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3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

From Britain’s most beloved outlaw to the founder of all Turkic peoples, find out more about three historical figures whose existence remains up for debate.

1 – King Arthur. Knight Of Camelot

We’ve all heard stories about King Arthur of Camelot, who according to medieval legend led British forces (including his trusted Knights of the Round Table) in battle against Saxon invaders in the early sixth century. But was King Arthur actually a real person, or simply a hero of Celtic mythology? Though debate has gone on for centuries, historians have been unable to confirm that Arthur really existed. He doesn’t appear in the only surviving contemporary source about the Saxon invasion, in which the Celtic monk Gildas wrote of a real-life battle at Mons Badonicus (Badon Hills) around 500 A.D. Several hundred years later, Arthur appears for the first time in the writings of a Welsh historian named Nennius, who gave a list of 12 battles the warrior king supposedly fought. All drawn from Welsh poetry, the battles took place in so many different times and places that it would have been impossible for one man to have participated in all of them.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

The Death of King Arthur. James Archer (artist) (1823 – 1904)

Welsh origin

Later Welsh writers drew on Nennius’ work, and Arthur’s fame spread beyond Wales and the Celtic world, particularly after the Norman conquest of 1066 connected England to northern France. In the popular 12th-century book “History of the Kings of Britain,” Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote the first life story of Arthur, describing his magic sword Caliburn (later known as Excalibur), his trusted knight Lancelot, Queen Guinevere and the wizard Merlin. An irresistible blend of myth and fact, the book was supposedly based on a lost Celtic manuscript that only Geoffrey was able to examine.

Evidence from the ground

The second key source of information about Arthur is archaeology. Archaeological evidence for contact between Wales, Cornwall and the Saxon World takes many forms – from metalwork manufactured in an Anglo-Saxon style discovered in south-east Wales, to the distribution of early medieval pottery imported from the Continent and the shores of the Mediterranean.

Excavations at Dinas Powys, a princely hillfort near Cardiff occupied between the 5th and 7th-centuries, has informed us about the nature of a high status site in south Wales at this time. This site is contemporary with others like South Cadbury in Somerset and Tintagel in Cornwall (both with their own Arthurian traditions).

Arthur’s court at Caerleon

A large number of sites in Wales have Arthurian associations, though few have proven medieval origin. In the 12th century, Caerleon was thought by Geoffrey of Monmouth to be the location of Arthur’s court, while the hillfort of Dinas Emrys in north Wales is associated with Ambrosius, Vortigern and Merlin.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed
bronze statue of King Arthur, Cornwall, UK

Arthur’s Stone

Some half dozen Welsh Stone Age megaliths are called ‘Arthur’s Stone’, and his name has also been given to an Iron Age hillfort on the Clwydian Range, Moel Arthur, near Denbigh. According to one tradition, King Arthur and his knights lie sleeping in a cave below Craig y Ddinas, Pontneddfechan, in south Wales.

2 – Ilya Muromets. Mighty Giant Of Russia

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Painting by V. Vasnetsov (1914) depicts Ilya Muromets (Image Source)

In numerous folk tales he is described as strong and fearless, he waves his mace to crush trees or else simply uproots them with his bare hands – all this to help his fellow villagers build a road through the forest. He can defeat terrifying monsters: Zmey Gorynych (the three-headed flying serpent) and Solovey Razboinik (Nightingale the Robber). He boldly challenges Idolishe Poganoe (Tainted Beastgod), a knight corrupted by evil forces who threatens the integrity of Kiev Rus (the medieval name for Russia).

Out of the three Russian folk heroes, the so-called bogatyrs (Ilya Muromets, Dobrynia Nikitich and Alyosha Popvich), Ilya is the most famous one, as well as the group’s leader. More stories are associated with his name and, unlike his mythical counterparts, the stories about him have a distinct chronological structure.

The chronicles suggest the famous Russian hero spent 33 years of his life lying on a stove. The original old Russian stove has a sleeping loft on the top which mainly was used as a resting place. The mysterious illness which kept paralysed Ilya’s body for long years was miraculously cured by three religious wanderers.

