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A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist

A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist 92

The Milky Way is fraught with many mysteries. Recently, one more was added. Chinese astronomers have a discovered a black hole in our galaxy, which, according to current scientific theory, should not exist because of its incredible size. This space monster is 70 times the mass of the Sun and is called LB-1.  The researchers report that after finding the object, could not believe it. The authors of a study published in the journal Nature, consulted with astronomers from around the world and verified the facts for three years.

A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist 93

The discovery of the “impossible” black hole is not consistent with Einstein’s GR

What do we know about the evolution of stars?

To answer this question, it is enough to recall that stars are composed of various elements, from light gases to heavy metals. Lighter elements become heavier as a result of thermonuclear reactions in the nuclei of stars, releasing a huge amount of energy in the process. However, according to the well-known Einstein equation E = mc2, the mass of the star should decrease over time, since it will be converted into energy. Some particles can also burst out like a solar wind, so that over time the star dims and collapses into a neutron star or black hole. According to this theory, our sun cannot create a black hole. Moreover, recently we talked about the fact that in the future our native star will turn into a red dwarf.

A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist 94

According to researchers from NASA, this is what a black hole looks like

In 2015, after the discovery of gravitational waves, scientists first suggested the existence of an excessively large black hole. Gravitational waves traveling around the universe suggest the existence of a black hole 60 times more massive than the sun, but the black hole GW150914, as it was called, was located in a remote part Of the universe, in which stars are very different from our native star. Most scientists believed that an object of similar dimensions was formed by combining two black holes, the collision of which, as we know today, generates gravitational waves. However, the discovery of LB-1 made astronomers think twice. As the researchers write in their work, the incredible size of LB-1 cannot be explained by the initial mass of the star, stellar wind, or thermonuclear reactions. The existence of this black hole disproves our perception of the evolution of stars and the formation of black holes.

Does the discovery of LB-1 refute Einstein’s

general relativity?

Researchers discovered a black hole using the Large Sky Area telescope, the world’s largest galaxy scanner located near Beijing in Hebei Province in northern China. It consists of 4,000 small lenses, each of which can be focused on a separate target. Nevertheless, in the scientific community, the discovery of LB-1 is considered good luck. Dr. David Reitz, Executive Director of the LIGO Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology, compared this discovery to the detection of gravitational waves. However between the detection of gravitational waves and the discovery of LB-1, there is a significant difference – the very existence of such a massive black hole is not consistent with Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR). Although GR is unlikely to be true, the discovery of LB-1 suggests that there may be gaps.

A black hole was discovered in our galaxy that should not exist 95

This is how the collision of two black holes looks, thanks to which gravitational waves appear

Astronomers believe that the discovery of a black hole with a mass 70 times the mass of our Sun in the Milky Way galaxy forces us to review the models of black hole formation and, in general, the understanding of the astrophysics of these space monsters. By the way, we recently told you that acceleration expansion of the universe is also not consistent with general relativity, so scientists are in search of alternative theories.

Space

In 200 light years from us, six planets emit an amazing “melody”

In 200 light years from us, six planets emit an amazing "melody" 108

Astronomers have discovered a system of six exoplanets orbiting a star with a specific orbital resonance.

The star system known as TOI-178 is located about 200 light years from us and includes six planets, five of which form a resonant chain, that is, they revolve around the central star in a strictly specified rhythm, and their densities, on the contrary, do not follow the regularity we are used to, according to Forbes.

In the video, the melody plays when the planet passes either full orbit or half of it, and when they line up at these points, they begin to play in resonance. TOI-178 is a really strange star system. Its innermost planet orbits in two days, while the slowest in 20. 

A similar orbital resonance is observed, for example, in the satellites of Jupiter: Io, Europa and Ganymede. While the farthest, Ganymede makes one complete revolution, Europa makes two, and the closest to Jupiter Io – four. This means that they play the same melody in different octaves. 

However, the planets orbiting the TOI-178 star are in a much more complex resonance circuit, obeying the 18: 9: 6: 4: 3 rule. This is the longest resonant pattern known among planetary systems.

Only after the discovery of a kind of “melody” of the TOI-178 star system, astronomers discovered the sixth planet. They used resonance rhythm to calculate where the additional planet would be in its orbit. 

An amazing “rhythm dance” was discovered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile. However, this is not just an orbital curiosity. 

“The orbits in this system are very strictly ordered. This tells us that since its formation, it has developed extremely smoothly and calmly,” – Yann Alibert explained, co-author of the study at the University of Bern. 

But even if the arrangement of the orbits in the system is so delicately ordered, everything is much worse with the densities of the planets.

“Here we see that a planet as dense as the Earth is located in the neighborhood of a“ bloated ”one, which has a density half that of Neptune. And after it comes a planet with a density like Neptune. not what we’re used to,” Nathan Hara notes, another study author at the University of Geneva.

However, in addition to the fact that astronomers talk a lot about how TOI-178 was formed, they hope that further study of it will provide important clues about how planets form and evolve in planetary systems.

