Atlantis, the intriguing mystery that leaves many of us curious to learn more, and some of us skeptical and dismissive. What is it about this lost city that leaves so many of us questioning much of what we have been taught to believe? Is there some truth to the story of Atlantis that we inherently know, deep down inside that is true? Are we connected in some way to this mythical place from, perhaps our past lives?
These questions are fun to ponder, but we are unlikely to get any definite answers, at least not yet.
First, Some History
How much do you know about Atlantis? Where does this story even come from? From what we do know, the first known documentation of the story of Atlantis came from the Greek philosopher, Plato in two of his writings, Timaeus and Critias, both these books date back to about 360 BC. Within these books, Plato wrote that the Greek sage, Solon was given the story of Atlantis in Egypt by a priest and upon his arrival back to Greece, he shared the story with his relative, Dropides who passed it down to his son Critias, who then passed it down to his grandson – also names Critias, who then finally shared it with the well-known Greek philosopher, Socrates.
So, given the above information, you can see that this was a story that was told, and passed down through many generations, therefore it should not be taken as fact. Despite of this, for some reason many of us feel a strong connection to the story of Atlantis and believe it to be true.
In the report, author M. Pierre Termeir, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Director of Service of the Geologic Chart of France, gives a lecture regarding the Atlantean civilization. He makes a compelling case for further study of this lost city:
After a long period of disdainful indifference, observe how in the last few years science is returning to the study of Atlantis. How many naturalists, geologists, zoologists, or botanists are asking one another today whether Plato has not transmitted to us, with slight amplification, a page from the actual history of mankind. No affirmation is yet permissible; but it seems more and more evident that a vast region, continental or made up of great islands, has collapsed west of the Pillars of Hercules, otherwise called the Straight of Gibraltar, and that its collapse occurred in the not far distant past. In any event, the question of Atlantis is placed anew before men of science; and since I do not believe that it can ever be solved without the aid of oceanography, I have thought it natural to discuss it here, in this temple of maritime science, and to call to such a problem, long scorned but now being revived, the attention of oceanographers, as well as the attention of those who, though immersed in the tumult of cities, lend an ear to the distant murmur of the sea.
Regardless of how you feel about the lost city of Atlantis, here are 7 things you probably didn’t know…
1. We Know The Supposed Location
In Plato’s writings, he tells us exactly where the lost city lies, his text reads, “came forth out of the Atlantic Ocean… there was an island situated in front of the straits which are by you [in reference to the ancient Greeks], called the Pillars of Heracles.” Today, these are known as the Straits of Gibraltar, the area between Spain and Africa.
In 2011, archaeologist from the University of Hartford, Richard Freund and his team found cities that were built in the image of Atlantis known as “memorial cities.” They were found in the swamps of Doana National Park, which is just North of Cadiz Spain. Interestingly Cadiz sits right outside of the straights, which has Freund convinced that the real Atlantis was buried in the mud flats of the Atlantic. This matches the part of Plato’s story that says, “the sea in those parts is impassable and impentrable, because there is a shoal of mud in the way; and this was caused by the subsidence of the island.”
2. The City Of Atlantis Was Named After A Demigod
Despite the fact that Atlantis is apparently in the Atlantic ocean, that’s not where it got it’s name. According to the texts, Poseidon – the Greek god of the sea – had five pairs of male twins with an Atlantean woman, named Cleito. Poseidon gave each of his 10 sons a different portion of the island to rule. His first-born Atlas had the entire island and the surrounding ocean named after him.
3. We Are Missing Half The Story
While we have a complete version of Timaeus, we do not have the completed copy of Critias. In this story we have up until Zeus, head of all Greek gods. “Collected all the gods into their most holy habitation, which, being placed in the center of the world, beholds all created things. And when he had called them together, he spake as follows” and that’s where it ends, talk about leaving you on the edge of your seat! Who knows, maybe this next portion of the book was deliberately left out… it is not known whether Plato did this on purpose or if we just never were able to find the completed version. There is also a belief that Plato either wrote or had planned on writing a third book about Atlantis called Hermocrates.
4. If Atlantis Were Real, It Would Be At Least 11,500 Years Old
As the text goes, the story of Atlantis was handed to Solon in Egypt after he wanted to draw one of the priests to speak about their oldest of tales. In order to do this, Solon told the priests of the oldest Greek story what he could recall and spoke to them about the great flood and the first man. One priest responded, “O Solon, Solon… there is not an old man among you… in mind you are all young; there is no old opinion handed down among you by ancient tradition.“
The priest continued to say that the home city of Solon, Athens was actually much older than he thought it was.
5. Plato Believed The Story To Be True
Even though, aside from hearsay, this story doesn’t really have any solid legs to stand on in terms of physical evidence, Critias claims that this story is in fact, true, “Then listen… to a tale which, though is strange, is certainly true, having been attested by Solon.” To which Socrates responds, “Very good, and what is this ancient famous action of the Athenians, which Critias declared, on the authority of Solon, to be not a mere legend, but an actual fact?”