Declared a saint

After long years of service to Vladimir the Great, the ruler of Kiev Rus, Ilya Muromets decided to leave his military career and dedicated the rest of his life to God and became a monk. Some historical records suggest he spent last years of his life in Kiev-Pecherski Monastery, where he was buried and declared a saint after his death.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Russian saint Ilia Muromets. Russian icon. End of 19th century. Unknown artist (Image Source)

In 1988, the remains that allegedly belong to famous Russian hero were analysed by team of local experts. Their investigation showed that the remains belonged to a man of above average height for that time (177 cm), who suffered from an incurable spine defect and deformities at the extremities. Traces of battle wounds were also discovered, showing that Ilya was probably killed during the siege of Kiev in 1204. How he was cured and how he was able to participate in battles remains a mystery, yet it was obvious from the remains that the life of the factual saint bore many similarities to that of the mythical bogatyr.

3 – Oghuz Khan. Father of Turkic Peoples

There is no definitive source for a history covering this period therefore reports of Oghuz as ancestor of the Turks were handed down by word of mouth. The ‘Oghuz Qaghan Legend’ emerged in Turkestan shortly before the time of Rashid al-Din (1247-1318, historian and physician in Ilkhanate-ruled Iran); it is much more poetic than Rashid al-Din’s dry description, however only a fragment remains.

3 Legendary Heroes Who May Or May Not Have Existed

Statue of Oghuz Khan in Turmenistan, Ashgabat (Image Source)

Oghuz Khan myth

Oghuz was born in Central Asia as the son of Qara (Black) Khan, leader of the Turks. He stopped drinking his mother’s milk after the first time and asked for meat. During the name giving ceremony where the elders are gathered to find the most suitable name for the newborn, he started speaking and said he was choosing his name as Oghuz. After that, he grew up miraculously and only in forty days he became a young adult. At the time of his birth, the lands of the Turks were preyed upon by a dragon named Kıyant. Oghuz armed himself and went to kill the dragon. He set a trap and killed the great dragon with his bronze lance and cut off his head with his iron sword.

He becomes a hero after killing the dragon. He forms a special warrior band from the forty sons of forty Turk beys (clan chiefs) thus gathering the clans together under his rule.

Rashid al-Din locates the origin of the Oghuz in west Turkestan. His description begins with the later Gasnavids (Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin)  than reaches back of the myths surrounding the birth and early journeys made by Oghuz in the magic north. In the Legend Oghuz is a grandson of Japhet, one of the sons of Noah. Im the pre-Islamic times he is described as monotheist even in early childhood, and rejects the contemporary paganism. With this conflict his life as a warrior begins until finally he becomes conqueror of the world. According to the legend Oghuz wages war in several countries including India, East Turkestan, China, the Volga area and the ‘Land of Darkness’. Other areas probably corresponds to the recorded conquest of the Oghuz in the 11th century. Thus the Oghuz legend merges with great conquest of the Sedshuk period, including, among others, Georgia (1049), Azerbaijan (1054), Baghdad (1055), Jerusalem (1071) etc.

Like Adam Oghuz died at an age of more than a thousand years.

Oghuz Khan is sometimes considered the mythological founder of all Turkic peoples, and ancestor of the Oghuz subbranch. Oguz had 6 sons and these 6 sons had 4 sons . Totally, 24 grandson which we considered the father of 24 Oghuz tribe including Kayı (Ottomans). Oghuz-Turks conquered Palestine in 1070 AD, Iran was ruled by Seljuks, an Oghuz tribe, Iraq, and Anatolian Peninsula were conquered by Oghuz Turks speaking Oguz-Turkish language (Ottomans).

