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3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

From Britain’s most beloved outlaw to the founder of all Turkic peoples, find out more about three historical figures whose existence remains up for debate.

1 – King Arthur. Knight Of Camelot

We’ve all heard stories about King Arthur of Camelot, who according to medieval legend led British forces (including his trusted Knights of the Round Table) in battle against Saxon invaders in the early sixth century. But was King Arthur actually a real person, or simply a hero of Celtic mythology? Though debate has gone on for centuries, historians have been unable to confirm that Arthur really existed. He doesn’t appear in the only surviving contemporary source about the Saxon invasion, in which the Celtic monk Gildas wrote of a real-life battle at Mons Badonicus (Badon Hills) around 500 A.D. Several hundred years later, Arthur appears for the first time in the writings of a Welsh historian named Nennius, who gave a list of 12 battles the warrior king supposedly fought. All drawn from Welsh poetry, the battles took place in so many different times and places that it would have been impossible for one man to have participated in all of them.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

The Death of King Arthur. James Archer (artist) (1823 – 1904)

Welsh origin

Later Welsh writers drew on Nennius’ work, and Arthur’s fame spread beyond Wales and the Celtic world, particularly after the Norman conquest of 1066 connected England to northern France. In the popular 12th-century book “History of the Kings of Britain,” Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote the first life story of Arthur, describing his magic sword Caliburn (later known as Excalibur), his trusted knight Lancelot, Queen Guinevere and the wizard Merlin. An irresistible blend of myth and fact, the book was supposedly based on a lost Celtic manuscript that only Geoffrey was able to examine.

Evidence from the ground

The second key source of information about Arthur is archaeology. Archaeological evidence for contact between Wales, Cornwall and the Saxon World takes many forms – from metalwork manufactured in an Anglo-Saxon style discovered in south-east Wales, to the distribution of early medieval pottery imported from the Continent and the shores of the Mediterranean.

Excavations at Dinas Powys, a princely hillfort near Cardiff occupied between the 5th and 7th-centuries, has informed us about the nature of a high status site in south Wales at this time. This site is contemporary with others like South Cadbury in Somerset and Tintagel in Cornwall (both with their own Arthurian traditions).

Arthur’s court at Caerleon

A large number of sites in Wales have Arthurian associations, though few have proven medieval origin. In the 12th century, Caerleon was thought by Geoffrey of Monmouth to be the location of Arthur’s court, while the hillfort of Dinas Emrys in north Wales is associated with Ambrosius, Vortigern and Merlin.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed
bronze statue of King Arthur, Cornwall, UK

Arthur’s Stone

Some half dozen Welsh Stone Age megaliths are called ‘Arthur’s Stone’, and his name has also been given to an Iron Age hillfort on the Clwydian Range, Moel Arthur, near Denbigh. According to one tradition, King Arthur and his knights lie sleeping in a cave below Craig y Ddinas, Pontneddfechan, in south Wales.

2 – Ilya Muromets. Mighty Giant Of Russia

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Painting by V. Vasnetsov (1914) depicts Ilya Muromets (Image Source)

In numerous folk tales he is described as strong and fearless, he waves his mace to crush trees or else simply uproots them with his bare hands – all this to help his fellow villagers build a road through the forest. He can defeat terrifying monsters: Zmey Gorynych (the three-headed flying serpent) and Solovey Razboinik (Nightingale the Robber). He boldly challenges Idolishe Poganoe (Tainted Beastgod), a knight corrupted by evil forces who threatens the integrity of Kiev Rus (the medieval name for Russia).

Out of the three Russian folk heroes, the so-called bogatyrs (Ilya Muromets, Dobrynia Nikitich and Alyosha Popvich), Ilya is the most famous one, as well as the group’s leader. More stories are associated with his name and, unlike his mythical counterparts, the stories about him have a distinct chronological structure.

The chronicles suggest the famous Russian hero spent 33 years of his life lying on a stove. The original old Russian stove has a sleeping loft on the top which mainly was used as a resting place. The mysterious illness which kept paralysed Ilya’s body for long years was miraculously cured by three religious wanderers.

Declared a saint

After long years of service to Vladimir the Great, the ruler of Kiev Rus, Ilya Muromets decided to leave his military career and dedicated the rest of his life to God and became a monk. Some historical records suggest he spent last years of his life in Kiev-Pecherski Monastery, where he was buried and declared a saint after his death.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Russian saint Ilia Muromets. Russian icon. End of 19th century. Unknown artist (Image Source)

In 1988, the remains that allegedly belong to famous Russian hero were analysed by team of local experts. Their investigation showed that the remains belonged to a man of above average height for that time (177 cm), who suffered from an incurable spine defect and deformities at the extremities. Traces of battle wounds were also discovered, showing that Ilya was probably killed during the siege of Kiev in 1204. How he was cured and how he was able to participate in battles remains a mystery, yet it was obvious from the remains that the life of the factual saint bore many similarities to that of the mythical bogatyr.

