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Mysteries

10 Insane Ancient Achievements that Science Can’t Explain

Out-of-place artifact (OOPArt) is a term coined by American naturalist and cryptozoologist Ivan T. Sanderson for an object of historical, archaeological, or paleontological interest found in a very unusual or seemingly impossible context that could challenge conventional historical chronology. The term “out-of-place artifact” is rarely used by mainstream historians or scientists. Its use is largely confined to cryptozoologists, proponents of ancient astronaut theories, and paranormal enthusiasts….

In this article we present our selection of Top 10 OOPArts. There are many more…

1. Tiwanacu and Puma Punku

Tiwanaku (Spanish: Tiahuanaco and Tiahuanacu) is an important Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia, South America. Pumapunku also called “Puma Pumku” or “Puma Puncu”, is part of a large temple complex or monument group that is part of the Tiwanaku.   Tiahuanaco is an example of engineering so monumental that it dwarfs even the work of the Aztecs. Stone blocks on the site weigh many tons. They bear no chisel marks, so the means by which they were shaped remains a mystery. The stone itself came from two different quarries. One supplied sandstone and was situated 10 miles away. It shows signs of having produced blocks weighing up to 400 tons. The other supplied andesite and was located 50 miles away, raising the question of how the enormous blocks were transported in an age before the horse was domesticated in South America. Close examination of the structures shows an unusual technique behind their building. The stone blocks were notched, then fitted together so that they interlocked in three dimensions. The result was buildings strong enough to withstand earthquakes.

Gateway of the Sun, Tiahuanaco, Bolivia

Puma Punku  site has many finely cut stones –  some weighing over 100 tonnes. The processes and technologies involved in the creation of these temples are still not fully understood by modern scholars.

Monolithic stone blocks with precisely cut elements. Puma Punku, Bolivia

2. Nazca Lines

The high desert of Peru holds one of the most mystifying monuments of the known world—the massive-scale geoglyphs known as the Nazca Lines.  The “lines” are ranging from geometric patterns to “drawings” of different animals and stylized human-like forms.

The ancient lines can only be truly taken in, their forms discerned, from high in the air, leaving generations mystified as to how these precise works could’ve been completed long before the documented invention of human flight. Who built them and what was their purpose? Are the lines signs left by an alien race? Ancient “crop circles”?  Landing strips for alien gods/astronauts?  Relics of a ancient people far more advanced—capable of human flight—then previously imagined? Or perhaps a giant astronomical calendar?

3. Sacsayhuaman

Sacsayhuamán (also known as Sacsahuaman) is a walled complex near the old city of Cusco, at an altitude of 3,701 m. or 12,000 feet. The site is part of the City of Cuzco, which was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1983.

Giant walls of Sacsayhuaman

They are three parallel walls built in different levels with lime-stones of enormous sizes.  Zigzagging walls are made of boulders used for the first or lower levels are the biggest; there is one that is 8.5 m high (28 ft.) and weights about 140 metric tons. Those boulders classify the walls as being of cyclopean or megalithic architecture.  There are no other walls like these. They are different from Stonehenge, different from the Pyramids of the Egyptians and the Maya, different from any of the other ancient monolithic stone-works.  Scientists are not certain how these huge stones were transported and processed to fit so perfectly that no blade of grass or steel can slide between them. There is no mortar.  The stones often join in complex and irregular surfaces that would appear to be a nightmare for the stonemason.

4. Stonehenge

Stonehenge is a megalithic monument on the Salisbury Plain in Southern England, composed mainly of thirty upright stones (sarsens, each over ten feet tall and weighing 26 tons), aligned in a circle, with thirty lintels (6 tons each) perched horizontally atop the sarsens in a continuous circle. There is also an inner circle composed of similar stones, also constructed in post-and-lintel fashion.

Stonehenge is angled such that on the equinoxes and the solstices, the sun rising over the horizon appears to be perfectly placed between gaps in the megaliths. This is doubtless not an accident, and probably contributed to the stories of its mysterious origins.

Gerald Hawkins, a Professor of Astronomy, concluded that Stonehenge was a sophisticated astronomical observatory designed to predict eclipses (Stonehenge Decoded). The positioning of the stones provides a wealth of information, as does the choice of the site itself. If you can see the alignment, general relationship, and the use of these stones then you will know the reason for the construction. The author, and other astronomers, discovered the 56-year cycle of eclipses by decoding Stonehenge!  The movement of stones once each year from an initial fixed position allows to predict accurately every important lunar event for hundreds of years. This computer would need resetting about once every 300 years by advancing the stones by one space. Mankind generally used the cycle of the moon as a unit of timekeeping.

