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A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist

The Milky Way is fraught with many mysteries. Recently, one more was added. Chinese astronomers have a discovered a black hole in our galaxy, which, according to current scientific theory, should not exist because of its incredible size. This space monster is 70 times the mass of the Sun and is called LB-1.  The researchers report that after finding the object, could not believe it. The authors of a study published in the journal Nature, consulted with astronomers from around the world and verified the facts for three years.

The discovery of the “impossible” black hole is not consistent with Einstein’s GR

What do we know about the evolution of stars?

To answer this question, it is enough to recall that stars are composed of various elements, from light gases to heavy metals. Lighter elements become heavier as a result of thermonuclear reactions in the nuclei of stars, releasing a huge amount of energy in the process. However, according to the well-known Einstein equation E = mc2, the mass of the star should decrease over time, since it will be converted into energy. Some particles can also burst out like a solar wind, so that over time the star dims and collapses into a neutron star or black hole. According to this theory, our sun cannot create a black hole. Moreover, recently we talked about the fact that in the future our native star will turn into a red dwarf.

According to researchers from NASA, this is what a black hole looks like

In 2015, after the discovery of gravitational waves, scientists first suggested the existence of an excessively large black hole. Gravitational waves traveling around the universe suggest the existence of a black hole 60 times more massive than the sun, but the black hole GW150914, as it was called, was located in a remote part Of the universe, in which stars are very different from our native star. Most scientists believed that an object of similar dimensions was formed by combining two black holes, the collision of which, as we know today, generates gravitational waves. However, the discovery of LB-1 made astronomers think twice. As the researchers write in their work, the incredible size of LB-1 cannot be explained by the initial mass of the star, stellar wind, or thermonuclear reactions. The existence of this black hole disproves our perception of the evolution of stars and the formation of black holes.

Does the discovery of LB-1 refute Einstein’s

general relativity?

Researchers discovered a black hole using the Large Sky Area telescope, the world’s largest galaxy scanner located near Beijing in Hebei Province in northern China. It consists of 4,000 small lenses, each of which can be focused on a separate target. Nevertheless, in the scientific community, the discovery of LB-1 is considered good luck. Dr. David Reitz, Executive Director of the LIGO Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, compared this discovery to the detection of gravitational waves. However between the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of LB-1, there is a significant difference – the very existence of such a massive black hole is not consistent with Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR). Although GR is unlikely to be true, the discovery of LB-1 suggests that there may be gaps.

This is how the collision of two black holes looks, thanks to which gravitational waves appear

Astronomers believe that the discovery of a black hole with a mass 70 times the mass of our Sun in the Milky Way galaxy forces us to review the models of black hole formation and, in general, the understanding of the astrophysics of these space monsters. By the way, we recently told you that acceleration expansion of the universe is also not consistent with general relativity, so scientists are in search of alternative theories.

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Space

NASA proposes to build mushroom houses on Mars and the Moon

In science fiction, human settlements on Mars and other planets are often presented as futuristic buildings made of metal and glass. However, in reality, the habitat of future colonists may be more “green”, NASA experts believe.

They are developing a technology for growing various structures from fungi, or rather, from mycelium. This is a vegetative body of mushrooms, consisting of thin branched threads.

The principal investigator of the project, astrobiologist Lynn Rothschild notes that for the existing, proposed design solutions for future colonists, transportation of building materials and necessary equipment from Earth will require fabulous costs.

Mushroom houses grown right on the spot are a promising and low-cost alternative.

According to experts, under certain conditions, “colonies” of the thinnest filaments of mycelium are able to be combined into larger structures and create complex structures. For example, fruit bodies of mushrooms or … building blocks .

Petri dish with mycelium growing on artificial soil imitating Martian soil.Photo by NASA / Ames Research Center / Lynn Rothschild.

During a space flight, the mycelium will be “inactive”, and upon arrival to the moon or Mars, it will be possible to literally grow houses, as well as furniture and other necessary items, from it. To do this, mushroom preparations will just need to be filled with water.

Bricks made from mycelium with the addition of wood chips.Photo 2018 Stanford-Brown-RISD iGEM Team.

By the way, back in 2018, the authors of the project demonstrated one of the first prototypes – a mushroom stool. It was grown from mycelium for two weeks, after which it was baked to make a dry and durable piece of furniture.

