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Star Clock BC – An Ancient Computer

Star Clock BC

Move over, Bill Gates. It appears that the world’s first PC was invented during biblical times.

The device, made of bronze and encased in wood, was found by divers off the Mediterranean island Antikythera in 1900.Scientists have studied the so-called Antikythera Mechanism for decades, but in paper published in the November 30th Nature, an international team led by Mike Edmunds and Tony Freeth (Cardiff University, Wales) report detailed studies using high-tech tools. Three-dimensional X-ray tomography enabled the scientists to count individual teeth in at least 30 precision, hand-cut gears. The group also conducted high-resolution surface imaging of many of its 80 fragments, which allowed the scientists to decipher new Greek inscriptions.

With this new information, the team could reconstruct the Antikythera Mechanism’s functions. The device enabled astronomers in the second century BC to predict the movements of the Moon and Sun, along with lunar and solar eclipses. It could recreate irregularities in the Moon’s motion due to its elliptical orbit. And it may have even enabled Greek astronomers to forecast the positions of the known planets.

“This device is just extraordinary, the only thing of its kind,” says Edmunds. “The design is beautiful. The astronomy is exactly right. The way the mechanics are designed just makes your jaw drop.”


Video © National Geographic. Source >>

The Antikythera mechanism, as it is now known, was originally housed in a wooden box about the size of a shoebox, with dials on the outside and a complex assembly of bronze gear wheels within. X-ray photographs of the fragments, in which around 30 separate gears can be distinguished, led the late Derek Price, a science historian at Yale University, to conclude that the device was an astronomical computer capable of predicting the positions of the sun and moon in the zodiac on any given date. A new analysis, though, suggests that the device was cleverer than Price thought, and reinforces the evidence for his theory of an ancient Greek tradition of complex mechanical technology.

It is interesting to speculate how the first century B.C. designers of the Antikythera Mechanism were able to discover the excellent rational approximation 254/19 = 13.36842105 to the astronomical ratio 13.368267.. . The error is 0.00015, which corresponds to one part in 86,000.

Presentation of the “Antikythera Shipwreck” Exhibition at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece.

The Antikythera Mechanism – 2D

More than 21 centuries ago, a mechanism of fabulous ingenuity was created in Greece, a device capable of indicating exactly how the sky would look for decades to come — the position of the moon and sun, lunar phases and even eclipses. But this incredible invention would be drowned in the sea and its secret forgotten for two thousand years.

This video is a tribute from Swiss clock-maker Hublot and film-maker Philippe Nicolet to this device, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, or the world’s “first computer”. The fragments of the Mechanism were discovered in 1901 by sponge divers near the island of Antikythera. It is kept since then at the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, Greece.

For more than a century, researchers were trying to understand its functions. Since 2005, a pluridisciplinary research team, the “Antikythera Mechanism Research Project”, is studying the Mechanism with the latest high tech available.

The results of this ongoing research has enabled the construction of many models. Amongst them, the unique mechanism of a watch, designed by Hublot as a tribute to the Mechanism, is incorporating the known functions of this mysterious and fascinating ancient Mechanism.

A model of the Antikythera Mechanism, built by the Aristotle University in Greece, together with the mechanism of the watch and this film in 3D are featuring in an exhibition about the Mechanism that is taking place in Paris, at the Musée des Arts et Métiers.

Hublot’s miniature replica of the Antikythera mechanism

A modern micro-mechanical tribute to the mechanical engineers of Antiquity – Hublot adds a new time dimension to the Antikythera mechanism

This is the first time in the history of timepieces that these cycles – a legacy from Antiquity – have been studied, reproduced and displayed mechanically: to create some of these gears, the Hublot team had to develop a highly innovative concept of noncircular telescopic hands, capable of pointing to the spiral discs of varying diameters.
The Hublot “Antikythera” watch housing this watchmaking movement, a concept devised in Antiquity, was presented at the Baselworld watch show in Spring 2012. The movement is on show at a permanent exhibition which the Musée des Arts et Métiers is dedicating to the Antikythera mechanism: a 2D and 3D film produced by Hublot will be projected at the exhibition to share with the public the whole story of this Antikythera “machine” from Antiquity to the modern day, creating a bridge between the knowledge of the mechanical engineers of Antiquity and the expertise of 21st century watchmakers. This film is also available on YouTube (https://www.youtube.com/user/antikythera2012).