5. Costa Rica Stone Spheres

One of the strangest mysteries in archaeology was discovered in the Diquis Delta of Costa Rica. Since the 1930s, hundreds of stone balls have been documented, ranging in size from a few centimetres to over two meters in diameter. Some weigh 16 tons. Almost all of them are made of granodiorite, a hard, igneous stone. These objects are monolithic sculptures made by human hands.

Balls in the Courtyard of National Museum, San José, Costa Rica. Photo courtesy of John W. Hoopes. Copyright ©2001 John W. Hoopes. All rights reserved.

6. Trilithon at Baalbeck

The mysterious ruins of Baalbek. One of the great Power Places of the ancient world. For thousands of years its secrets have been shrouded in darkness, or bathed in an artificial light by those who would offer us a simplistic solution to its mysteries.

The Temple of Jupiter is one of the most impressive Temples in Baalbeck. It measures 88×48 meters and stands on a podium 13 meters above the surrounding terrain and 7 meters above the courtyard. It is reached by a monumental stairway. One of the most amazing engineering achievements is the Podium which was built with some of the largest stone blocks ever hewn. On the west side of the podium is the “Trilithon”, a celebrated group of three enormous stones weighing about 800 tons each.

Some archaeologists might well wish that Baalbek had been buried forever. For it is here that we find the largest dressed stone block in the world – the infamous Stone of the South, lying in its quarry just ten minutes walk from the temple acropolis. This huge stone weighs approximately 1,000 tons – almost as heavy as three Boeing 747 aircraft.

The large stone at Baalbek, known as the Stone of the Pregnant Woman. Copyright by Ralph Ellis (source: Wikipedia)

 

7. Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Khufu’s Pyramid, Pyramid of Khufu, and Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that survives substantially intact. It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth dynasty Egyptian King Khufu (Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. The Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years.

Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface, and what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories regarding the Great Pyramid’s construction techniques. Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.

8. Shroud of Turin

The Shroud of Turin is reputedly Christ’s burial cloth. It has been a religious relic since the Middle Ages. To believers it was divine proof the Christ was resurrected from the grave, to doubters it was evidence of human gullibility and one of the greatest hoaxes in the history of art. No one has been able to prove that it is the burial cloth of Jesus of Nazareth, but its haunting image of a man’s wounded body is proof enough for true believers.

The Shroud of Turin, as seen by the naked eye, is a negative image of a man with his hands folded. The linen is 14 feet, 3 inches long and 3 feet, 7 inches wide. The shroud bears the image of a man with wounds similar to those suffered by Jesus.

One theory is simply that the Shroud is a painting . It has been proposed that it was painted using iron oxide in an animal protein binder. The STURP scientists have concluded from their studies that no paints, pigments, dyes or stains have been found to make up the visible image. Could the image have been produced by a burst of radiation (heat or light) acting over short period of time which would have scorched the cloth? Scientists have not been able to duplicate the characteristics of the Shroud using this method just like the painting hypothesis. Also the color and ultraviolet characteristics of the Shroud body image and a scorch are different. The shroud body image does not fluoresce under UV light but scorches like the burns from 1532 do fluoresce under UV light. Thus many scientists rule out the radiation theory.

9. Star Child Skull

In the 1930?s, in a small rural village 100 miles southwest of Chihuahua, Mexico, at the back of a mine tunnel, two mysterious remains were found: a complete human skeleton and a smaller, malformed skeleton. In late February of 1999, Lloyd Pye was first shown the Starchild skull by its owners. Nameless then, it was a highly anomalous skull.

Front view of the Starchild skull (on the left) and the human skull (on the right). Compare striking differences between depth of eye sockets and shape of temporal area just behind outer edges of eyes.

The long-standing Star Being legends of Central and South America provide a plausible mechanism for how a highly abnormal skull (relative to humans) might have been biologically created rather than genetically or congenitally malformed, or physically manipulated by deliberate deformation (binding).
Such immense deformation across the entire occipital (rear) and parietal (upper side) areas of the skull could not result from binding without deformation being visible in the frontal area, which is not evident.
Birth defects across the entire occipital and parietal areas, while not impossible, seem highly unlikely because of the remarkable symmetry exhibited in all areas of the skull, including those effected by the deformations.
The terrain of the bone in the eye sockets contains incredibly subtle indentations and ridges that are perfectly symmetrical in both sockets, which simply have to have been formed by genetic directions rather than by deformations.

