal wave. Estimations exist in the literature of 600 foot tidal waves bearing down on the northern coast of Crete.

All manner of objections to this theory immediately let fly. “The date is wrong”— to me pretty small change. Exaggerating “legends” by factors of ten or other magical numbers is common in giving something a more legendary status. “Thera didn’t blow in 1500BC” — who cares? The Minoan civilization existed as a power then, and Thera blew sometime in the “same distant past” thereafter. “Thera didn’t end the power of the Sea Kings” [in other words the Minoan civilization didn’t drop like a shot just due to this catastrophe]. I’m always amused by this argument. Certainly no one would deny that the volcano took out the number two Minoan city rather completely. And how does one argue that this sort of blow doesn’t weaken you? No one seriously thinks that 600′ tidal waves bearing down on your northern coast [where many of your ports exist], is going to be a benign economic experience. AND, and this is always conveniently left out of the argument, the ashfall from Thera should have been horrendous on Crete, and agriculture should have taken a longterm blow of big proportions. “Sudden Death”? No. Seriously weakened condition? You bet.
Lots of other stuff has been floated to oppose the Theran Solution to the origins of the Atlantis legend. To me none of them really stand unless one pretends to literal obsessiveness about a tale told Solon about something that happened nine centuries earlier than the telling.

I choose to believe the following: a]. The Egyptians had a foe who lived on an island in the Sea, they knew not where. That foe mysteriously weakened and ultimately disappeared in the wake of several colossal events. It was reported that this catastrophe completed destroyed an island leaving nothing but a sea of thick mud. This legend was maintained in memory by the Egyptian priests [along with countless other pieces of knowledge which became the Library of Alexandria] for the intermediate centuries between those times and the visit of Solon. b]. The Greeks too had a cultural legend of a mighty sea power “beyond the Pillars of Hercules” which disappeared in a huge catastrophe which destroyed much of the coast facing the east and southeast. Their more primitive Mycenaean sailors may have discovered the sea of mud just beyond the Pillars. c]. The two legends were ripe to rejoin for a political reason.
But what of this “Pillars of Hercules” business? Everyone knows that the Pillars of Hercules are the lands on each side of the Strait of Gibraltar. Well, no. The Pillars of Hercules were the Greek way of symbolizing the Edge of the Known World. In Solon/Plato’s time they WERE at the Straits of Gibraltar. But c.1000BC they were at the Straits of Messina, between Italy and Sicily, according to our best reading of old myths. And back in Minoan times, the much less seaworthy Mycenaeans would have viewed the Pillars as islands just to the southeast of the mainland. And what would be the first land just beyond those Pillars? Thera.

So what else makes this make any sense? This guy — Egyptian Pharaoh Necho II. He was pharaoh just at the time of Solon. And he SHOULD be pictured on his knees as he was a weak one. Faced with major threats to Egypt from the near-eastern powers, Necho decided to take a page out of the books of past Pharaohs and put on some sort of spectacular display to make a show of power and revitalize the Egyptian psyche. He tried a couple of gimmicks which didn’t work. Desperate for a success, he decided to order his navy to circumnavigate Africa. With a lot of help from Phoenecian sailors, they did.

Stick-in-the-mud historians have doubted that the Egyptians pulled this off. To that I laugh. I believe that in every instance that I’ve come across where there has been doubt about humans’ abilities to pull something off, the doubters have been proven wrong. We have many flaws, but we are awfully brave, tenacious, and clever. Necho’s naval commander and his Phoenecians circumnavigated Africa, you can count on it. Why so confident? Necho was desperate for a “winner”. He and his admiral already knew it could be done. Heck, his “phoenecians”[probable heirs to the knowledge of the old Sea kings anyway] had probably done it already themselves and had maps.

So the Egyptians went ’round Africa, so what? I believe that this is just the most public of the “trips” that Egyptian explorers made around and through Africa over years and centuries. They would have known about peoples, about legends, about mines and various items of produce and trade. They might well have seeded some colonies here and there. This is easily within their abilities and time available.

