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Remains Of A Giant Found In Frozen Wasteland

A research team led by the Canadian Museum of Nature has identified the first evidence for an extinct giant camel in Canada’s High Arctic. The discovery is based on 30 fossil fragments of a leg bone found on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, and represents the most northerly record for early camels, whose ancestors are known to have originated in North America some 45 million years ago.
The fossils were collected over three summer field seasons (2006, 2008 and 2010) and are about three and a half million years old, dating from the mid-Pliocene Epoch. Other fossil finds at the site suggest this High Arctic camel lived in a boreal-type forest environment, during a global warm phase on the planet.
[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCMvHWQagbc?feature=player_embedded&wmode=transparent]
The research, by Natalia Rybczynski, Ph.D., and co-authors including John Gosse, Ph.D. (at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia), and Mike Buckley, Ph.D. (at the University of Manchester, England), is described in the March 5, 2013, edition of the online journal Nature Communications. Read the paper.

Credit: Canadian Museum of Nature
The fossil bones of the High Arctic camel laid out in Natalia Rybczynski’s lab at the Canadian Museum of Nature. The fossil evidence consists of about 30 bone fragments, which together form part of a limb bone of a camel.
“This is an important discovery because it provides the first evidence of camels living in the High Arctic region,” explains Dr. Rybczynski, a vertebrate palaeontologist with the Canadian Museum of Nature, who has led numerous field expeditions in Canada’s Arctic. “It extends the previous range of camels in North America northward by about 1200 km, and suggests that the lineage that gave rise to modern camels may have been originally adapted to living in an Arctic forest environment.”
The camel bones were collected from a steep slope at the Fyles Leaf Bed site, a sandy deposit near Strathcona Fiord on Ellesmere Island. Fossils of leaves, wood and other plant material have been found at this site, but the camel is the first mammal recovered. A nearby fossil-rich locality at Strathcona Fiord known as the Beaver Pond site has previously yielded fossils of other mammals from the same time period, including a badger, deerlet, beaver and three-toed horse.
Illustration of the High Arctic camel on Ellesmere Island during the Pliocene warm period, about three and a half million years ago. The camels lived in a boreal-type forest. The habitat includes larch trees and the depiction is based on records of plant fossils found at nearby fossil deposits.
Determining that the bones were from a camel was a challenge. “The first time I picked up a piece, I thought that it might be wood. It was only back at the field camp that I was able to ascertain it was not only bone, but also from a fossil mammal larger than anything we had seen so far from the deposits,” explains Rybczynski, relating the moment that she and her team had discovered something unusual.
Some important physical characteristics suggested the fossil fragments were part of a large tibia, the main lower-leg bone in mammals, and that they belonged to the group of cloven-hoofed animals known as artiodactyls, which includes cows, pigs and camels. Digital files of each of the 30 bone fragments were produced using a 3D laser scanner, allowing for the pieces to be assembled and aligned. The size of the reconstituted leg bone suggested it was from a very large mammal. At the time in North America, the largest artiodactyls were camels.
Full confirmation that the bones belonged to a camel came from a new technique called collagen fingerprinting that was pioneered by Dr. Mike Buckley at the University of Manchester in England. Profiles produced by this technique can be used to distinguish between groups of mammals.
Minute amounts of collagen, the dominant protein found in bone, were extracted from the fossils. Using chemical markers for the peptides that make up the collagen, a collagen profile for the fossil bones was developed. This profile was compared with those of 37 modern mammal species, as well as that of a fossil camel found in Yukon, which is also in the Canadian Museum of Nature’s collections.
The collagen profile for the High Arctic camel most closely matched those of modern camels, specifically dromedaries (camels with one hump) as well as the Yukon giant camel, which is thought to be Paracamelus, the ancestor of modern camels. The collagen information, combined with the anatomical data, allowed Rybczynski and her colleagues to conclude that the Ellesmere bones belong to a camel, and is likely the same lineage as Paracamelus.
“We now have a new fossil record to better understand camel evolution, since our research shows that the Paracamelus lineage inhabited northern North America for millions of years, and the simplest explanation for this pattern would be that Paracamelusoriginated there,” explains Rybczynski. “So perhaps some specializations seen in modern camels, such as their wide flat feet, large eyes and humps for fat may be adaptations derived from living in a polar environment.”
Natalia Rybczynski from the Canadian Museum of Nature collects a fossil of the High Arctic camel in 2008 at the Fyles Leaf Bed site on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut. She uses toilet paper to gently wrap the bone for transport to the field camp.