3 – Oghuz Khan. Father of Turkic Peoples

There is no definitive source for a history covering this period therefore reports of Oghuz as ancestor of the Turks were handed down by word of mouth. The ‘Oghuz Qaghan Legend’ emerged in Turkestan shortly before the time of Rashid al-Din (1247-1318, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran); it is much more poetic than Rashid al-Din’s dry description, however only a fragment remains.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Statue of Oghuz Khan in Turmenistan, Ashgabat (Image Source)

Oghuz Khan myth

Oghuz was born in Central Asia as the son of Qara (Black) Khan, leader of the Turks. He stopped drinking his mother’s milk after the first time and asked for meat. During the name giving ceremony where the elders are gathered to find the most suitable name for the newborn, he started speaking and said he was choosing his name as Oghuz. After that, he grew up miraculously and only in forty days he became a young adult. At the time of his birth, the lands of the Turks were preyed upon by a dragon named Kıyant. Oghuz armed himself and went to kill the dragon. He set a trap and killed the great dragon with his bronze lance and cut off his head with his iron sword.

He becomes a hero after killing the dragon. He forms a special warrior band from the forty sons of forty Turk beys (clan chiefs) thus gathering the clans together under his rule.

Rashid al-Din locates the origin of the Oghuz in west Turkestan. His description begins with the later Gasnavids (Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin)  than reaches back of the myths surrounding the birth and early journeys made by Oghuz in the magic north. In the Legend Oghuz is a grandson of Japhet, one of the sons of Noah. Im the pre-Islamic times he is described as monotheist even in early childhood, and rejects the contemporary paganism. With this conflict his life as a warrior begins until finally he becomes conqueror of the world. According to the legend Oghuz wages war in several countries including India, East Turkestan, China, the Volga area and the ‘Land of Darkness’. Other areas probably corresponds to the recorded conquest of the Oghuz in the 11th century. Thus the Oghuz legend merges with great conquest of the Sedshuk period, including, among others, Georgia (1049), Azerbaijan (1054), Baghdad (1055), Jerusalem (1071) etc.

Like Adam Oghuz died at an age of more than a thousand years.

Oghuz Khan is sometimes considered the mythological founder of all Turkic peoples, and ancestor of the Oghuz subbranch. Oguz had 6 sons and these 6 sons had 4 sons . Totally, 24 grandson which we considered the father of 24 Oghuz tribe including Kayı (Ottomans). Oghuz-Turks conquered Palestine in 1070 AD, Iran was ruled by Seljuks, an Oghuz tribe, Iraq, and Anatolian Peninsula were conquered by Oghuz Turks speaking Oguz-Turkish language (Ottomans).

Magic arrows of Oghuz

The elderly wise advisor of Oghuz saw a dream one day where he saw one bow made of gold and three arrows. The bow was extending all the way from sunrise to sunset . In the morning, he told the dream to Oghuz Khagan, saying “Oghuz Khagan, may you have a long and happy life, may all the things the Sky God showed in the dream become true.” Upon hearing the dream, Oghuz Khagan calls his six sons and sends three of them them to the east and three of them to the west. His elder sons find a golden bow in the east. His younger sons find three silver arrows in the west. Oghuz Khan breaks the golden bow into three pieces and gives each to his three older sons Gün (Sun), Ay (Moon) and Yıldız (Star). He says: “My older sons, take this bow and shoot your arrows to the sky like this bow.” He gives three silver arrows to his three younger sons Gök (Sky), Dağ (Mountain) and Deniz (Sea) and says: “My younger sons, take these silver arrows. A bow shoots arrows and may you be like arrows.” Then, he passes his lands onto his sons, Bozoks (Gray Arrows – elder sons) and Üçoks (Three Arrows – younger sons) at a final banquet. Then he says:

“My sons, I walked a lot on the Earth;

I saw many battles;

I threw so many arrows and spears;

I rode many horses;

I made my enemies cry;

I made my friends smile;

I paid my debt to Tengri;

Now I am passing my land over to you.”

References:

National Museum Wales

History

Russiapedia

History of Ogus‘  Eddie Austerlitz

Featured image: Bogatyrs (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov

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Fact or fiction

Maybe the Earth is not our planet?

The curious hypothesis of the cosmic origin of mankind was put forward by the American ecologist Ellis Silver

The question of how exactly our planet received life remains open. Some scientists believe that the first living organisms appeared on Mars. Others indicate that many amino acids have been discovered in space. And therefore, life could appear in the entire solar system at the same time. 

What is out there in the solar system? Living organisms, in their opinion, are everywhere in space. And somewhere, life advanced very quickly to complex forms. And somewhere, it remained at the microbial level.