Did they? There are wisps of smoke indicating this all over the place. Even in Egyptian painting itself there are all sorts of indications of depth knowledge of Sub-Saharan [“Black”] Africa. It wasn’t all just “Nubians”. There are signs in some still-existing legends of ideas of stories harking back to ancient Egypt in 20th century West African legends. Lots of smoke — a raging fire in my opinion.

Far down the East African coast in what is modern Zimbabwe, there are areas of very old rock paintings. One which has particularly intrigued archaeologists is “The White Lady” [lower of the two pictures]. Analysts of this painting see it as of strong Egyptian influence, and maybe of a Mediterranean type person.
I ran into something which supports at least some of this. I was writing a cryptozoological paper trying to identify the animal represented in the god Set, when Richard Greenwell challenged me that Set was only a Giraffe. That was preposterous, and to this day I believe that Richard was only teasing me to get me to write more about the archaeo-and-biological side of my publication. It was good that he did, because I found, down near the White Lady, other paintings which appear to show “Set Masks” with Egyptian-style wigs associated with the representation. For our purposes, it is a near certainty that loads of strong Egyptian influence existed so far down the east side of the continent, that it is a mere whimsy for a sailor to decide to round the Cape of Good Hope.

And then? They’d keep going and circumnavigate Africa. Or would it be that straightforward?
As you can see from the upper map, Atlantis has been located about anywhere you’d care to throw a dart. What I think is very likely is that some of these early Africa continental sailors DID think that they found Atlantis [or what was left of it], and THAT IT WAS THE SARGASSO SEA.

I noticed something a while ago on maps of the sea. When coming up the west coast of Africa, there are currents which try to shear you off course towards South America. You might find yourself landed on the northeast coast of Brazil, or sailing along the northern edge of South America, or trying to get back east and home, and running into the Atlantic Gyre which is the Sargasso Sea. And what would one find there? A creepy dead zone of floating debris miles and miles wide. How could it possibly be? What catastrophe could have resulted in this? Hmmmm… Where is this place? Hmmmm…. Beyond the Pillars of Hercules.
Necho’s expedition had just returned to the same Egyptian port which Solon was visiting only months or so earlier. The information from the circumnavigation was no doubt the talk of the town. It doesn’t make any difference whether Necho’s expedition went off-course or not; the point would be that as Solon arrived, all the past information about “what was out there” would be currently active in the consciousness of the priests and the Egyptian statesmen. Necho needed allies. Here was Solon. Let’s tell him how we fought together against the power beyond the Pillars. Solon probably liked the idea whether he believed it or not. It served a purpose.

I find it intriguing, to say the least, that ancient-looking Amphoras have been found off the eastern coast of Brazil. “They surely shouldn’t be there”. Shouldn’t they? [The picture above was from one of Ivan’s dump piles that he never got around to filing, but seemed on the road to doing so. Ivan would be interested in such things since he believed that the “Copan Elephant” was real, and his theory was that it had been a shipborn import from Eastern Africa by way of West Africa].

Again, the smoke surrounding Pre-Columbian visits from ancient civilizations is thick. The distinctively non-Amerindian bearded guy on the cup is just one pottery representative. The cloth weaver fellow’s views remind me that the Smithsonian was so impressed with an analogous analysis of pottery designs that it set up a large exhibit touting proof that Chinese sailors had visited the Pacific side of Latin America in ancient times. If one dumps the “Atlantis” add-on from the weaver’s analysis above, and goes directly with Egypt, you have a perfect twin of an idea.