Credit: Canadian Museum of Nature
The scientific paper also reports for the first time an accurate age of both the Fyles Leaf Bed site and the Beaver Pond site—at least 3.4 million years old. This was determined by Dr. Gosse at Dalhousie University using a sophisticated technique that involves dating the sands found associated with the bone. The date is significant because it corresponds to a time period when the Earth was 2°C to 3°C warmer than today, and the Arctic was 14°C to 22°C warmer.
The bones of the High Arctic camel are housed in the Canadian Museum of Nature’sresearch and collections facility in Gatineau, Quebec, on behalf of the Government of Nunavut.
Other contributors to the report include C. Richard Harington, Ph.D. and Researcher Emeritus at the Canadian Museum of Nature; Roy Wogelius, Ph.D., at the University of Manchester; and A.J. Hidy, Ph.D., at Dalhousie University.

Ellesmere Island in red
File:Ellesmere Island, Canada.svg

Credit: Wikipedia
Support for the research was provided by the Canadian Museum of Nature, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (Canada), the National Geographic Society (for the 2006 field season), the Northern Scientific Training Program (Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada), the W. Garfield Weston Foundation, the Polar Continental Shelf Project of Natural Resources Canada (logistics), and the Natural Environment Research Council (United Kingdom).
The Canadian Museum of Nature is Canada’s national museum of natural history and natural sciences. It promotes awareness of Canada’s natural heritage through signature and travelling exhibitions, public education programmes, scientific research and a dynamic web site (nature.ca), as well as the maintenance of a 10.5 million-specimen collection. The museum’s legacy of Arctic research dates back 100 years to the first Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913. Note to Media
Natalia Rybczynski is available for interviews. Available images include the camel-bone fragments, the research team at work on Ellesmere Island and an illustration of the High Arctic Camel in its forest environment.
Contacts and sources: Senior Media Relations Officer Canadian Museum of Nature

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Ancient

40,000-Year-Old Bracelet Made With Advanced Technology — the Evidence

Dating back to the Denisovan species of early humans, scientists have confirmed that a bracelet found in Siberia is 40,000 years old. This makes it the oldest piece of jewelry ever discovered.

The bracelet is discovered in a site called the Denisova Cave in the Altai region of Siberia in 2008 and after detailed analysis Russian experts now accept that the bracelet’s age as correct.

Scientists conclude it was made by our prehistoric human ancestors, the Denisovans, an extinct species of humans genetically distinct from Neanderthals and modern humans, and shows them to have been far more advanced than ever realized.

But what made the discovery especially striking was that the manufacturing technology is more common to a much later period, such as the Neolithic era. Indeed, it is not clear yet how the Denisovans could have made the bracelet.

Writing in the Novosibirsk magazine, Science First Hand, Dr Derevyanko said:

“There were found two fragments of the bracelet of a width of 2.7cm and a thickness of 0.9 cm. The estimated diameter of the find was 7cm. Near one of the cracks was a drilled hole with a diameter of about 0.8 cm.”

“Studying them, scientists found out that the speed of rotation of the drill was rather high, fluctuations minimal, and that was there was applied drilling with an implement – technology that is common for more recent times”, Dr. Derevyanko told the Siberiantimes.

Image: Bracelet is made of Chlorite – Inside are traces of drilling.
Image credit: Anatoly Derevyanko and Mikhail Shunkov, Anastasia Abdulmanova.

It is known that the Denisovans migrated out of Africa and having branched away from other humanoid ancestors some 1 million years ago.

Genetic studies confirm that skeletal remains of Denisovans, that dated back as early as 600,000 years ago were quite different to both Neanderthals and modern man and the studies confirm that they did coexist not only with modern humans and the Neanderthals, prior to become extinct, but as DNA evidence suggests, the Denisovans also must have interbred with an as yet unknown and undiscovered species of humans beings… or maybe an Extraterrestrial species?

By ufosightingshotspot

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300,000 year old nanostructures found in the Ural mountains

Found in the Ural Mountains in Russia, these objects have caused quite a buzz since their discovery. A lot of websites went on and posted articles about these mysterious objects that were discovered in 1991 near the banks of Russia’s Kozhim, Narada, and Balbanyu rivers. The tiny structures are believed to have been the product of an extremely ancient civilization that was capable of developing nanotechnology about 300,000 years ago. The age of these mysterious nanostrctures have placed them in the list of “out of place artifacts” given the fact that researchers estimate them to be around 300,000 years old.

The objects were discovered during a geological research mission whose purpose was the extraction of gold in the Ural mountains in Russia, and while gold was the number one thing to look for, researchers weer amazed to find something apparently much more valuable. The pieces discovered are coils, spirals and shafts among the list of unidentified components that were unearthed during the geological missions in the area.