Among researchers there are those who believe that planet Earth is not really the birthplace of mankind. And that we, in fact, appeared in some other place in space. And we just settled this world once in ancient times.

This is not our planet

There is one environmentalist in America, his name is Dr. Ellis Silver. A few years ago he wrote a book in which he reflected the above point of view

People are not at all from the Earth

Neanderthals startled and looked at each other.

The author claims that humans cannot be “natives” on this planet. And perhaps they came here from completely different places. Silver makes arguments based on human physiology. He suggests that we did not evolve along with other forms of life on Earth. But in fact, we arrived from somewhere else in the universe. Or some extraterrestrial beings brought us here tens of thousands of years ago.

Does that sound crazy? Or is it contrary to your beliefs? Having read this, your friends may be ready to laugh at you and tell you that you are reading insane theories? Do not listen to them. It is believed that higher entities were actually left to watch us …

But seriously – why not? Maybe we really look at familiar things in a different way? After all, we really want to understand our tasks in this world and find out our real origin. In addition, Silver is still an environmental scientist. He devoted his life to cleaning the Pacific Ocean from plastic waste. And, besides, Silver claims that his book is based on completely scientific works. They studied the obvious differences between humans and other animals.

So what are the facts and arguments of the ecologist?

Does your back hurt? Time to go home

Silver believes that some chronic human diseases, such as back pain, may indicate that people actually evolved in a world with less gravity. The scientist also talks about other unique human traits. For example, that babies have relatively large heads and women have difficulties in childbirth. (The question is debatable here. It turns out that in our native world, babies have smaller heads or something?). Silver argues that no other species on Earth has such a problem. He also points to 223 additional genes in humans that are not found in any other genome of an earthly being.

Silver believes that the human race has “serious flaws” testifying that we are not from this world.

“We are all chronically ill,” says Silver. “If you find a person who is 100% healthy and does not suffer from any (possibly hidden or unidentified) condition or disorder (there is an extensive list in the book), I will be extremely surprised. I haven’t seen such people. ”

Yes, it was not without reason that the famous saying was born that there are no healthy people. This topic is severely unexplored.

“I believe that many of our problems stem from the simple fact that the clocks of our internal organism evolved in a 25-hour cycle. This has been proven by sleep researchers. But the earthly day lasts only 24 hours, ”the scientist writes.

Raw meat? Eat yourself

In his book, Silver suggests that one of the possible places where a person actually appeared is Alpha Centauri, the star system closest to the sun.
What other arguments does the scientist give? He writes that humanity is obviously the most highly developed species on the planet. However, man is surprisingly poorly adapted to the conditions that our planet provides. Sunlight gives us cancer. Natural (raw) foods disgust us. We have an extremely high level of chronic diseases and much more. Plus, many people have the feeling that they are strangers in this world. They feel like guests on this planet.

Silver suggests that humanity did not evolve on Earth from a specific local ancesto but was developed in a completely different place. We were transferred to Earth as a fully developed species of Homo sapiens somewhere between 60,000 and 200,000 years ago.

Could an American environmentalist be right? Could it be that this planet is just our colony? The idea is interesting. And there is not a single argument that would completely reject such a possibility …

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Fact or fiction

El Coco – a child-killing monster from Hispanic folklore

The amazing HBO new series “The Outsider” based on the novel by Stephen King, refers to a mythical creature called El Coco (El Cucuy, El Cuco, etc.), which brutally kills children.

From the point of view of folk mythology, El Coco is an analogue to the Boogeyman, but the stories about him are much more detailed and scary.

Stories about El Coco as a night grandmother can be traced back to the 16-17th century, but stories about a monster named Coca or Cuca arose much earlier. Back then this word was associated with a strange sea monster, unlike any known animal. For example, there is a story about a monster that looks like a turtle, which attacked cats and children and ate them. This monster was called Cucuy.

The word Coco itself in Spain and Portugal can be translated as “the crown of the head” or “skull”, so El Coco is a creature primarily with an unusual head. Sometimes he has a pumpkin head, sometimes like a coconut with three “holes” (the word coconut came from there), sometimes like a naked skull.

If the child does not obey, parents can say that El Coco will come for him and take him with him in his bag, and then eat him. The oldest children’s scarecrow poem about El Coco dates from the 17th century.

Sleep baby, sleep …
Otherwise, El Cuco will come and eat you.

In Brazil, there is a traditional lullaby with the words:

Sleep baby, otherwise El Coco will come
When your dad goes to the farm and your mom goes to work.

El Coco may not take children, but scare them by watching them through the window or somehow force the child to leave his bed (move into his body, for example) and go where no one will find him and the child will die there.