So, now trivially, back to my own little artifact way up there at the start of this post. What’s its story? Maybe not much, but…. far back in time, cultures were trying to figure out the concept of money. Pure barter is nice for community interaction, but a perfectly horrible way to try to run a diverse economy. One badly needs a “commonly accepted unit of exchange”. Ultimately: “money”. The thing above was an early try from the eastern Mediterranean. It is a copper ingot [pretty thick and heavy] meant to symbolize the hide of an ox — and on faith be acceptable/tradable as if an ox-worth of value. Hides of all kinds tended to have this similar shape, the extensions a reminder of the animal’s legs.
This sort of representation in copper was also allegedly an early attempt at money in Egypt. Way up top is my artifact. It IS copper and it could be viewed as pounded into something like a hide shape. The people who allegedly know these things say that it IS supposed to represent some form of the “copper hide” style of money [though it would have to either be “small change” or a culture at a more advanced stage of the money concept, where things are miniaturized to make commerce less a weightlifting event]. So, the point? If my artifact IS a hide-type pre-currency, the fact that it comes from Peru makes things interesting. From whom did these guys get the idea, not just of a trading unit but of this specific idea of a trading unit? Maybe nothing. Maybe something.

Just for fun: a last Romance.
This is another artifact in my collection. It’s a particularly crumby one — note the terribly malformed lip of the cup and the ragged base — an unfinished dud.
This cup comes from Crete at roughly the time of Thera’s big blow.
Here is our honorable hard-working potter beginning a new cup. Suddenly horrendous thunderings and shakings occur, throwing him and his work to the floor. When he comes to his senses, he runs from his shop. Sometime later he sweeps the debris aside into a spoils pile. Centuries later, an archaeologist thinks that he’s found treasure….
well, maybe he did.



Figures of mysterious creatures found in 10,000-year-old graves in Jordan

Photo: Kharaysin archaeological team / Antiquity Publications Ltd

When excavating in Jordan, an international team from the Kharaysin archaeological team research project discovered dozens of strange Neolithic figures who were in burials about 10 thousand years old.

An article about this discovery is published in Antiquity magazine. Figurines are found which date from the middle of the ninth millennium BC. This era is known as the Early Neolithic. At that time, iconography was just beginning to spread in the Middle East. New research will help to understand how it developed.

The burials mentioned above are located on the archaeological site of Haraisin in the Zarka River Valley. A group of archaeologists from Spain, France and the UK worked there. It was led by Dr. Juan José Ibáñez.

“We were digging burial grounds, a cemetery,” Ibáñez said. “We know very well the tools that were made in that period.”

Discovered artifacts look like flint tools of ancient people. However, most of these items were found in burials, which is not typical of flint tools. Scientists have suggested that artifacts were sacred. That is, they were deliberately laid in the graves along with the deceased during funeral rituals.

The artifacts were carefully analyzed. As a result, the researchers saw them as “human forms.” The upper pair of recesses is a narrowing to indicate the neck, and the lower one to indicate the waist. A similar “violin-shaped contour” was previously observed in two figures of the same period, found in Haraisin and made of fired clay. This indicates that artifacts are Neolithic figurines. Who exactly did they represent?

“When one of the team members first suggested that artifacts are figurines depicting people, we were skeptical,” says Ibáñez. However, the team has since been convinced that these are images of people, although rude. “They made two notches on one side, one probably representing the neck and the other representing the thigh.”

There is a version that these were primitive images of deities. In subsequent periods of time, the practice of making anthropomorphic figures of deities became widespread. For example, in Europe during the excavations, “Venus” figures were found more than once, whose age was estimated at thousands of years.

Perhaps the statuettes found in Jordan were the result of the first attempts to create divine sculptures. By the way, all the Neolithic figurines found by this mission have various shapes and sizes.

In their article, the authors write that artifacts could be cult objects, including “vehicles of magic,” which were used in rituals. But they pay attention to the fact that some of the finds were made not in the graves, but in ordinary pits.

It is possible that these figurines were for some reason thrown away. For example, they could be thrown out after the rite is completed. Or they were simply rejected. There is one more explanation – the figures could be used as children’s toys or as visual exhibits when teaching rituals.

The discovery also proves that “psychological and social shifts” occurred in people upon transition to a sedentary lifestyle and farming. In particular, they probably had ideas about the afterlife.

