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Ancient

A Description of the Lost Land of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato

Advanced ancient civilizations are a big topic of interest among researchers, historians, archaeologists, and scientists. Every single year we are gifted with a mysterious find that has us questioning the origins of the human race and imagining the cultures which roamed the our planet before us. We have found much evidence to suggest that there may have been civilizations in existence before us which were intellectually, and even technologically superior. That being said, this theory is still thought to be quite fantastical; despite all of the evidence which has been brought to light in recent years to support this notion, it is still largely ignored by the mainstream. If you are interested in looking at some of this evidence, a great place to start is with author Graham Hancock, in his book titled The Magicians of The Gods.

Atlantis

If you start talking about the lost, ancient city of Atlantis, most people will probably think that you’re living in ‘la la’ land. Many people are unaware that this city has been seriously studied for hundreds of years. For example, we can see that it was a subject of significant importance for researchers at the Smithsonian Institution, as emphasized by their Annual Report of the Board of Regents of The Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30th, 1915.

In the report, author M. Pierre Termeir, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Director of Service of the Geologic Chart of France, gives a lecture regarding the Atlantean civilization.  He makes a compelling case for further study of this lost city:

After a long period of disdainful indifference, observe how in the last few years science is returning to the study of Atlantis. How many naturalists, geologists, zoologists, or botanists are asking one another today whether Plato has not transmitted to us, with slight amplification, a page from the actual history of mankind. No affirmation is yet permissible; but it seems more and more evident that a vast region, continental  or made up of great islands, has collapsed west of the Pillars of Hercules, otherwise called the Straight of Gibraltar, and that its collapse occurred in the not far distant past. In any event, the question of Atlantis is placed anew before men of science; and since I do not believe that it can ever be solved without the aid of oceanography, I have thought it natural to discuss it here, in this temple of maritime science, and to call to such a problem, long scorned but now being revived, the attention of oceanographers, as well as the attention of those who, though immersed in the tumult of cities, lend an ear to the distant murmur of the sea.

You can read this full report here, starting on page 219.

In his lecture, M. Termeir goes on to present zoologic, geographic, and geologic data to support the existence of the lost Atlantean civilization.Not only that, archaeological discoveries on the ocean floor have also raised some questions…

Plato’s Description of Atlantis

Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, provides a description of Atlantis in his dialogue Critias, which was never completed. The following is a summary of his depiction, these are a few of many points I am taking from Manly P. HallsThe Secret Teachings of All Ages

  • Atlantis was inhabited by ‘earth-born’ and ‘primitive’ human beings. One of them was wooed by the god Poseidon, who interbred with the human beings, and they eventually bore five children. This interbreeding between gods and humans is a common theme in many historical texts found throughout the world.
  • The land was divided into concentric zones of land and water. Two zones of land and three zones of water surrounded the central island, which had warm springs of water and cold springs of water.
  • Atlantis became an established country, with a wise government and an industry that sprung them to advanced technological heights — beyond even what we have reached today.
  • Atlantis had limitless resources, wild animals, and precious metals, and was heavily populated.
  • Atlantis was full of large and beautiful palaces, temples, docks, and a network of various bridges and canals that united different sections of the kingdom.
  • White, black and red stones were used in the construction of public buildings. “They circumscribed each of the land zones with a wall, the outer wall being covered with brass, the middle with tin, and the inner, which encompassed the citadel, with orichalch. The citadel, on the central island, contained the palaces, temples, and other public buildings. In its center, surrounded by a wall of gold, was a sanctuary dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon.” (source)
  • Atlantis had a number of gardens, full of hot and cold springs. There were countless temples, public baths, and exercise facilities for both man and animal.
  • “The part of Atlantis facing the sea was described as lofty and precipitous, but about the central city was a plain sheltered by mountains renowned for their size, number, and beauty. The plain yielded two crops each year, in the winter being watered by rains and in the summer by immense irrigation canals, which were also used for transportation. The plain was divided into sections and in time of war each section supplied its quota of fighting men and chariots.” (source)
  • Atlantis was massive, ruled by multiple kings who all had control over their land. Their relationships with the other kings were governed by an original code of ethics that was engraved by the first ten kings. “The chief laws of the Atlantean kings were that they should not take up arms against each other and that they should come to the assistance of any of their number who was attacked.” (source)