Related to this subject is Enormous Cone Head Of Paracas Peru:

10. The Antikythera Mechanism

The device, made of bronze and encased in wood, was found by divers off the Mediterranean island Antikythera in 1900.

“This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind,” says Mike Edmunds  (Cardiff University, Wales) one of  the scientists  investigating this amazing artefact. “The design is beautiful. The astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics are designed just makes your jaw drop.”

Image Copyright © 2001-2012, Anthony Ayiomamitis

Nothing like this instrument is preserved elsewhere. Nothing comparable to it is known. from any ancient scientific text or literary allusion. On the contrary, from all that we know of science and technology in the Hellenistic Age we should have felt that such a device could not exist. Some historians have suggested that the Greeks were not interested in experiment because of a contempt-perhaps induced by the existence of the institution of slavery-for manual labor. On the other hand it has long been recognized that in abstract mathematics and in mathematical astronomy they were no beginners but rather “fellows of another college” who reached great heights of sophistication. Many of the Greek scientific devices known to us from written descriptions show much mathematical ingenuity, but in all cases the purely mechanical part of the design seems relatively crude. Gearing was clearly known to the Greeks, but it was used only in relatively simple applications. They employed pairs of gears to change angular speed or mechanical ad- vantage, or to apply power through a right angle, as in the water-driven mill.

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Mysteries

The strange disappearance of three boys in Murphy’s Cave

In the US state of Missouri, one of the local attractions is a vast network of caves that have thousands of passages, both above and below ground.

Because of these caves, Missouri is often referred to as the “state of the caves,” and it is not surprising that they attract many explorers as well as adventurers.

Most of these caves were well explored in the first half of the twentieth century. But because of the intensive construction of Highway 79 in the 1960s, employees sometimes encounter new gaps that lead to unexplored parts of local caves.

One of these caves is called the Murphy’s Cave. The openings leading to its tunnels were located very close to the houses of the city of Hannibal, one hundred miles northwest of St. Louis.

This city is known as the birthplace of Mark Twain and in particular the Mark Twain Cave where Tom Sawyer films were made. Excursions to this cave are still being made.

In the 1960s, parents strictly forbade their children from even looking at the openings in the ground. They feared crashes and other disasters. But who could stop the curious children?

The three Hannibal boys were particularly curious about the caves. They were 10-year-old Billy Hoag, his brother 13-year-old Joel Hoag and their friend 14-year-old Craig Dowell.

They regularly picked up lanterns and went down into the dark cave tunnels. Their parents forbade them to go there, but in response the boys said they would play in the yard and actually went to the caves.

On May 9, 1967, the three children headed to Murphy’s Cave. They were waiting for the moment when the construction workers at the site would go to rest. The parents found out when they saw the characteristic reddish dirt on their clothes. There was a serious rebuke.

However, on May 10, the three went to the same cave again, using the moment Houg’s parents were in the store to shop.

The boys prepared thoroughly. They took shovels, lanterns and other necessary things. At 3pm, they were spotted by a casual passer-by walking to the entrance of Murphy’s Cave. He noticed that the boys were dragging a makeshift ladder of boards to lower themselves through the opening inside the cave.

This was the last time these children were seen alive. After that, they disappear and even traces of them, much less their bodies, were found.

When the parents of the Hoag brothers returned from the store and saw that their children had disappeared, they became very angry and intended to give them a good lesson. But when the children did not return home during the time that they would usually go back from their games, their parents were worried. They began to pray that nothing bad would happen to the boys.

When it was dark, the Hoags went to their neighbors and someone told them that they had seen the Hoag brothers and young Dole near the Murphy Cave. City officials have been notified of the disappearance of the three children, who may have been lost in the cave.

The next morning, police, national guards and volunteers organized a mass search for the boys. At one point, FBI experts got involved in the process.

Hundreds of people explored the tunnels of all nearby caves, not just Murphy’s Cave. All suspicious passageways, narrow cracks and still unexplored tunnels were carefully checked.

But everything was in vain. They did not even find traces of the children. The tunnels of Murphy’s Cave are very complex and winding. They were all well researched.

Then, searchers began looking around the surrounding forests, abandoned houses and old mines. They even summoned a few psychics who claimed they could “feel” the place where the children had disappeared. But, again without result…

This large-scale search of the missing went on for 10 consecutive days and was among the most popular searches in Missouri’s history. As a result, only one probable trace of the boys was found – a baby sock lying near the entrance to the cave.