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Who are the Guanches? How isolation did not save civilization

For many years, the origin of the Canaries of the Guanches remained a mystery. A mystical suggestion was made that they could be descendants of the legendary Atlanteans.

Who are the Guanches?

The subtropical climate of the Canary Islands, the southernmost region of Spain, attracts crowds of holidaymakers. Last year, the Canaries were visited by 15 million tourists. In the V century BC e. the Roman writer Pliny the Elder wrote about deserted islands with the ruins of large structures. However, not all seven islands were empty. Archaeological finds indicate that from about the middle of the first millennium BC, the Phoenicians and Punians arrived here. The Carthaginians periodically explored the Canary Islands. And only after the 4th century AD e. the guanches, who knew nothing about shipbuilding and navigation, were completely isolated.

Long before the arrival of the first Spanish settlers in the 1470s, another civilization flourished in the Canary Islands. The islanders called themselves Guanches, Guachinec or Guachinet, which translated means “man of Tenerife.” The written evidence of the Guanches dated 1150 reached the King of Sicily Roger II in a book written by Arabian geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, “Entertainment of the Exhausted in Traveling by Region”.

Fair-haired and blue-eyed, they were strikingly different from the native inhabitants of North Africa , to which the expanse of the Atlantic Ocean stretched. The natives were taller than the Castilians of that time (tall men (165 – 171 cm) and women whose average height reached 160 cm). Even the shade of their skin was lighter than that of the then Spaniards.

The language, despite some similarities with the Berber-Libyan languages, also differed from them. It was even more surprising that the Guanches could talk to each other, only moving their lips or issuing a whistle that they understood and answered from long distances.

The mystery of the origin of the guanches

The origin of the Guanches has long been an object of discussion between archaeologists and historians. According to some assumptions, they were descendants of the Celts or the Vikings. The most daring suggested that they could be descendants of the mythical inhabitants of the sunken Atlantis. Hypotheses were expressed about the similarity of Aborigines with Cro-Magnons.

A study of the DNA of the ancient mummies preserved on the islands in 2019 showed that the Guanches are most likely Berbers from North Africa, who arrived there around 100 AD. e. or even earlier.

The question of how the Guanches reached the archipelago remains open. According to one theory, the people of Tenerife crossed the ocean in small boats and landed on the islands of Lanzarote and Fuerteventura. The number of potential settlers also remains a subject of scientific debate, but studies show that 14 pairs would be enough to populate the archipelago.

Guanche culture

As archaeological finds show, the Guanches were organized into a tribal society under the leadership of leaders. They were engaged in agriculture, hunting and gathering, their diet included:

  • milk;
  • goat meat;
  • pork
  • fruits.

Mostly they threw on goatskirts woven from the leaves of cattail, goat skins. They lived in natural caves or simple stone houses with a low ceiling .

The guanches adapted their caves and grottoes for use as storages and temples. Some of these structures have survived to the present day and point to the advanced astronomical knowledge of this people. Holes in the walls of the caves let sunlight into certain places at different times of the year, marking the dates of the solstice and equinox.

One of the most noteworthy of these structures is the Risco Caído . This is a settlement consisting of 21 caves, which were hollowed out in volcanic tuff about a hundred meters above the Barraco Hondo River on the island of Gran Canaria. It is believed that this place was used as a storehouse for grain, a temple and an astronomical observatory. Sunlight and moonlight penetrate the cave holes, which illuminate the symbolic paintings on the walls. In 2019, Risco Caído became the first UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Canary Islands.

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Traces of the great shocks of the past – nuclear ruins and star wars of antiquity

Scientists often say that modern civilization is threatened with death as a result of a global war using weapons of mass destruction. What is curious, ancient epics and archaeological finds sometimes testify in favor of the fact that something similar has already happened on our planet.