Swiss luxury watch company Hublot has announced a version of the Antikythera mechanism, an ancient Greek astronomical calculator, that is incorporated into a wristwatch. The mechanism is displayed at the 2012 Baselworld expo before moving to a permanent exhibit at Musée des arts et métiers in Paris.

http://youtu.be/UpLcnAIpVRA

Hublot Antikythera Calibre 2033-CH01 Data sheet

Movement functions:

  • Hours, minutes
  • Seconds via the tourbillon cage
  • Flying tourbillon without ball bearing
  • Manual winding

View of dial

  • Egyptian Calendar
  • Calendar for the Panhellenic games
  • Zodiac
  • Aperture showing moon
  • Lunar phases
  • Aperture showing sun

View of bridges

  • Metonic cycle
  • Saros cycle
  • Callippic cycle
  • Exeligmos cycle

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Ancient

40,000-Year-Old Bracelet Made With Advanced Technology — the Evidence

Dating back to the Denisovan species of early humans, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered.

The bracelet is discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in the Altai region of Siberia in 2008 and after detailed analysis Russian experts now accept that the bracelet’s age as correct.

Scientists conclude it was made by our prehistoric human ancestors, the Denisovans, an extinct species of humans genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans, and shows them to have been far more advanced than ever realized.

But what made the discovery especially striking was that the manufacturing technology is more common to a much later period, such as the Neolithic era. Indeed, it is not clear yet how the Denisovans could have made the bracelet.

Writing in the Novosibirsk magazine, Science First Hand, Dr Derevyanko said:

“There were found two fragments of the bracelet of a width of 2.7cm and a thickness of 0.9 cm. The estimated diameter of the find was 7cm. Near one of the cracks was a drilled hole with a diameter of about 0.8 cm.”

“Studying them, scientists found out that the speed of rotation of the drill was rather high, fluctuations minimal, and that was there was applied drilling with an implement – technology that is common for more recent times”, Dr. Derevyanko told the Siberiantimes.

Image: Bracelet is made of Chlorite – Inside are traces of drilling.
Image credit: Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov, Anastasia Abdulmanova.

It is known that the Denisovans migrated out of Africa and having branched away from other humanoid ancestors some 1 million years ago.

Genetic studies confirm that skeletal remains of Denisovans, that dated back as early as 600,000 years ago were quite different to both Neanderthals and modern man and the studies confirm that they did coexist not only with modern humans and the Neanderthals, prior to become extinct, but as DNA evidence suggests, the Denisovans also must have interbred with an as yet unknown and undiscovered species of humans beings… or maybe an Extraterrestrial species?

By ufosightingshotspot

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Ancient

300,000 year old nanostructures found in the Ural mountains

Found in the Ural Mountains in Russia, these objects have caused quite a buzz since their discovery. A lot of websites went on and posted articles about these mysterious objects that were discovered in 1991 near the banks of Russia’s Kozhim, Narada, and Balbanyu rivers. The tiny structures are believed to have been the product of an extremely ancient civilization that was capable of developing nanotechnology about 300,000 years ago. The age of these mysterious nanostrctures have placed them in the list of “out of place artifacts” given the fact that researchers estimate them to be around 300,000 years old.

The objects were discovered during a geological research mission whose purpose was the extraction of gold in the Ural mountains in Russia, and while gold was the number one thing to look for, researchers weer amazed to find something apparently much more valuable. The pieces discovered are coils, spirals and shafts among the list of unidentified components that were unearthed during the geological missions in the area.

The Russian Academy of sciences performed several tests on these mysterious objects and the results were quite interesting. Researchers found out that the largest pieces that were unearthed were made almost entirely out of copper and the smaller ones from tungsten and molybdenum.

The Russian Academy of Science has a structure of 11 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial divisions also referred to as branches, and it consists of 14 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for different purposes and studies.