The sock wasn’t dirty, so it obviously hadn’t been in that place for a long time. The search crew clung to it as a probable evidence. However, none of the parents of the missing children was able to confirm whether the sock belonged to one of the Hoag brothers or Dowell.

The opening leading to Murphy’s Cave, to which the boys were last seen

There were some false footprints. At one point, near a cave, they found a dried puddle of brown liquid similar to blood, but during the investigation it turned out that the puddle was from a spilled bottle of fertilizer.

Another such clue is that someone apparently saw the boys out of town alive after the search began, but no children or traces of them were found at that location.

There was also a strange message about a man in a black cloak who was not recognized as a city resident, police officer or anyone else. He was spotted in many places where children were being searched. It was as if he was trying to hide and secretly monitor the work of the search groups.

According to one of the first versions, the children were buried alive when one of the cave tunnels collapsed, but as mentioned above, all possible tunnels of the nearest caves were checked by search crew and they did not find any traces of fresh collapses there.

According to another version, the boys may have accidentally entered a completely new tunneling system that other researchers have not noticed. And nowadays, near Hannibal, sometimes new tunnels are found in the local caves, which are caused by expansion, rainfall and other reasons. All new tunnels have been carefully inspected.

Volunteers are still trying to find the remains of the missing boys or at least their belongings. But, so far, they haven’t found anything …

Other theories say that the children fled to another city or were abducted.

The memory of this strange disappearance of these three boys is still commented on in Hannibal. A memorial plaque with the boys’ names and their history is placed next to the ill-fated entrance to Murphy’s Cave, which is now closed.

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Mysteries

Connection between Alpha Draconis and Egyptian Pyramids Revealed

Alpha Draconis, also known as Thuban, is located about 300 light years away in the northern Draco constellation.

Connection between Alpha Draconis and Egyptian Pyramids Revealed
Did eclipse studies help the Egyptians build their pyramids? Credit: Public Domain

Despite its “alpha” designation, it shines as Draco’s fourth-brightest star. Thuban’s fame arises from a historical role it played some 4,700 years ago, back when the earliest pyramids were being built in Egypt.

Could the new astronomical observations shed light on what motivated the builders of the Egyptian pyramids?

Astronomers using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) were surprised when they discovered that the bright star Alpha Draconis and its fainter, previously known companion actually undergo mutual eclipses.

Egyptology students already know that the ancient Egyptians were skilled astronomers who regularly observed the sky and tracked various celestial objects.

Previous research has revealed that the ancient Egyptian papyrus calendar 86637, Cairo, is the oldest preserved historical document from naked eye observations of a variable star, the Eclipsing binary algol – a manifestation of Horus, a god and a king.

It was confirmed that the ancient Egyptians knew about the variability of the ‘Demon Star’ Algol 3,000 years before Western astronomers.

Astronomers suggest that it is now possible that the first eclipse of the ancient North Star played a key role in building the Egyptian pyramids.

About 4,700 years ago, the star Thuban may have served as the Northern Star. It seemed to be the closest to the north pole of the earth’s axis of rotation, the point around which all other stars appear to rotate in their nocturnal motion.

Today this role is played by Polaris, the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor. The change happened because the earth’s axis of rotation performs a 26,000-year cyclic oscillation, called precession, which slowly changes the position of the sky at the rotational pole.

The North Star or Thuban is actually a pair of stars and the largest star between the pairs is four times larger and warmer than the Sun. The surface temperature of the larger star is about 9,700 degrees Celsius. Its mate, which is five times weaker, is probably half the size of the primary and is 40% warmer than the sun. Previous studies have suggested that Thuban exhibited slight changes in brightness that lasted about an hour, suggesting the possibility that brightest star in the system was pulsing.

Angela Kochoska, postdoctoral researcher at Villanova University in Pennsylvania, said:

The eclipses are brief, lasting only six hours; therefore terrestrial observations can easily lose them. And because the star is so bright, it would quickly saturate detectors at NASA’s Kepler Observatory, which would also conceal eclipses.

The alpha star Draconis (circled), also known as Thuban, is known to be a binary system. NASA’s TESS data now shows that its two stars suffer mutual eclipses. Credit: NASA / MIT / TESS

Many scientists think ancient Egyptians relied on the bright stars Big Dipper and Little Dipper to align their pyramids in a north-south direction with an accuracy of up to 0.05 degrees. However, it’s still debated how the pyramid builders took accurate measures for the alignment. Since the tilt of Earth’s axis has changed over time, so have the positions of the stars.