Glass fields

The land of ancient Egypt is full of mysteries. And they are associated not only with the pyramids and burials in the Valley of the Kings. One of these mysteries is associated with huge fields of fossil green glass, spread over hundreds of square kilometers in the Libyan desert, near the Saad Plateau in the border area of ​​Libya, Egypt and Sudan, where the dunes of the Great Sandy Sea stretch.

Some pieces of this glass of natural origin weigh up to 26 kilograms, but most are much smaller and resemble fragments of a giant green bottle.

For the first time this natural glass in the form of small glass pebbles was found in the Libyan Desert as far back as 1816, but became widely known after Patrick Clayton, an employee of the Egyptian Geological Herald, saw the glass fields themselves.

200 kilometers away from these deposits. numerous pieces of the same glass were found, along with spearheads made of it, axes and other tools that were in use among the ancient inhabitants of the area. Some of the products are about 100 thousand years old.

Ancient Egyptians knew about these deposits. Not only they knew, but also used for their own purposes, for example, for the production of jewelry. So, the scarab beetle, one of the elements of the famous necklace of the pharaoh Tutankhamun, discovered by Howard Carter during excavations in the Valley of the Kings, is skillfully carved from volcanic glass. Where did it come from in the desert?

It is well known that the transformation of sand into glass occurs as a result of heat treatment. The temperature is required high, the sand melts at 1700 ° C, so that matches and brushwood can not do here. What heat source will be required to turn hundreds of tons of sand into glass?

There are several theories about this. According to one, for example, the whole cause of fulgurites is sand, sintered from a lightning strike, whose electric charge is enough to melt it.

However, it is completely incomprehensible how the dunes of the Libyan Desert pulled so many lightning bolts. According to another theory, the originator of the formation of deposits of glass is a meteorite that exploded over the desert in time immemorial.

Many scientists agree that the reason for the appearance of glass in the desert was the invasion of a hundred-meter asteroid into the atmosphere, rushing at a speed of 20 kilometers per hour. This would perhaps be an impeccable explanation, if not for one “but”: on the surface of the Great Sand Sea there is neither an impact crater, nor its traces.

Meanwhile, back in the 1940s, after testing a nuclear bomb in the state of New Mexico in the United States, desert sands also turned into molten green glass. Is it possible to conclude on this basis that the glazed sands of the Libyan desert appeared under similar circumstances, only over 100 thousand years ago, as a result of a nuclear bombardment, after which the Sahara desert occupied most of North Africa?

Mohenjo Daro – Radioactive Ruins

In 1922, the Indian archaeologist R. Banardji discovered the ruins of an ancient city in the Indus Valley. Excavations showed that it was flawlessly planned and equipped with plumbing and sewage systems that are superior to those used in India and Pakistan today.

The ancient city received the name Mohenjo-Daro. Among its ruins were found scattered fused pieces of clay, which at one time under the influence of high temperature turned into black glass. An analysis of the samples, carried out at the University of Rome and then at the laboratory of the National Council for Research of Italy, showed that the fusion occurred at 1500 ° C.

Such an ancient temperature could have been obtained in the furnace of a metallurgical workshop, but not in a vast open area. Moreover, archaeologists drew attention to one gloomy feature of the ancient city.

After carefully examining the ruins, they came to the conclusion that the degree of destruction of buildings and structures decreases as they move away from the city center or, rather, the epicenter of the explosion, which completely swept away individual quarters.

The skeletons found among the ruins suggested that death found people suddenly. Finally, the bones, as it turned out over the years, were radioactive.

The mysterious and ominous picture found an explanation only after the Americans during the Second World War launched nuclear attacks on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The same eerie pictures of destruction were observed there. So did Mohenjo Daro die in a nuclear strike?

Witness of the Mahabharata

The Sanskrit texts of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata, consisting of 18 books and numbering over 200,000 verses, which is seven times more than Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey, contain information about religion, worldview, customs, history of ancient India, as well as legends about her gods and heroes.