Magic arrows of Oghuz

The elderly wise advisor of Oghuz saw a dream one day where he saw one bow made of gold and three arrows. The bow was extending all the way from sunrise to sunset . In the morning, he told the dream to Oghuz Khagan, saying “Oghuz Khagan, may you have a long and happy life, may all the things the Sky God showed in the dream become true.” Upon hearing the dream, Oghuz Khagan calls his six sons and sends three of them them to the east and three of them to the west. His elder sons find a golden bow in the east. His younger sons find three silver arrows in the west. Oghuz Khan breaks the golden bow into three pieces and gives each to his three older sons Gün (Sun), Ay (Moon) and Yıldız (Star). He says: “My older sons, take this bow and shoot your arrows to the sky like this bow.” He gives three silver arrows to his three younger sons Gök (Sky), Dağ (Mountain) and Deniz (Sea) and says: “My younger sons, take these silver arrows. A bow shoots arrows and may you be like arrows.” Then, he passes his lands onto his sons, Bozoks (Gray Arrows – elder sons) and Üçoks (Three Arrows – younger sons) at a final banquet. Then he says:

“My sons, I walked a lot on the Earth;

I saw many battles;

I threw so many arrows and spears;

I rode many horses;

I made my enemies cry;

I made my friends smile;

I paid my debt to Tengri;

Now I am passing my land over to you.”

References:

National Museum Wales

History

Russiapedia

History of Ogus‘  Eddie Austerlitz

Featured image: Bogatyrs (1898) by Viktor Vasnetsov

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Fact or fiction

Ghost of James Bond Seems to Visit His Daughter Frequently

“There was no one in the street and this little Japanese man in his trainers came up to me with this mobile phone. He started pointing at it, going, ‘MI5, MI5, James Bond, James Bond, MI5?’ I said, ‘Are you looking for the MI5 building?’ He went, ‘Yeah, yeah, James Bond, 007.’ Now, of all the people to come up to in the street, it’s me.”

“Me” is Moore, Deborah Moore, and the James Bond she’s referring to is her late dad, Sir Roger Moore, who played the iconic 007 in Live and Let Die, The Man with the Golden Gun, The Spy Who Loved Me, Moonraker, For Your Eyes Only, Octopussy and A View to a Kill. In a recent interview with The Sun, Ms. Moore revealed that she has had a number of strange experiences that she attributes to her father’s ghost making its presence felt to her.

“I was like, ‘Dad, this is you having a laugh.’ So there’s all these little things which always make it feel as though he’s around me.”

The encounter with the man looking for the MI5 building occurred in England as she was on her way to the grocery store and she believes there’s no way he could have known her identity and relation to James Bond. Her only appearances with her father were as a child (billed as Deborah Barrymore) on an episode of the TV show The Pretenders! and in the non-Bond comedy Bullseye!. Coincidentally, Ms. Moore appeared in another Bond film — as a flight attendant in the 2002 Bond film, Die Another Day – and as a secretary in the 1989 biopic Goldeneye: The Secret Life of Ian Fleming.

“I was walking along the beach and there was this big Russian boat and when it moved the colors changed and the side said 007.”

That incident happened while she was in France for the christening of her brother’s children (Roger Moore’s grandchildren).

“And then the friend that I was with, her first day back in work — she lives in Sweden — she said, ‘The only picture in this entire office was of your father.’”

These incidents have Ms. Moore convinced James Bond visits her regularly, but she shouldn’t be surprised. While reported the death in 2017 of the 89-year-old actor, Surrey Live revealed that a young Roger Moore had multiple encounters himself with ghosts at the Angel Hotel in Guilford in Surrey. The first elicited a very non-Bond-like reaction from Sir Roger.

“I was frozen. I wanted to call out and scream, but couldn’t speak. I was numb – paralyzed from head to toe. I was sitting bolt upright in my bed and watching a white ghostly figure moving towards me. It was the apparition of a man. The shape of the body was clearly defined. There was a head, body and legs – but it was mist-like. I pulled myself together, somehow calmed myself and then tried to communicate with the ghost.

I said softly: ‘What do you want? Are you troubled?’ As I went to move from the bed the ghost disappeared – just vanished!”

Shaken AND stirred (you knew it was coming eventually) by the first encounter, he was a little more prepared the next night when the ghost returned.

“It returned at the exact same time – about 2am. I was petrified. I thought ‘It’s after me. What does it want with me? I tried to make contact once again, but to no avail. It vanished again.”

Being James Bond, he decided to stick it out for a third night. When he entered the room the bible was mysteriously opened to the 23rd Psalm (The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want). He left it that way and no ghost appeared. However, in the morning he encountered a maid who stunned him by asking if he’d seen the ghost. When he said no, she replied “I didn’t think you would.”