The Downfall of Atlantis

These are the essential points Plato makes about Atlantis. He described it as a great and powerful empire, almost magical, and said that this was the same empire which attacked the Hellenic states. He attributes the power and glory they tasted after this venture to their eventual demise, writing that the love for these ego-driven desires that soon developed among Atlantean kings “lured” them from “the pathway of wisdom and virtue.” 

“Filled with false ambition, the rulers of Atlantis determined to conquer the gods into his holy habitation and addressed them. Here Plato’s narrative comes to an abrupt end, for the Critias was never finished.” (source)

Plato also tackles the subject of Atlantis in his Timaeus, writing of a story told by Solon — who himself is said to have heard the story in Egypt, passed on to him by a priest via hieroglyphic inscriptions in a temple in Sais — in which a violent cataclysm sank the continent. Thus, the  Island of Atlantis completely disappeared. (source)

“A technologically sophisticated but morally bankrupt evil empire – Atlantis – attempts world domination by force. The only thing standing it its way is a relatively small group of spiritually pure, morally principled and incorruptible people – the ancient Athenians. Overcoming overwhelming odds . . . the Athenians are able to defeat their far more powerful adversary simply through the force of their spirit. Sound familiar? Plato’s Atlantean dialogues are essentially an ancient greek version of ‘Star Wars.’ ” – Ken Feder, professor of archaeology, taken from his book “Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.”

The Egyptian connection is also interesting to bring up here because Crantor, another ancient Greek philosopher, asserted that the Egyptian priests declared the story of Atlantis to be written upon pillars which were still preserved circa 300 B.C.

Manly P. Hall has noted that, before this cataclysm, a portion of the population left and did not succumb to the egoistic tendencies which apparently led to the downfall of Atlantis. Was the philosophic, religious, and scientific knowledge of Atlantis passed on? There are many similarities between the reported teachings of Atlantis and those of other cultures, such as the Mayas of Central America.

According to Manly P. Hall, from the Atlanteans, “the world received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies, and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war; and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused.” (source)

Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illuminated Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first divine rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery Rituals.” (source)

One of the most interesting parts of this story, to me, is the fact that this place is often remembered as a place of glory, light, and abundance, which it was. But they were not immune to the dangers of avarice, either, as H.P. Blavatsky makes clear: “Under the evil insinuations of their demon, Thevatat, the Atlantis race became a nation of wicked magicians. In consequence of this, war was declared, the story of which would be too long to narrate; its substance may be found in the disfigured allegories of the race of Cain, the giants, and that of Noah and his righteous family. The conflict came to an end by the submersion of the Atlantis, which finds its imitation in the stories of the Babylonian and Mosaic flood.” (source)

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Ancient

A possible grave of Nefertiti was found in the tomb of Tutankhamun

A hidden cell was discovered in the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings, which may be the resting place of his mother, Queen Nefertiti. She is one of the most famous women of ancient Egypt. Nefertiti ruled the country in 1353-1336 BC. The place of her burial has not yet been found,The Daily Mail reports.

Archaeologists, examining the tomb, used a georadar so as not to damage the fragile walls. The device indicated that a few meters from the room where the mummy of the pharaoh lay, there were corridors that lead to a room about 9.5 meters wide and 180 cm high.

Scientists have long assumed that Tutankhamun and Nefertiti were buried nearby. The Queen during her life had great influence, and her last refuge should have been the Valley of the Kings.

In addition, the tomb of Tutankhamun is too small for the pharaoh. According to archaeologists, some of its premises were walled up, and they still have not been able to open. Perhaps in one of them is the mummy of the ruler.

The georadar did not show whether the mysterious room is connected with the tomb of Tutankhamun. But they are located at the same depth, so they probably dug through at the same time.