A significant part of the epic is devoted to the description of hostilities involving gods, demigods, and people. Researchers believe that these events relate to the semi-legendary history of the invasion of Hindustan from the north by the Aryan tribes, pushing the indigenous inhabitants – Dravids – into the southern part of the peninsula.

However, among the episodes of ancient battles that were common for those times, there are also detailed scenes in which it is easy to recognize the use of … artillery, rockets, combat aircraft, locators, smoke screens, poisonous gases and even nuclear weapons.

For example, in Dronaparva, one of the books of Mahabharata, the battle is described, during which explosions of shells, like huge fireballs, cause storms and storms, incapacitate entire armies.

As a result of these explosions, many enemy warriors, together with weapons, fighting elephants and horses, fly up in the air and are carried away by a powerful whirlwind, like dry leaves from trees.

This text also describes the process of the emergence of a mushroom cloud characteristic of a nuclear explosion. It is compared to the opening of a giant umbrella. After these explosions, the food became poisoned, and the surviving people fell ill.

Symptoms of the disease exactly corresponded to the main signs of radiation sickness – people had bouts of vomiting, hair and nails fell out, and then death occurred.

In Indian epics, ancient planes are also described in detail – flying vimaana cars. In the book of Samarangan Sutradharan, various types of vimanas are compared among themselves, the advantages and disadvantages of each variety are mentioned, flight characteristics, landing methods are given.

Particular attention is paid to the characteristics of structural materials such as wood, light metals and their alloys. Also referred to are materials used to create a driving force. Strange as it may seem, mercury is among the latter.

Star Wars Antiquity

A.V. Koltypin in his work “The Earth’s Disappeared Dwellers” draws attention to the fact that in the Mahabharata, Bha-gavata-purana, Vishnu-purana and other ancient Indian texts space travel on airplanes is repeatedly described by gods, demons, heroes and various mythical creatures.

“Chitraketu, the lord of the Vidyadharas (demigod class, good air spirits. – Ed.), Went on a journey through the vast expanses of the universe … on his dazzlingly shining aerial ship …”, “Rushing through space, Maharaja Dhurva saw all the planets one after another. I saw the solar system on the way of the demigods in the chariots of the heavens … “,” So Maharaja Dhurva passed the seven planetary systems of the great sages known as sapta-rishi … “,” A descendant of the Kuru dynasty, King Vasu could travel outside the Earth in the upper regions of our Universe , and therefore, in those distant times, he became famous under the name of Upari-chara, “Wandering through the higher worlds.”

One of the episodes of Mahabharata tells how the great warrior Arjuna, after the battle with the underwater inhabitants of the nivatakavachs, returned to heaven on his flying amphibian chariot and discovered a city flying in space:

“On the way back, I saw another huge and amazing city that could move where whatever. He shone like fire or the sun. ” In this flying city called Hiranyapur, there were Danavan demons (daityas). Arjuna was ordered to smash them. Noticing the approach of his aircraft, the dans began to fly out of the city in their celestial chariots – well, exactly the “Star Wars” by George Lucas! Then Arjuna “a powerful avalanche of weapons … blocked this formidable stream. He awed them, plowing the battlefield with a chariot, and … the Danavas smashed each other.”

Subjected to a powerful attack from Arjuna, the Danavians lifted their flying city into the air. Then Arjuna “with a powerful shower of arrows … blocked the daitians and tried to stop their movement.

The gift of the daityas was directed wherever they wanted, this heavenly, floating in the air, marvelously sparkling city, moving at will: it either went underground, then rose again, then quickly moved to the side, then plunged into the water. ” Ultimately, Arjuna hit the heavenly city with iron arrows, so similar to modern kinetic ammunition. And when the 60 thousand surviving demons rushed to Arjuna in their flying chariots, he incinerated them with a weapon called Raudra, obviously a kind of nuclear weapon.

So, the findings of archaeologists and ancient epics really testify to the fact that a long time ago on our planet and even in outer space unbelievable wars raged with the use of the most advanced weapons. And it is very likely that such events happened repeatedly.

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