In addition to Spain and Portugal, horror stories about El Coco are mainly used in Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. Hhe is depicted everywhere in different ways, like a man in a hood, a hairy monster under the bed, sometimes even like a humanoid dragon. Such a discrepancy is justified by the fact that the eyewitnesses who could normally consider El Coco did not survive, while others saw him only briefly.

If the Guardian Angel cares about the safety of people, then El Coco is often represented as his opponent and the children are his victims, because they are easiest to reach and defenseless. In this interpretation, El Coco is an evil demonic creature.

In Brazil, El Coco looks like a monster with the body of a woman and the head of an alligator. On her back, there is a large bag where she puts the abducted children. Brazilian El Coco is often the main villain in children’s books.

There are many stories from eyewitnesses who were frightened by El Coco in their childhood and who actually saw something that could be imagined as El Coco. On the whole, the whole range of strange creatures that come to the children at night to scare them or cause them physical harm is very large, diverse, and difficult to combine into one.

Some researchers are convinced that the myths about El Coco and their relationship with children most likely arose not just as an ordinary parental scarecrow, but on the basis of something real. Something scared the children, and then the children disappeared and they were never found. Therefore, they began to say that the one who abducts them swallows them.

It is possible that the basis of the myth of El Cuco is criminal activity, children have always been a welcome prey for different purposes. Perhaps even, they are the same creatures abducting children and adults in our days, including irrevocably – the aliens.

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Fact or fiction

Angels may be aliens from Atlantis, Tom DeLonge insists

Angels-Atlanteans-DeLonge

It “looks like” Jason Colavito, author and editor based in Albany, NY, internationally recognized by scholars, literature theorists and scientists for his pioneering work that explores the connections between science, pseudoscience and speculative fiction, did not like a message recently posted by Tom Delonge on the Instagram.

Angels may be aliens from Atlantis, insists Tom DeLonge

Last week, To the Stars Academy of Arts and Science founder and interim leader Tom DeLonge shared a bizarre Instagram post in which he seemed to endorse a number of controversial ancient astronaut and Theosophy-style beliefs about the imagined connection between space aliens, Atlantis and Lemuria, and Biblical angels. DeLonge discussed midcentury ideas favored by Theosophy-inspired “contactees” and UFO preachers, and it appeared that he favors the idea that Biblical angels and space aliens are the same. Here is what he had to say:

Here’s what he published:

In the early 50’s a man was claiming to have regular visits from “spacemen” that were the same entities that UFO contactees describe meeting, as well as the same ones he said were portrayed in the Bible as “Angels.” He said they had outposts in our Solar System and had connections to Atlantis and Lemuria. He took many photos in the early 50’s (no photoshop, no computers) but many were overexposed (potentially) because of the propulsion field coming from the craft — A man in 2017 wanted to make a 3D animation of these craft and asked to borrow all the photos and negatives from the 50’s to help create the animation. Upon digital enhancement, within a black negative, this figure and a craft appeared. This may be what people describe as the “Tall Whites” or, “The Atanteans” [sic] or… “The Angels” of the Bible. They glow, they can almost look translucent (potentially) if they are surrounded by an electromagnetic force field, but really, they may be walking around on Earth “just like men” as the Bible and Vedic texts describe.

To be fair, there is actually a connection of sorts: As Ignatius Donnelly recognized (mostly by accident), Plato modeled the end of Atlantis in the Critias on Near Eastern flood myths, so the story resonates with intertestamental Jewish myths of pre-Flood activities of the fallen angel Watchers and their giant sons the Nephilim, whom Theosophy identified with Venusians and Martians and whom ancient astronaut theorists identified as visitors from other star systems.

I’d like to say that this was out of character, but it isn’t. These same ideas permeate DeLonge’s books, and they have also shown up in his Twitter feed and his media interviews, particularly his train wreck appearance on The Joe Rogan Experience a few years ago. DeLonge is proud of the fact that much of his knowledge of the paranormal and extraterrestrial derives from 1960s and 1970s paperback bestsellers, and there is no evidence that his knowledge base has grown since claiming to be the anointed mediator between the U.S. government and humanity.

This is not the first time DeLonge has shared dubious material on social media. He infamously shared a screen capture from the 2000 miniseries Taken and claimed it to be secret government images of a flying saucer.

I am, however, interested in the increasingly explicit efforts of the TTSA crew and their cousins in the Ancient Aliens orbit to equate angels and aliens and to follow Ignatius Donnelly in making Atlantis into an Eden. It has long been obvious that the ancient astronaut theory is religion in the guise of pseudoscience. It was even fairly obvious that the religion in question was Theosophy, since all the major ancient astronaut writers cite Helena Blavatsky approvingly.

But is there anything someone can say anymore that will disqualify one from lucrative government research contracts and cable TV contracts? It seems the only thing that can ensure that one is locked out of the government-media revolving door is to conclude that pseudoscientific ideas are bullshit.

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