6. Atlantis Was An Empire
In the story told by Plato, he tells us that Atlantis was an empire, “Now in this island of Atlantis, there was a great and wonderful empire which had rule over the whole island and several others, and over parts of the continent, and, furthermore, the men of Atlantis had subjected the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt, and of Europe as far as
Tyrrhenia is another name for Eturia, which is now simply known as Central Italy.
7. Atlantis Represents Just One Of Many Times Mankind Has Been & Will Be Destroyed
The Egyptian priest told Solon that none of his stories were actually “truly ancient” compared to his own. He claimed that the reason that Solon lacked true ancient knowledge is because mankind has been destroyed time and time again.
“There have been, and will be again, many destructions of mankind arising out of many causes; the greatest have been brought about the agencies of fire and water, and other lesser ones by innumerable other causes. When, on the other hand, the gods purge the Earth with a deluge of water, the survivors in your country are herdsmen and shepherds who dwell on the mountains.”
There are many philosophers and spiritual teachers that believe that humankind has been wiped out before and will be wiped out again. Some believe this for a simple reason of science and or natural disasters, others believe this is sort of like a cleansing process for us to start again if we have headed on a path of destruction. I mean think about it, the way we are heading now, in regards to how we are treating our environment, there is a chance that we could wipe ourselves out yet again, unless we learn from our mistakes and change our ways.
What do you think about Atlantis? Do you recall a past life there? Do you feel a strong connection to this mythical place? Let us know in the Collective Evolution Group, and join the discussion!
H/T: ListVerse for coming up with the list.
Homo Naledi, Newly Discovered Species
In 2017, geologists demonstrated that this species, Homo naledi, existed in southern Africa between 236,000 and 335,000 years ago–potentially the same time that modern humans first emerged in Africa. This is a puzzle to scientists, who long held that there was only one species in Africa at this late time period – Homo sapiens. How did this species exist alongside others with brains three times its size? The new study suggests that naledi’s behavior may have reflected the shape and structure of the brain more than its size.
The small brains of Homo naledi raise new questions about the evolution of human brain size. Big brains were costly to human ancestors, and some species may have paid the costs with richer diets, hunting and gathering, and longer childhoods. But that scenario doesn’t seem to work well for Homo naledi, which had hands well-suited for toolmaking, long legs, humanlike feet, and teeth suggesting a high-quality diet. According to study coauthor John Hawks, “Naledi’s brain seems like one you might predict for Homo habilis, two million years ago. But habilis didn’t have such a tiny brain–naledi did.”
Homo naledi may have had a pint-sized brain, but that brain packed a big punch. New research by Ralph Holloway and colleagues – that include researchers from the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa – published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences examines the imprints of the brain upon the skulls of this species, called endocasts. The research highlights the humanlike shape of naledi’s tiny brain, surprising scientists who studied the fossils. These findings draw further into question the long-held belief that human evolution was an inevitable march towards bigger, more complex brains.
The discovery of Homo naledi by Professor Lee Berger of Wits University and his team at the Rising Star caves in the Cradle of Human Kind in 2013 was one of the largest hominin discoveries ever made and hailed as one of the most significant hominid discoveries of the 21st Century. Berger and Professor John Hawkes who was also part of the original Rising Star team who made the naledi discovery, as well as Professor Heather Garvin from Des Moines University in the US, are associated with the Evolutionary Studies Institute (ESI), based at Wits University.
The researchers pieced together traces of Homo naledi’s brain shape from an extraordinary collection of skull fragments and partial crania, from at least five adult individuals. One of these bore a very clear imprint of the convolutions on the surface of the brain’s left frontal lobe. “This is the skull I’ve been waiting for my whole career,” said lead author Ralph Holloway, of Columbia University.
The anatomy of naledi’s frontal lobe was similar to humans, and very different from great apes. Naledi wasn’t alone. Other members of our genus, from Homo erectus to Homo habilis and the small-brained “hobbits”, Homo floresiensis, also share features of the frontal lobe with living humans. But earlier human relatives, like Australopithecus africanus, had a much more apelike shape in this part of the brain, suggesting that functional changes in this brain region emerged with Homo. “It’s too soon to speculate about language or communication in Homo naledi,” said coauthor Shawn Hurst, “but today human language relies upon this brain region.”
The back of the brain also showed humanlike changes in naledi compared to more primitive hominins like Australopithecus. Human brains are usually asymmetrical, with the left brain displaced forward relative to the right. The team found signs of this asymmetry in one of the most complete naledi skull fragments. They also found hints that the visual area of the brain, in the back of the cortex, was relatively smaller in naledi than in chimpanzees–another humanlike trait.
A humanlike brain organisation might mean that naledi shared some behaviours with humans despite having a much smaller brain size. Lee Berger, a co-author on the paper, suggests that the recognition of naledi’s small but complex brain will also have a significant impact on the study of African archaeology. “Archaeologists have been too quick to assume that complex stone tool industries were made by modern humans. With naledi being found in southern Africa, at the same time and place that the Middle Stone Age industry emerged, maybe we’ve had the story wrong the whole time.”