The Russian Academy of sciences performed several tests on these mysterious objects and the results were quite interesting. Researchers found out that the largest pieces that were unearthed were made almost entirely out of copper and the smaller ones from tungsten and molybdenum.

The Russian Academy of Science has a structure of 11 specialized scientific divisions, three territorial divisions also referred to as branches, and it consists of 14 regional scientific centers. The Academy has numerous councils, committees and commissions, organized for different purposes and studies.

A lot of people who read about these artifacts have discredited their discovery and meaning stating that there is no research facility from the RAS and that the research performed was dubious but they are mistaken as the Ural Division of the RAS was established in 1932, with Aleksandr Fersman as its founding chairman. Research centers are in Yekaterinburg, Perm, Cheliabinsk, Izhevsk, Orenburg, Ufa and Syktyvkar.

The materials were submitted to a more extensive research a couple of years after their discovery to find out more about the mysterious objects and their composition and according to the Russian Academy of Science and their department for Geology; the metals have not originated in nature on their own, meaning that they are components that have a artificial technological origin, in other words they were manufactured.

According to the information available, these nanostructures were found at a depth between 10 and 40 feet, research also shows that they range in date from 20,00 to over 300,000 years. But who made them and for what purpose? are they the result of a now extinct ancient civilization? Or are they the result of something beyond our planet? These are the questions that have been asked when it comes to the origin of these ancient nanostructures.

Even though research has been made in Russia, some argue that given the skeptical opinion worldwide about this findings, it would have been interesting to see what other researchers in other countries have to say about these nanostructures and even though the materials were studied in Helsinki, St. Petersburg and Moscow there have been no documents made available concerning the nanostructures, their origins and purpose.

According to Dr. E.W. Matveyeva, of the Section for Geology, Prospecting Techniques, and Economics of Precious Metal Alluvial Deposits; The layer which contains the spiral-shaped objects is characterised as gravel and detritus deposits of No. 3 stratum, which in our view, show inner-sedimentary erosion of polygenetic accumulative layers (i.e. layers composed of material of various origins). From their orientation these layers can be dated to 100,000 years and correspond to the lying parts (i.e. the lower regions) of the Mikulinsk horizon of the upper Pleistocene.

Particular attention should be paid to the final conclusion reached by the Moscow institute. Report No. 18/485 states that the age of the deposits and the results of the tests give a very low probability to the assumption that the origin of these unusual, thread-shaped tungsten crystals is of a technogenic cosmic nature, due to the rocket take-off route from the Plesetsk space-station over the polar part of the Ural region.

Debate over these object will continue due to the “mysterious” nature of these objects and while there is a possibility that these nanostrcutres could have originated from n ancient civilization that lived on Earth hundreds of thousands of years ago, other possibilities cannot be excluded.

( via ancient-code.com )

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Ancient

The Dispilio Wood Tablet – One of the Oldest Written Texts in History

by John Black, Ancient Origins

According to conventional archaeology, writing wasn’t invented until 3000 to 4000 BC in Sumeria.  However, an artefact was found over a decade ago which contradicts this belief – and perhaps this is the reason why few people know about the discovery.

The Dispilio tablet was discovered by a professor of prehistoric archaeology, George Xourmouziadis, in 1993 in a Neolithic lake settlement in Northern Greece near the city of Kastoria. A group of people used to occupy the settlement 7,000 to 8,000 years ago.

The Dispilio tablet was one of many artefacts that were found in the area, however the importance of the table lies in the fact that it has an unknown written text on it that goes back further than 5,000 BC.

The wooden tablet was dated using the C12 method to have been made in 5260 BC, making it significantly older than the writing system used by the Sumerians.

The text on the tablet includes a type of engraved writing which probably consists of a form of writing that pre-existed Linear B writing used by the Mycenaean Greeks. As well as the tablet, many other ceramic pieces were found that also have the same type of writing on them.

Professor Xourmouziadis has suggested that this type of writing, which has not yet been deciphered, could be any form of communication including symbols representing the counting of possessions.

More artefacts were discovered that show the economic and agricultural activities of the settlement, proof of animal breeding and their diet preferences as well as tools and pottery, figurines and other personal ornaments.

Decoding the writing is going to be difficult if not impossible, unless a new Rosetta stone is found. Unfortunately, by the moment the tablet was removed out of its original environment, contact with oxygen started the deterioration process and it is now under preservation.

It is impressive to think that the wooden tablet had remained at the bottom of the lake for 7,500 years.

While this artefact predates the Sumerian writing system, I am sure in the future more will be found in other areas of the world that will go even further back in time, until the true history of humanity will be unravelled and completely change what we know about our history.

The Danube civilization is rarely mentioned, yet it is probably the oldest in Europe.

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