“This contrast between the rhythmic harmony of orbital motions and the disordered densities of planets completely contradicts our understanding of the formation and development of planetary systems,” Adrien Leleu added, an astrophysicist at the University of Bern in Switzerland who led the study. 

map, constellation Sculptor
This map shows the location of the planetary system TOI-178 in the constellation Sculptor. The map includes most of the stars visible to the naked eye under good conditions, and the location of the system is indicated by a red circle.[ – ]+Photo: ESO, IAU AND SKY & TELESCOPE

The article even argues that resonances and density variations found in the TOI-178 star system could make it the “Rosetta Stone” in understanding the formation and evolution of planets. 

If researchers manage to find planets in the “habitable zone” of a star, where liquid water can exist on their surface, this will be an important and turning point for science. 

Scientists hope that by continuing the resonance chain and using ESO’s upcoming Extremely Large Telescope, they will be able to find more planets and capture them. 

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Space

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns 109
Photo: (Caltech / R. Hurt (IPAC))

To us, the Sun alone seems perfectly normal, but our solar system is actually a strange exception.

Most stars in the Milky Way galaxy have at least one companion star. In a system 1,800 light-years away, astronomers have finally confirmed the existence of a gas giant planet orbiting stars in a triple star system.

Called KOI-5, the system is located in the constellation Cygnus, and the exoplanet was confirmed ten years after it was first detected by the Kepler space telescope.

In fact, the planet – now known as KOI-5Ab – was discovered by Kepler when it began operations back in 2009.

“KOI-5Ab was dropped because it was difficult and we had thousands of other candidates,” astronomer David Siardi of NASA’s Exoplanet Science Institute said.

“There were lighter dives than the KOI-5Ab, and every day we learned something new from Kepler, so the KOI-5 was almost forgotten.”

Exoplanet hunters tend to avoid the complexities of multi-star systems; of the more than 4,300 exoplanets confirmed to date, less than 10 percent are multi-star systems, although such systems dominate the galaxy. As a result, little is known about the properties of exoplanets in multi-star systems compared to those orbiting a lone star.

After Kepler’s discovery, Chardy and other astronomers used ground-based telescopes such as the Palomar Observatory, Keck Observatory, and the Gemini North Telescope to study the system. By 2014, they had identified two companion stars, KOI-5B and KOI-5C.

Scientists were able to establish that the planet KOI-5Ab, is a gas giant that is about half the mass of Saturn and 7 times the size of Earth, and is in a very close five-day orbit around KOI-5A. KOI-5A and KOI-5B, both of roughly the same mass as the Sun, form a relatively close binary system with an orbital period of about 30 years.

KOI-5Ab, the curious planet that orbits in a system of three suns 110

A third star, KOI-5C, orbits the binary system at a much greater distance, with a period of about 400 years – slightly longer than Pluto’s 248-year orbit.

“By studying this system in more detail, perhaps we can understand how planets are created in the universe.”

The discovery was announced at the 237th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

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Space

Why the universe does not fit into science

Why the universe does not fit into science 111
Photo: YouTube

Science can be compared to an artist painting what he has never seen, or to a writer describing other people’s travels: objects that he has never seen, places where he has never been. Sometimes such scientific “arts” turn out to be beautiful and interesting, but most of them will forever remain only theories, because they are beyond human capabilities.

In fact, science has the right only to speculate: how our universe appeared, how old it is, how many stars and other objects it contains.

Universe model

Why the universe does not fit into science 112

How many stars are there in the sky?

With an unarmed eye, a person can see about nine thousand stars in the sky in one cloudless and moonless night. And armed with binoculars or a telescope, much more – up to several million. However, this is much less than their true number in the universe. Indeed, only in our one galaxy (the Milky Way) there are about 400 billion stars. The exact amount, of course, is not known to science. And the visible universe contains about 170 billion galaxies.

It is worth clarifying that scientists can see the universe 46 billion light years deep in all directions. And the visible (observable) universe includes the space accessible to our eyes from the moment of the Big Explosion. In other words, only this (accessible to human perception) space science refers to our universe. Science does not consider everything that follows.

It is believed that there are supposedly a ceptillion (10 to 24 degrees) stars in our universe. These are theoretical calculations based on the approximate size and age of the universe. The origin of the universe is explained by the Big Bang theory. This is why the universe is constantly expanding and the more time passes, the more complex the universe and its components become.

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It is not entirely correct to consider and perceive this scientific theory “head-on”. Scientists always claim that that explosion was not exactly an explosion, and the point that exploded was not the only one. After all, it was everywhere, because space did not exist then. And in general – everything happened quite differently from what is described in the Big Bang theory, but all other descriptions of the origin of the universe are even more incredible and inaccurate.

Separate but interconnected

That which is beyond the reach of human perception is usually discarded by science, or recognized as non-existent. Recognizing one thing, science does not want to recognize the existence of the other, although everything in our world is interconnected and is not able to exist separately – by itself.

Each object of the universe is a part of it much more than an independent, separate object.

Any person, like any material object of our world, consists of components: organs, cells, molecules, atoms. And each of its constituent parts can represent the whole world. Separate, and at the same time connected with all the others.

However, science, as a rule, perceives all the components of the universe – people, animals, plants, objects, the Earth, the Sun, other planets and stars – as separate subjects, thereby limiting itself.

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Even what is considered the visible universe, one of the atoms of which could be called our solar system, is not subject to the boundaries of human perception. But perhaps the atom is an exaggeration, and our solar system is not even an atom, but one of its elements!

How, being so far from the truth, can one reason about something with the degree of probability with which science tries to reason about the origin of the universe?

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