Source: The Daily Galaxy
Largest Dinosaur Ever Left Its Mark On Scottish Isle of Skye, Rare Footprint Discovered
Footprints from the largest dinosaur to have ever existed on Earth have been discovered on Scotland’s Isle of Skye.
The fossilized footprints were left by the 170-million-year-old early sauropods, which grew to at least 49ft long and weighed more than 10 tons. Footprints from the ‘older cousins’ of the Tyrannosaurus rex, the two-meter-tall theropods, were also found in a muddy lagoon on the island.
Because of the scarcity of evidence on the Middle Jurassic period, the findings have been described as “globally important.” Dr Steve Brusatte of Edinburgh University said: “It’s important because it’s a large site for dinosaur tracks, those are pretty hard to find.
“It shows both long-necked and meat-eaters were on the same site at the same time living together, side-by-side,” she said, according to The Telegraph. “It captures a moment in time 170 million years ago when they were just hanging out in a lagoon, living on the beach, back when Scotland was much warmer and dinosaurs were beginning their march to global dominance.
“Their long-necked prints are almost car-tire size, whereas the meat-eater ones are about the size of a basketball,” added Dr Brusatte.
Researchers from the University of Edinburgh, Staffin Museum, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences measured, photographed and analyzed around 50 footprints in a tidal area at Brothers’ Point – Rubha nam Brathairean – a headland on Skye’s Trotternish peninsula. Their findings were published in the Scottish Journal of Geology.
The fossils are thought to be the oldest ever found in Scotland. Another set was found in 2015, but they were slightly later and smaller. The oldest dinosaur fossil discovery in the UK is thought to have been of a 200-million-old Tyrannosaurus Rex relative, the Dracoraptor hanigani, found on a Welsh beach in 2016.
Fossilised remains of giant creature, the oldest known Jurassic dinosaurs and related to the fearsome T Rex were discovered on Lavernock beach by a pair of fossil-hunting brothers.
Dracoraptor is Latin for “dragon robber” – with a red dragon the national symbol of Wales.
The brothers donated the remains to the National Museum Cardiff where it is on display in the main hall.
featured image © Gurcan Sarisoy. Isle of Skye
The gigantic stones of Stonehenge were moved there by GLACIERS, new theory claims
A Welsh scientist has called previous theories surrounding Stonehenge ‘mythology,’ and has made a radical new claim that the stones were moved 500,000 years ago by a glacier.
Brian John believes he has solved the mystery of how massive bluestones moved 140 miles west to the south of England from a quarry in Wales where they are believed to have originated.
A popular theory is that humans carried or dragged the stones 5,000 years ago, but it has never been discovered how Stone Age people achieved such a feat.
According to John, the evidence supports a scenario in which the bluestones were carried to the site by a glacier, 500,000 years ago.
His theory would also answer the question of why the ancient builders of Stonehenge believed the stones to have such a spiritual significance that they were worth the effort to transport.
According to John’s new book The Stonehenge Bluestones, the stones did not have a deep meaning to ancient Britons. Instead, they were just there.
‘Over the past 50 years there has been a drift, in Stonehenge studies, from science toward mythology. This has been driven partly by constant media demands for new and spectacular stories about the monument,’ John told British media this week.
In the book, John argues that a glacier carved its way across Wales thousands of years ago.
He believes the ice picked up bluestones along the way and eventually dropped them on the Salisbury Plain after the ice melted.
In 2015, John helped write a report arguing that what was believed to be evidence of neolithic quarrying of bluestones in Wales was actually an ‘entirely natural’ process.
‘This has been driven partly by constant media demands for new and spectacular stories about the monument, and partly by the archaeological emphasis on impact,’ he said.
‘So we see an obsession with narrative at the expense of evidence, and a host of newly manufactured myths which are even more wacky than the old ones. It’s time for a cool reassessment.’
Stonehenge is made up of two types of stone: the bluestones that make up the smaller ring, as well as the sarsen trilithons are that make up the outer ring of the circle.
Sarsen is a layer of sandstone that formed millions of years ago above the chalk layer on Salisbury Plain.
During the various ice ages, permafrost repeatedly froze and thawed this chalk layer, shattering the sarsen.
Over millennia, these stones sank below the surface, leaving a few fragmented rocks jutting out.
These stones, of varying sizes, can be found across Salisbury Plain and the Marlborough Downs in Wiltshire, as well as in Kent and in smaller quantities in Berkshire, Essex, Oxfordshire, Dorset and Hampshire.
Stonehenge is one of the most prominent prehistoric monuments in Britain.
The monument that can be seen today is the final stage of a project that spanned 1,500 years.
Stonehenge was donated to the nation’s heritage collection in 1918 by owners Cecil and Mary Chubb.
Mr Chubb had bought the then-neglected monument on impulse at an auction three years earlier having been sent there by his wife to bid for a set of dining room chairs.
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