Recall that the burial of Tutankhamun was discovered in 1922. This discovery has caused a sensation and is still considered one of the largest in Egyptology. But many experts believe that the leader of the expedition, Howard Carter, didn’t do his job very well – carried away by the export of gold treasures, he did not fully explore all the premises and could “overlook” another sensation.

Georadar research, according to Egyptologists, is not very reliable, but this is the only way to find out the hidden secrets of the tomb without drilling through historical walls. Scientists intend to continue to work and uncover new secrets of the ancient pharaohs.

Earlier, experts established a possible cause of Tutankhamun’s death . He could die from blood poisoning that developed after a leg fracture.

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Ancient

Scientists have found traces of a “super-ancient” human population in the DNA of Denisovans

Paleogenetics from the United States found in the DNA of Denisovans and Neanderthals traces of an extremely ancient population of people that separated from the general tree of human evolution almost 2 million years ago. They met with a common ancestor of Denisovans and Neanderthals about 750 thousand years ago, scientists write in the journal Science Advances.

Alan Rogers, a professor at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City (USA), and his colleagues writes:

“Recently, we learned that the ancestors of the modern inhabitants of Eurasia came into contact with ancient people, Neanderthals and Denisovans. We managed to show that hundreds of thousands of years before that, both came into contact with an even more archaic population of people who first settled in the territory Europe and Asia”

10 years ago, Russian anthropologists and paleogenetics, announced the discovery of the so-called Denisovans, a previously unknown species of people whose remains were found in the Denisova Cave in Altai. Scientists were able to make this discovery due to the fact that they were able to extract and study fragments of the Denisov genome, preserved inside the teeth and knuckles.

Initially, their discoverers believed that the ancient inhabitants of Altai were relatives of Neanderthals living in the Denisova Cave about 50 thousand years ago. Subsequently, it turned out that Denisovans appeared much earlier and were a separate subspecies of people whose traces of DNA were preserved in the genomes of modern Polynesians, Indians of South America and some peoples of Southeast Asia.

The similarities in the DNA structure of Denisovans and Neanderthals, Rogers says, led many scientists to believe that they were close relatives, whose common ancestor left Africa about 600-800 thousand years ago. In the past five years, scientists have been fiercely arguing about what happened next and when the “purebred” Homo neanderthalensis and their Altai “cousins” appeared.

In particular, Rogers and his colleagues suggested three years ago, comparing the DNA of Neanderthals and Denisovans, that their ancestors split unexpectedly early, about 700 thousand years ago. Their opponents, anthropologists believe that this happened much later, referring to the fact that the small size of the populations of ancient people distorted the results of Rogers calculations.

First people of the earth

These discrepancies and disputes, as Rogers found out, were caused by the fact that the DNA of Neanderthals and Denisovans hides traces of another, much more ancient population of people, which is extremely distant in genetic terms from all other known representatives of the genus Homo.

Paleogenetics came to this conclusion using a new technique that allows us to find common features and differences in the genomes of modern Eurasians, Africans, as well as Neanderthals and Denisovans. Comparing how often common and unique mutations occurred for each of these representatives of the genus Homo, scientists tried to understand whether traces of previously unknown groups of ancient people were hidden in their genomes.

A large number of common mutations in the genomes of Neanderthals and Denisovans, as well as their absence among Europeans and Africans, indicated that the common ancestor of the first two species came into contact with a previously unknown and very ancient population of people. The number of this group of ancient Homo was quite large, reaching a mark of 20-50 thousand individuals.

Scientists’ calculations show that its representatives separated from the general tree of human evolution about 2 million years ago. This suggests that these ancient hominids are among the Homo erectus, bipedal people, the oldest “Eurasian” remains of which were found in Georgian Dmanisi at the end of the last century.

Representatives of this ancient species of hominids, as shown by the calculations of Rogers and his colleagues, have existed in Eurasia for a very long time. According to researchers, they should not have disappeared earlier than 750 thousand years ago, when they met with the first populations of common ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans who left Africa. Subsequently, as scientists suggest, these people could additionally contact the Altai Homo.