“The hotel is rumoured to be haunted by several ghosts, with nuns reportedly seen walking down staircases and a 19th century Eastern European soldier staring at a couple out of their room’s mirror for so long the husband sketched a picture of it.”

According to an old article about the hotel’s ghost found by Surrey Live, Moore’s maid knew that the 23rd Psalm scared away these ghosts and left the bible open for Moore.

Is Deborah Moore in contact with the trick-playing ghost of her fun-loving father? They could all be coincidences – except for Sir Roger’s own encounter with much scarier spirits. Did they teach him how to do it?

Or did he learn them while playing The Saint?

Source: Mysterious Universe

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‘Nuke Mars’: Elon Musk sets Twitter on fire with interplanetary declaration of war

Serial entrepreneur and part-time meme enthusiast Elon Musk has once again whipped the internet commentariat into a frenzy, this time with a simple, two-word proposition on Twitter: “Nuke Mars!”

The idea isn’t necessarily new, Musk has discussed using thermonuclear weapons to ‘nuke’ the Red Planet’s poles to assist in terraforming the planet for future human colonization for years, but never one to miss an opportunity to stir the pot, Musk took to Twitter on Friday to gauge support.

Predictably, many answered Musk’s call to arms with memes and good-natured mockery. “Well that escalated quickly. But I support your decision Lord Elon. Nuke it,” one commenter quipped.

The idea behind ‘nuking Mars’ is to release trapped CO2 from various sites on the planet, creating a greenhouse effect on the planet by trapping liquid water on the surface before it could either freeze or evaporate. Sounds straightforward, if a little fiendish, but there’s just one problem, as NASA pointed out in a study into terraforming the fourth planet from the Sun.

“Our results suggest that there is not enough CO2 remaining on Mars to provide significant greenhouse warming were the gas to be put into the atmosphere,”said Bruce Jakosky of the University of Colorado, who led the study.

“In addition, most of the CO2 gas is not accessible and could not be readily mobilized. As a result, terraforming Mars is not possible using present-day technology.”

Nuking the ice caps would only double Mars’ atmospheric pressure to 1.2 percent of the pressure on Earth. Even if we could somehow extract all of the CO2 trapped in the rocks and soil on Mars it would only bring the atmospheric pressure to 6.9 percent of the Earth’s.

So, while the idea is defunct, it doesn’t mean the wily, borderline bond-villain-esque Musk can’t make a quick buck with some good old-fashioned Mars-bait.

Source www.rt.com

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Military officer ‘shot an alien’ back in 1978

Image Credit: CC0 Pixabay

Did George Filer encounter an alien entity ? 

A new book has told the story of how Major George Filer encountered and killed an alleged extraterrestrial.

The remarkable story, which has been described in John L. Guerra’s new book “Strange Craft: The True Story of an Air Force Intelligence Officer’s Life with UFOs”, reportedly took place in the early hours of January 18th, 1978 at Fort Dix, New Jersey.

Air Force Major George Filer had been driving through a remote part of the base in a police pickup truck attempting to pursue a mysterious low-flying object that had been observed at around 2 a.m.

After driving around for two hours, he became aware that the object he was pursuing, which was producing an eerie blue-green glow, was in fact directly above him.

The next thing he knew, an entity – which he described as slender and grayish-brown in color – stepped out of the darkness in front of his car where it was illuminated by the headlights.

Filer drew his weapon, ordered the creature to freeze, then fired.

According to his report, the entity succumbed to its wounds and gave off a foul, ammonia-like stench.

The body was later collected by a recovery team from Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio. Filer noted that the men who came for it did not seem particularly surprised by its existence.

“The senior master sergeant runs everything, from who sweeps the floors to organizing the staff schedules and making sure phones and faxes are up and running,” he said.

“He was agitated; his face was pale and his eyes were wide open.”

When Filer asked him whether the creature had come from another country, the sergeant replied:

“No, it was from outer space, a space alien. There are UFOs buzzing around the planet like mad.”

Source: App.com

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