Using sophisticated astronomical software, scientists were able to turn back the astronomical clock and study the sky at the moment the pyramids were built. These studies showed that the two stars revolved around the opposite pole in the Old Kingdom sky, and an imaginary line joined these stars across the north pole.

This means that when the two stars placed vertically above each other both mark the true north position for the pyramid builders. In this case, if the calculation is correct, construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza began between 2485 and 2475 BC.

This animation illustrates a preliminary model of the Thuban system, now known as an eclipsing binary, thanks to data from NASA’s exoplanet transit research satellite (TESS). The stars orbit every 51.4 days at an average distance slightly greater than the distance of Mercury from the Sun. We see the system about three degrees above the orbital plane of the stars, so that they undergo mutual eclipses, but none of them are completely covered by your partner. Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center / Chris Smith (USRA)

Kochoska, who presented the findings at the 235th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Honolulu on Jan. 6, said she is planning a follow-up study to look into additional eclipses that TESS can see.

Padi Boyd, a TESS project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, said in a statement:

The discovery of eclipses in a known, bright and historically important star highlights how TESS affects the wider astronomical community. In this case, uninterrupted, high-precision TESS data can be used to help constrain fundamental stellar parameters to a level never before reached.

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Sister of Russia’s great mystery victim manifests

A fascinating new view of the Dyatlov Pass incident presents several enlightening first-hand perspectives on the case, including rare information from the sister of one of the victims, whose name has become synonymous with a mysterious event.

Dyatlov case: Sister victim of one of Russia's greatest mysteries manifests
Photo: Public Domain.

Published by the BBC, the play excellentely revisits the infamous 1959 tragedy, in which nine Russian college students died in the Ural Mountains in unexplained circumstances that continue to bother researchers today.

One of the people interviewed for the article was Tatiana Perminova, who was 12 when her brother, Igor Dyatlov, embarked on the unfortunate walking trip. She recalled that their mother had tried to dissuade him from following the journey, arguing that he should focus on his studies. However, Perminova recalled, Igor managed to convince her after promising that it would be his last trip to the mountains before graduating. “And indeed,” his sister remarked sadly, “it was his last time.”

Coldly, Perminova revealed that she was the one who answered the phone at her house six decades ago, when authorities phoned with the frightening news that Igor had died.

She said:

The next day my parents were summoned to college, and the nightmare began.

As for what may have caused the disappearance of his brother and colleagues, Perminova indicated that families were as confused by the case as the rest of the world, and were insulted by the Russian authorities that “you will never know the truth, so stop to ask questions. ”

She stressed:

Don’t forget, in those days, if they told you to shut up, you would be silent.

However, with six decades since the incident, Perminova no longer harbors these fears. As such, she dismissed popular prosaic theories for what killed the group, such as an avalanche or hurricane, and suggested that something more sinister had occurred.

She asked:

If it was just an ordinary walk that went wrong because of extreme weather conditions, why worried the highest authorities in the country? I think that means something extraordinary has happened.

Although she did not seem to present a specific theory for what killed her brother and friends, Perminova spoke of the tremendous pain that families have suffered in the last sixty years with so many unanswered questions.

The nine victims of that fateful day. Montage Credit: BBC

She said, noting an ongoing effort by independent investigators in Russia to exhume the bodies of the victims of Step Dyatlov for a further examination:

Emotionally, this is very difficult. Imagine digging up their coffins. But if there is no other way to find the answers, ok, let’s see what happens next.

Other firsthand witnesses featured in the play include a man who participated in the search that led to the discovery of the bodies of the victims, as well as a woman who lived in a nearby village at the time of the incident and claims to have seen a “bright and fiery object in the sky” which somehow resembled a missile. This observation seems to give credence to the possibility that Dyatlov and his comrades might have died from a cover-up accident. This was repeated by another local resident who was also 12 at the time of the incident and recalled how “there were rumors throughout the city that these students had participated in some kind of test or experiment.”

All in all, the BBC program is a must watch for those studying the Dyatlov Pass incident, as it includes a wealth of previously unpublished stories of individuals who were closely linked to the case, such as Perminova, or who resided in the area after the intriguing event occurred. It also features conversations with contemporary investigators who are still trying to solve the mystery of what happened to the nine hikers in the Ural Mountains that fateful February night so long ago.

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