According to researchers, these ancient people survived about the same fate as the Neanderthals and Denisovans, who disappeared about 50 thousand years ago under the onslaught of new “migrants” from Africa, the ancestors of modern Homo sapiens. Studying their genetic heritage, as Rogers and his team hope, will help uncover the mystery of their disappearance and reveal their role in the evolution of mankind.

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Ancient

The legendary giants of Peru, whose skeletons were seen by conquistadors

There is one special area on our planet where there are especially many stories and legends about people of very large stature. Moreover, these stories are not thousands of years old, but only a few hundred.

Stories about the Peruvian giants have been known since the 16th century, when the first Spanish conquistadors reached this region.

One of the earliest reports of the Peruvian giants is the story of conquistador Pedro Ciez de Leon, described in the folio Royal Inca Commentaries, Volume 1. This man apparently did not see the giants with his own eyes, but talked with those who saw them.

In his report, he described that once people of great growth sailed on their large rafts from reeds to the shore where the village of local Indians stood. The village was located on the peninsula of Santa Elena, which is now the territory of Ecuador.

The giants landed from the rafts on the peninsula and set up their camp near the conquistadors. They apparently decided to settle here for a long time, because immediately they began to dig deep wells in order to extract water from them.

“Some of them were so tall that a man of ordinary size would barely reach their knees. Their limbs were proportional to the body, but their huge heads with hair to their shoulders were monstrous. Their eyes were huge like plates and their faces had no beards.

Some of them were dressed in animal skins, but some were in their natural state (without clothes). Not a single woman was visible among them. When they set up the camp, they began to dig deep wells for water. They dug them in stony soil and then built strong stone wells. The water in them was excellent, always cool and tasted good. “

As soon as the giants set up their camp, they immediately made a bloodthirsty raid on the village of local Indians. According to the description of de Leon, they robbed everything they could grab and ate everything they could eat, including people!

It was a terrible sight when these huge people hung over the trees and the Indians fleeing from them, who practically could not defend themselves from them. Then, on the site of the devastated village, the giants built their large huts and stayed here to fish and hunt in the local forests.

This story ended with a completely surreal story, when a “shining angel” appeared in the sky and drove all these giants away.

Despite this, de Leon himself believed that this story was completely true and described that he personally saw the huge stone wells constructed by the giants. He also writes that other conquistadors saw the wells and the remains of huge houses that could not be built by local Indians.

Further, de Leon writes about even more curious things. He writes that the conquistadors found in this area human bones of very large sizes, as well as pieces of teeth that were large and heavy.

“In 1550, in the city of Lima, I heard that when His Excellency Don Antonio de Mendoza, the viceroy and governor of New Spain was here, some bones were found of people who were huge and could belong to giants.

I also heard that whole deposits of giants’ bones were found in an ancient tomb in the city of Mexico City or nearby. Since many locals claim to have seen them firsthand, we can assume that these giants really exist and can belong to a single race. “

Another proof of the existence of the Peruvian giants can be found in the records of Captain Juan Olmos, who in 1543 dug up ancient burials in the Trujillo Valley and allegedly discovered bones of people of very large stature there.

Later, another giant skeleton was found in the province of Tucuman by conquistador Augustine de Zarate and his people. In general, similar stories came from the Spaniards who visited Peru throughout the 16th century and continued to appear in the 17th century.

In 1620, the Jesuit priest and missionary Pablo Jose Arriaga in his manuscript “On the Eradication of Idolatry in Peru” wrote the following:

“They (representatives of the Spanish inspectors) led us to the other side of the village, where there was a very large cave and the remains of Giants lay in it. Among them were three giant bodies with deformed heads (elongated skulls) wrapped in combi (ceremonial fabric). These giants were considered the ancestors of all these people in the village who worshiped and worshiped them, even sacrifices were made in their honor. Then they (Spaniards) burned all these bodies.”

In the 18th and 19th centuries, stories about Peruvian giants also appeared, but they were becoming smaller and they were already perceived as myths and legends, and not something real.

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