A stool grown from mycelium in two weeks.Photo 2018 Stanford-Brown-RISD iGEM Team.

As Lynn Rothschild explains, the key to the success of this project was the use of cyanobacteria , which in the process of photosynthesis release oxygen and substances necessary for the growth of mycelium.

According to the researchers, future homes will have a three-layer structure. The outer layer will consist of water ice, which can be mined on the Moon or Mars . It will protect against radiation.

The second layer – from cyanobacteria – will absorb the light passing through the ice. Microorganisms will produce oxygen for humans and nutrients for the last layer – mycelium.

This inner layer will serve as a framework for the “living house”. First, the mycelium will need to be activated for growth in a closed environment (inside the frame), and then bake building blocks.

At the same time, even if some strands of mycelium somehow “escape”, they will not be able to grow. To prevent this, there will be genetic changes introduced by the creators. That is, the mycelium will be viable only in certain conditions created by people.

It is important to note that mycelium can also be used to filter water, extract minerals from wastewater, regulate humidity and even bioluminescent lighting . In addition, houses that can self-heal in case of damage can be created from it.

So far, however, these possibilities are only theoretical: scientists intend to study them in future works.

Also, the authors of the project do not exclude the possibility that one day “mushroom” houses may appear on Earth. This approach will reduce the carbon emissions generated by the construction industry.

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Elon Musk: ‘I will take a million people to Mars by 2050’

Elon musk, the tycoon and businessman, has surprised once again by tweeting that he will take a million people to Mars by 2050.

In several tweets released on Thursday night, the CEO of Spacex, the company that develops cutting-edge rockets, disclosed more details of its plan to colonize Mars.

As previously indicated, Musk said that in theory, 1,000 spaceships could possibly carry 100,000 people in each orbital synchronization of Earth with Mars.

Elon Musk: «I will take a million people to Mars by 2050»
Artistic representation of a city on Mars. Credit: Max Horbatiuk / artstation.com

According to Musk, the ships would depart from Earth following an orbit in a period of 30 days, taking advantage of the moment when the Earth and Mars are better aligned to make the trip, that is every 26 months.

Musk imagines that these ships will depart from Earth’s orbit for a period of 30 days, the time window when Earth and Mars are better aligned to make the trip, every 26 months.

One million people to Mars

One of the users of Twitter asked Musk, if he thinks he could take a million people to Mars, taking into account the equivalence of years and possible trips; Musk simply answered with a “yes”.

Musk said he will need his rockets to have a large load capacity to meet the goal of building a colony on Mars or on another planet.

Calculations indicate that each ship could support more than 100 tons per flight, resulting in the need that each ship might need one megaton per year in orbit, Musk indicated.

But overcoming the difficult and long journey, and once humans reach the red planet, Musk says that the work will begin.

Musk tweeted:

There will be many jobs to do. ”

Although for now, everything is based on theories and calculations, the engineers of Spacex They must work hard in these missing decades to achieve Elon Musk’s dream goal: colonize Mars.

Source: cnet


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‘A world with two stars’: a teenager discovers an unusual planet while doing internships at NASA

A 17-year-old teenager from New York (USA) discovered a planet while searching for stars as an intern at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, the space agency reported this week.

Wolf Cukier, a junior in high school, had received the task of examining variations in the brightness of the stars captured by the Traffic Exoplanet Inspection Satellite (TESS). While exploring a star system located 1,300 light years from Earth, he observed what appeared to be a slight spot on one of the suns of the system called TOI 1338.

“At first I thought it was a stellar eclipse, but the timing was wrong. It turned out to be a planet, ”said Cukier.

“The planet blocked the light of those two stars, which caused a small decrease in the amount of light that reached the telescope. That was what I noticed at the beginning, ”he explained later to CBS.

Difficult to detect

Once he communicated the discovery to his mentors, they spent several weeks verifying his observation. They finally concluded that what he had discovered was a planet 6.9 times larger than ours that orbits around two stars, in what is known as a circumbinary planet.

Because these binary stars orbit each other every 15 days, it was not an easy task to distinguish the transit events from the only known planet in such a system, dubbed TOI 1338-b. Planets that orbit two stars are harder to detect than those that orbit only one.

In this case, the largest star is approximately 10% larger than our Sun, while the smallest, approximately one third of that mass, is colder and dimmer.

rt

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