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250 million years ago, extraordinary Garinia lived with huge heads

This strange “dragon” lived on Russian territory in a time when dinosaurs did not exist yet.

The first remains of these lizards were discovered in the 1950s, near Orenburg. The creature is named Garyainiy, in honor of archaeologist V. Garyainov.

Externally, the animal is like a modern dragon or crocodile, with a short muzzle, but its head is unusually large.

The big head had powerful jaws with large, sharp teeth. According to one researcher, these teeth were sharp as meat knives and could tear large pieces of meat out of the loot in a few moments.

The length of Garinia was 3-4 meters, 60 cm of which were from the skull. The creature belongs to a family of primitive semi-aquatic reptiles.

Half a century later, another of the same kind of “dragons” was discovered in Bashkortostan. Recently, British researchers have carefully studied the remains of both animals and published a report on them in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

According to them, both animals are virtually indistinguishable from each other, that is, there is only one species of Garinia.

At first glance, these “dragons” look very ridiculous due to the disproportionate huge head with the rest of the body. In reality, however, they were rather skilful predators and their heavy heads were balanced by the heavy back of the body.

Garinians had some of the biggest heads in terms of body proportions, compared to all reptiles in the past and present. And the biggest head among the dinosaurs.

They ate 70% of the meat. With its huge mouth, this monster could tear and absorb large pieces at once.

Therefore, the Garinians were the dominant predators of their era before the advent of dinosaurs.


Planet Earth

Australia Firefighters Save the Only Wild Prehistoric Wollemi Pines on Earth

Olivia Rosane, EcoWatch
Waking Times

It looks as if firefighters in Australia have succeeded in saving a secret grove of prehistoric trees belonging to a species that dates back to the time of the dinosaurs.

The Wollemi pines once grew widely across Australia from more than 100 to 60 million years ago, The Washington Post reported. But now less than 200 remain in the wild, in a national park 125 miles northwest of Sydney.

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Planet Earth

“Huge anomalies” at the edge of the earth’s core

At the edge of the Earth’s core lie two gigantic blobs of ultrahot rock — and that’s about the extent to which geologists agree about them.


The mysterious blobs are on opposite sides of the planet, one hidden beneath Africa, the other in the middle of the Pacific Ocean – the Quanta Magazine compared the ‘massive anomalies’ to Princess Leia’s iconic hairstyle (Star Wars).

Scientists discovered the blobs decades ago by mapping the interior of the planet, but have not learned much since.

Some ideas

There are two main schools of thought regarding the blobs, according to Quanta. The first camp holds that they’re merely massive clusters of hot plumes.

The other argues that the blobs — so big that they would drown the planet’s surface in a lava ocean over 60 miles deep — are their own distinct entity and not just a particularly warm region of the core.

Recent evidence supports the second camp: Quanta reports that scientists found traces of unique, ancient rocks and isotopes in magma that’s flowed upward from the blobs — materials nearly as old as the Earth itself and not found elsewhere on the planet.

Persistent Mystery

Still, great mystery still surrounds the deeply-buried hotspots. One theory is that they could be fragments of a Mars-sized object that crashed into the Earth.

University of Maryland seismologist Vedran Lekić told Quanta

It would be like having an object in the sky, and asking, ‘Is that the moon?’ And people are like, no. ‘Is that the sun?’ No. ‘What is it?’ We don’t know.


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Planet Earth

Global warming is now visible! The sea has swallowed two islands in Indonesia

Two uninhabited islands in the Indonesian South Sumatra province has completely disappeared underwater as a result of rising sea levels caused by global warming. This was reported today by the Straits Times, quoting data from the local environmental forum, TASS reported.

“Betet and Gundul Islands are now 1-3 meters below sea level,” said NGO leader Khairul Sobri.

“Unless emergency action is taken in relation to global warming, four more islands within the province are at risk of extinction,” the expert warned.

He noted that one of these islands, Salah Namao, is still habitable, though since the 1990s, locals have gradually begun to abandon it, main reason being the sea levels rise. According to him, the already extinct Betet Island had previously a national nature reserve, recognized by UNESCO.

Indonesia is located in the world’s largest archipelago with nearly 18 thousand islands.

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