A lot of people who read about these artifacts have discredited their discovery and meaning stating that there is no research facility from the RAS and that the research performed was dubious but they are mistaken as the Ural Division of the RAS was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Perm, Cheliabinsk, Izhevsk, Orenburg, Ufa and Syktyvkar.

The materials were submitted to a more extensive research a couple of years after their discovery to find out more about the mysterious objects and their composition and according to the Russian Academy of Science and their department for Geology; the metals have not originated in nature on their own, meaning that they are components that have a artificial technological origin, in other words they were manufactured.

According to the information available, these nanostructures were found at a depth between 10 and 40 feet, research also shows that they range in date from 20,00 to over 300,000 years. But who made them and for what purpose? are they the result of a now extinct ancient civilization? Or are they the result of something beyond our planet? These are the questions that have been asked when it comes to the origin of these ancient nanostructures.

Even though research has been made in Russia, some argue that given the skeptical opinion worldwide about this findings, it would have been interesting to see what other researchers in other countries have to say about these nanostructures and even though the materials were studied in Helsinki, St. Petersburg and Moscow there have been no documents made available concerning the nanostructures, their origins and purpose.

According to Dr. E.W. Matveyeva, of the Section for Geology, Prospecting Techniques, and Economics of Precious Metal Alluvial Deposits; The layer which contains the spiral-shaped objects is characterised as gravel and detritus deposits of No. 3 stratum, which in our view, show inner-sedimentary erosion of polygenetic accumulative layers (i.e. layers composed of material of various origins). From their orientation these layers can be dated to 100,000 years and correspond to the lying parts (i.e. the lower regions) of the Mikulinsk horizon of the upper Pleistocene.

Particular attention should be paid to the final conclusion reached by the Moscow institute. Report No. 18/485 states that the age of the deposits and the results of the tests give a very low probability to the assumption that the origin of these unusual, thread-shaped tungsten crystals is of a technogenic cosmic nature, due to the rocket take-off route from the Plesetsk space-station over the polar part of the Ural region.

Debate over these object will continue due to the “mysterious” nature of these objects and while there is a possibility that these nanostrcutres could have originated from n ancient civilization that lived on Earth hundreds of thousands of years ago, other possibilities cannot be excluded.

( via ancient-code.com )

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Ancient

The Dispilio Wood Tablet – One of the Oldest Written Texts in History

by John Black, Ancient Origins

According to conventional archaeology, writing wasn’t invented until 3000 to 4000 BC in Sumeria.  However, an artefact was found over a decade ago which contradicts this belief – and perhaps this is the reason why few people know about the discovery.

The Dispilio tablet was discovered by a professor of prehistoric archaeology, George Xourmouziadis, in 1993 in a Neolithic lake settlement in Northern Greece near the city of Kastoria. A group of people used to occupy the settlement 7,000 to 8,000 years ago.

The Dispilio tablet was one of many artefacts that were found in the area, however the importance of the table lies in the fact that it has an unknown written text on it that goes back further than 5,000 BC.

The wooden tablet was dated using the C12 method to have been made in 5260 BC, making it significantly older than the writing system used by the Sumerians.

The text on the tablet includes a type of engraved writing which probably consists of a form of writing that pre-existed Linear B writing used by the Mycenaean Greeks. As well as the tablet, many other ceramic pieces were found that also have the same type of writing on them.

Professor Xourmouziadis has suggested that this type of writing, which has not yet been deciphered, could be any form of communication including symbols representing the counting of possessions.

More artefacts were discovered that show the economic and agricultural activities of the settlement, proof of animal breeding and their diet preferences as well as tools and pottery, figurines and other personal ornaments.

Decoding the writing is going to be difficult if not impossible, unless a new Rosetta stone is found. Unfortunately, by the moment the tablet was removed out of its original environment, contact with oxygen started the deterioration process and it is now under preservation.

It is impressive to think that the wooden tablet had remained at the bottom of the lake for 7,500 years.

While this artefact predates the Sumerian writing system, I am sure in the future more will be found in other areas of the world that will go even further back in time, until the true history of humanity will be unravelled and completely change what we know about our history.

The Danube civilization is rarely mentioned, yet it is probably the oldest in Europe.

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